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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

The Effects Of Salinity, Ph, Temperature, And Dissolved Oxygen On Sensitivity Of Pcr Identification Of T4 Bacteriophage, Joesph F. Cannon, Nicholas A. Thurn, Paul E. Richardson Dec 2013

The Effects Of Salinity, Ph, Temperature, And Dissolved Oxygen On Sensitivity Of Pcr Identification Of T4 Bacteriophage, Joesph F. Cannon, Nicholas A. Thurn, Paul E. Richardson

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Bacteriophages are used as indicators of pathogenic bacteria in drinking, and wastewaters. They also show potential in limiting aquatic bacterial populations through their lytic properties. The effect of different water characteristics (salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature) on the sensitivity of the PCR identification of virus particles were analyzed to determine at what levels bacteriophage can be detected in environmental samples. Results from this preliminary study indicate that a PCR bacteriophage detection technique has potential as a relatively efficient and economical indicator of coliform contamination in multiple aquatic environments. While further evaluation is needed, the protocol appears to function in ...


Uncovering The Molecular Link Between Mir156.Spl15 And Carotenoid Accumulation In Arabidopsis, Davood Emami Meybodi Oct 2013

Uncovering The Molecular Link Between Mir156.Spl15 And Carotenoid Accumulation In Arabidopsis, Davood Emami Meybodi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenases (CCDs) are an enzyme family that cleaves specific double bonds in carotenoids. MicroR156 in Arabidopsis regulates a network of genes by repressing 10 SPL genes, among which, SPL15 was found to regulate shoot branching and carotenoid accumulation. The expression of CCD1, CCD4, CCD7, CCD8, NCED2, NCED3, NCED5, NCED6, NCED9 and SPL15 was evaluated in siliques at 10 days post anthesis and in 10-day-old roots in Arabidopsis wild type, sk156 (miR156 overexpression mutant), RS105 (miR156 overexpression line), spl15 (SPL15 knockout mutant) and two 35S:SPL15 lines. Results showed that most of CCD/NCED genes were affected ...


A Study On The Regulation Of Amino Acids And Glucose Sensing Pathways In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Mengying Chiang Aug 2013

A Study On The Regulation Of Amino Acids And Glucose Sensing Pathways In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Mengying Chiang

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Nutrient availability regulates eukaryotic cell growth. This study focuses on two signaling pathways, involved in sensing amino acids and carbon sources, which allow cells to respond appropriately to their presence. The first part of this study shows that Ssy1, a plasma membrane localized sensor in the Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 (SPS) amino acid sensing pathway, can detect 19 common L-amino acids with different potencies and affinities based on the physiochemical structure of amino acids. Substituents around alpha carbon are critical for amino acid sensing by Ssy1. Furthermore, a high concentration of cysteine is toxic to cells. Inactivation of SPS signaling confers resistance to ...


Preservation Of Biosignature Molecules In Potential Sample Return Container Of The Mars 2020 Mission, Kimberly E. Lykens, Fei Chen Ph.D Aug 2013

Preservation Of Biosignature Molecules In Potential Sample Return Container Of The Mars 2020 Mission, Kimberly E. Lykens, Fei Chen Ph.D

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Preservation of Biosignature Molecules in Potential Sample Return Container of the Mars 2020 Mission

Kimberly Lykens1 and Fei Chen2

1Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45501 2Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, 91109

One requirement for sustainable life on terrestrial planets includes the presence of organic polymers, compounds that are essential for major biological functions such as replication and catalysis. An identified goal of the Mars mission in the year 2020 is to implement a sample-return to identify and validate signs of life on Mars through the discovery of biosignature molecules in Martian core samples. Martian core samples recovered ...


Toward Direct Biosynthesis Of Drop-In Ready Biofuels In Plants: Rapid Screening And Functional Genomic Characterization Of Plant-Derived Advanced Biofuels And Implications For Coproduction In Lignocellulosic Feedstocks, Blake Lee Joyce Aug 2013

Toward Direct Biosynthesis Of Drop-In Ready Biofuels In Plants: Rapid Screening And Functional Genomic Characterization Of Plant-Derived Advanced Biofuels And Implications For Coproduction In Lignocellulosic Feedstocks, Blake Lee Joyce

Doctoral Dissertations

Advanced biofuels that are “drop-in” ready, completely fungible with petroleum fuels, and require minimal infrastructure to process a finished fuel could provide transportation fuels in rural or developing areas. Five oils extracted from Pittosporum resiniferum, Copaifera reticulata, and surrogate oils for Cymbopogon flexuosus, C. martinii, and Dictamnus albus in B20 blends were sent for ASTM International biodiesel testing and run in homogenous charge combustion ignition engines to determine combustion properties and emissions. All oils tested lowered cloud point. Oils derived from Copaifera reticulata also lowered indicated specific fuel consumption and had emissions similar to the ultra-low sulfur diesel control. Characterization ...


