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Articles 1 - 30 of 160

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

33 - Identification Of Proteins That Regulate Crispr Dna Uptake Of Pyrococcus Furiosus, Landon Clark Nov 2018

33 - Identification Of Proteins That Regulate Crispr Dna Uptake Of Pyrococcus Furiosus, Landon Clark

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The CRISPR-Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspace Short Palindromic Repeats-CRISPR associated) system is a prokaryotic, adaptive immune system used by bacterial and archaeal organism to fight infections by viruses and other harmful invasive DNAs. These prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas immune systems have been exploited as powerful genome editing tools that work many different organisms and cells including humans. The newly developed CRISPR-based technologies are transforming medicine and science and have been used in research applications for developing cures for certain cancers, HIV, hemophilia, etc. The function of the CRISPR-Cas systems follow three basis steps: (1) adaptation (invading DNA is integrated into the host genome ...


Adapting Cell-Free Protein Synthesis As A Platform Technology For Education, Grace W. Chu, Max Z. Levine, Nicole E. Gregorio, Javin P. Oza Oct 2018

Adapting Cell-Free Protein Synthesis As A Platform Technology For Education, Grace W. Chu, Max Z. Levine, Nicole E. Gregorio, Javin P. Oza

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as an enabling biotechnology for research and biomanufacturing as it allows for the production of protein without the need for a living cell. Applications of CFPS include the construction of libraries for functional genomics and structural biology, the production of personalized medicine, and the expression of virus-like particles. The absence of a cell wall provides an open platform for direct manipulation of the reaction conditions and biological machinery. This project focuses on adapting the CFPS biotechnology to the classroom, making a hands-on bioengineering approach to learning protein synthesis accessible to students grades K-16 through ...


Engineering Bioluminescent Sensors Of Cyclic Amp To Study Opioid Signaling, Alexander L. Tesmer, Alexander R. French, Mathew Tantama Aug 2018

Engineering Bioluminescent Sensors Of Cyclic Amp To Study Opioid Signaling, Alexander L. Tesmer, Alexander R. French, Mathew Tantama

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Opioids are small signaling molecules which bind to opioid receptors on the surface of cells. The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) is one of three major types of opioid receptors found in human neurons. When an opioid binds to a KOR, a variety of biochemical signaling pathways are activated inside the cell. Each of these pathways are associated with different physiological effects of KOR activation. The production of a small signaling molecule, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), is known to be inhibited during KOR activation of the analgesic (pain-killing) signaling pathway. The ability to interrogate the individual responses of KOR signaling pathways ...


Production Of A Candidate Recombinant Protein Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce And Tobacco Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin Jul 2018

Production Of A Candidate Recombinant Protein Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce And Tobacco Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cattle industry worldwide is ravaged by bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a bacterial disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. Recent efforts to design vaccines against M. haemolytica focus on a virulence factor, leukotoxin, in addition to surface lipoproteins. Plant-based protein production is a safe and inexpensive alternative to traditional methods. Edible vaccines deliver antigens to pharyngeal tissues, which can provide local immunization against M. haemolytica prior to its progression into the lungs. In this project, a chimeric protein containing M. haemolytica antigens was produced in tobacco chloroplasts as a candidate edible vaccine for BRD. Attempts were made to transform lettuce chloroplasts ...


Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully Apc Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins Jun 2018

Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully Apc Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

This article, which includes novel unpublished data along with commentary and analysis,
focuses on