Bioconfinement Of A Putatively Sterile Nicotiana Hybrid And Development Of Tools For Assessing Gene Flow, John Hollis Rice Aug 2013

Bioconfinement Of A Putatively Sterile Nicotiana Hybrid And Development Of Tools For Assessing Gene Flow, John Hollis Rice

Masters Theses

Production of transgenic crops in open field environments is an ongoing concern of due to the potential for gene flow. New transgenic crops, such as plant-made-pharmaceuticals may generate additional concerns about effects of adventitious transgenes. Use of a bioconfinement strategy may alleviate any consequences by preventing gene flow. The following chapters discuss previous and current research on gene flow, testing of a Nicotiana hybrid system for bioconfinement efficiency, and development of methods for transgene detection. The candidate ‘platform plant’ that was tested is a Nicotiana hybrid (Nicotiana tabacum ‘TN 90’ × Nicotiana glauca) previously identified to be sexually sterile. To quantify ...


Identification Of Cyclophilin Gene Family In Soybean And Characterization Of Gmcyp1, Hemanta Raj Mainali Jul 2013

Identification Of Cyclophilin Gene Family In Soybean And Characterization Of Gmcyp1, Hemanta Raj Mainali

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

I identified members of the Cyclophilin (CYP) gene family in soybean (Glycine max) and characterized the GmCYP1, one of the members of soybean CYP. CYPs belong to the immunophilin superfamily with peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. PPIase catalyzes the interconversion of the cis- and trans-rotamers of the peptidyl-prolyl amide bond of peptides. After extensive data mining, I identified 62 different CYP genes in soybean (GmCYP1 to GmCYP62), of which 8 are multi-domain proteins and 54 are single domain proteins. At least 25% of the GmCYP genes are expressed in soybean. GmCYP1 localizes to the nucleus and the cytoplasm and ...


Regulation Of The Target Of Rapamycin Signaling Pathway In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Tammy Pracheil May 2013

Regulation Of The Target Of Rapamycin Signaling Pathway In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Tammy Pracheil

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

An integrative, biochemical, genetic, and molecular biology approach utilizing gene manipulation, gene knock outs, plasmid based protein expression, and in vivo protein localization of fluorescence tagged proteins was employed to determine the function of an essential protein, Lst8, in TORC1 and TORC2 signaling and a previously uncharacterized complex, the Far3-7-8-9-10-11 complex (Far complex) in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutations in SAC7 and FAR11 suppressed lethality of both lst8 and tor2-21 mutations but not TORC1 inactivation, suggesting that the essential function of Lst8 is linked only to TORC2.

Far11, a component of a six-member complex, was found to interact with ...


Validation Of Antibodies Used To Study Hypoxia Inducible Factors In Two Species Of Fundulus, Jenna D. Hill May 2013

Validation Of Antibodies Used To Study Hypoxia Inducible Factors In Two Species Of Fundulus, Jenna D. Hill

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors and the master regulators of oxygen-dependent gene expression in animals. The focus of this thesis is the distribution of HIF protein in tissues of the fish Fundulus heteroclitus and F. grandis, two widespread species that occur in naturally hypoxic waters. Polyclonal antibodies against HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and HIF-3α were tested on proteins made in vitro and on extracts made from several tissues of normoxic and hypoxic fish. Antibodies against HIF-1α and 3α bound specifically to full length protein made in vitro, and produced bands on western blots of nuclear extracts of near the expected ...


Characterization Of Field Evolved Resistance To Transgenic Cry1fa Maize In Spodoptera Frugiperda (J. E. Smith), Siva Rama Krishna Jakka May 2013

Characterization Of Field Evolved Resistance To Transgenic Cry1fa Maize In Spodoptera Frugiperda (J. E. Smith), Siva Rama Krishna Jakka

Doctoral Dissertations

Transgenic Bt crops expressing Cry and Vip toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been increasingly planted to manage insect pest damage on agricultural crops. The high adoption of Bt-based insecticidal technologies suggests an increase selection pressure for the evolution of resistance in insect populations. So far, nine insect species have developed field evolved resistance to Bt crops, yet the mechanisms involved in field evolved resistance are unknown. In the present study, the resistance mechanism in field evolved resistance to maize producing Cry1Fa in Spodoptera frugiperda collected in fields from Puerto Rico was characterized. High levels of resistance to Cry1Fa have ...


Dna Hydrolysis And Genome Editing Applications Of Giy-Yig Family Homing Endonucleases, Benjamin P. Kleinstiver Apr 2013

Dna Hydrolysis And Genome Editing Applications Of Giy-Yig Family Homing Endonucleases, Benjamin P. Kleinstiver

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The ability to manipulate complex genomes in a precise manner is essential for studying biological processes in model systems, engineering plant strains for agriculture, or advancing human cellular therapies to treat diseases. Genomic alterations are most efficient when a double-strand DNA break is introduced at the loci where the modification is desired. Different classes of naturally occurring DNA endonucleases, including homing endonucleases, have therefore been explored as candidates for genome modification studies as they target long stretches of DNA. Homing endonucleases are mobile genetic elements whose biological role is to introduce site-specific double-strand breaks into naïve genomes, ultimately resulting in ...


Overexpression/Silencing Of Selected Soybean Genes Alters Resistance To Pathogens, Mohamed H. El-Habbak Jan 2013

Overexpression/Silencing Of Selected Soybean Genes Alters Resistance To Pathogens, Mohamed H. El-Habbak

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Plant diseases remain a major obstruction to meeting the world’s increased demand for soybean oil and protein. Reducing the losses caused by diseases in order to improve crop production is a high priority for agricultural research. The need for novel strategies for plant disease control cannot be overstated. In the present study, selected defense-related genes were silenced and/or overexpressed in soybean using a virus-based vector and the resultant plants were tested for their responses to pathogens. The first part of the study focused on Rps1k (Resistance to Phytophthora sojae) gene. The two conserved domains encoding ‘P-Loop NTPase’ and ...


Effect Of Agrobacterium Induced Necrosis, Antibiotic Induced Phytotoxicity And Other Factors In Successful Plant Transformation., Sandip S. Magdum Jan 2013

Effect Of Agrobacterium Induced Necrosis, Antibiotic Induced Phytotoxicity And Other Factors In Successful Plant Transformation., Sandip S. Magdum

Sandip S. Magdum

Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection and antibiotic wash are the critical steps of Agrobacterium mediated plant transformation procedure, most time responsible for lower transformation efficiency due to necrosis and phytotoxicity caused by biotic stress of Agrobacterium and abiotic stress by antibiotics respectively. Ammi majus Egyptian origin medicinal plant and Pearl millet cereal grain crop were studied for their stress responses to Agrobacterium mediated transformation (AMT). Agrobacterium strains LBA4404 (O.D.=0.6-0.8) and EHA105 (O.D.=0.2-0.4) were used for transformation experiments to infect calli of Ammi majus and embryogenic calli of Pearl millet respectively. Incase of antibiotic wash ...


Disocvering Ionic Liquid Resistant Genes, Bree Person, Douglass Higgins, Michael Thelen Jan 2013

Disocvering Ionic Liquid Resistant Genes, Bree Person, Douglass Higgins, Michael Thelen

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

: Plant biomass is a rich source of sugars that can be converted to biofuels by engineered microbes. However, because the lignocellulose in biomass is insoluble in aqueous conditions and recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation, thermochemical treatment is required to break apart the lignin and cellulose polymers before sugars can be released. The most effective chemicals for doing this are known as ionic liquids, which are salts that are molten at temperatures below 100° C. Although these solvents have many unique properties that are ideal for solubilizing lignocellulose, they have been found to inhibit the growth of bacterial strains used to produce ...


Characterization Of Motility Alterations Caused By The Impairment Of Dynein/Dynactin Motor Protein Complex, Swaran Nandini Jan 2013

Characterization Of Motility Alterations Caused By The Impairment Of Dynein/Dynactin Motor Protein Complex, Swaran Nandini

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Transport of intracellular cargo is an important and dynamic process required for cell maintenance and survival. Dynein is the motor protein that carries organelles and vesicles from the cell periphery to the cell center along the microtubule network. Dynactin is a protein that activates dynein for this transport process. Together, dynein and dynactin forms a motor protein complex that is essential for transport processes in all the vertebrate cells. Using fluorescent microscope based live cell imaging techniques and kymograph analyses, I studied dynein/dynactin disruptions on the intracellular transport in two different cell systems. In one set of experiments, effects ...


The Contribution Of Visceral Fat To Positive Insulin Signaling In Ames Dwarf Mice, Vinal Menon Jan 2013

The Contribution Of Visceral Fat To Positive Insulin Signaling In Ames Dwarf Mice, Vinal Menon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ames dwarf (df/df) mice are homozygous for a spontaneous mutation in the prop1 gene due to which there is no development of anterior pituitary cells – somatotrophs, lactotrophs and thyrotrophs, leading to a deficiency of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH). They tend to become obese as they age, but still live longer and healthier lives compared to their wild-type littermates, being very insulin sensitive, showing no signs of diabetes and cancer. These mutant mice also have high circulating levels of anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic adiponectin. Plasma levels of this adipokine usually decrease with an increase in accumulation of ...


Mixed Valence Copper(Cu)/Silica Nanocomposite: Synthesis, Characterization And Systematic Antimicrobial Studies, Mikaeel Young Jan 2013

Mixed Valence Copper(Cu)/Silica Nanocomposite: Synthesis, Characterization And Systematic Antimicrobial Studies, Mikaeel Young

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Copper (Cu) compounds are widely used as effective agricultural bactericides. Continuous use of these materials has led to Cu accumulation in soil over time. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is concerned about potential Cu contamination in the environment. Improving biocidal efficacy of Cu is an attractive alternative, allowing reduction of Cu amount per application. In this research, we focused on making watersoluble mixed-valence Copper/Silica composite nanogel (CuSiNG) material. The objective is to improve the efficacy of Cu by manipulating Cu valence states. It has been shown in the literature that Cu (0) and Cu (I) states ...


Is Breakdown Of Fatty Acid Peroxides Involved In The Induction Of Apolipoprotein A1?, Rajat Gupta Jan 2013

Is Breakdown Of Fatty Acid Peroxides Involved In The Induction Of Apolipoprotein A1?, Rajat Gupta

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over the past few years the number of deaths caused due to cardiovascular diseases has been increasing and is of major concern. In the United States, 75% of cardiovascular-related deaths have been attributed to atherosclerosis. Western diets containing large quantities of peroxidized lipids are considered atherogenic. Heated oil in the form of fried food brings high levels of peroxidized fat and its decomposition products in the diet. Peroxidized lipids are known to increase the susceptibility of serum lipoproteins to undergo oxidation, thereby contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis. The intestinal cells are responsible for the absorption of dietary fatty acid ...


Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 (Bmp-7) Polarizes Monocytes Into M2 Macrophages, Crystal Rocher Jan 2013

Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 (Bmp-7) Polarizes Monocytes Into M2 Macrophages, Crystal Rocher

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which an accumulation of fatty acids and cholesterol occurs to form a plaque in small and large arteries. Monocyte polarization to classic M1 macrophages or alternative M2 macrophages is an important area of research that can determine the severity of disease progression. BMP-7 is a key growth factor responsible for directing differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into brown fat cells, suggesting a role of BMP-7 in cellular plasticity; however, its role in monocyte polarization is yet to be revealed. In the current study, we hypothesize that monocyte treatment with BMP-7 will significantly result in ...


Engineering Novel Terpene Production Platforms In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Xun Zhuang Jan 2013

Engineering Novel Terpene Production Platforms In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Xun Zhuang

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

The chemical diversity and biological activities of terpene and terpenoids have served in the development of new flavors, fragrances, medicines and pesticides. While terpenes are made predominantly by plants and microbes in small amounts and as components of complex mixtures, chemical synthesis of terpenes remains technically challenging, costly and inefficient. In this dissertation, methods to create new yeast lines possessing a dispensable mevalonate biosynthetic pathway wherein carbon flux can be diverted to build any chemical class of terpene product are described. The ability of this line to generate diterpenes was next investigated. Using a 5.5 L fed bath fermentation ...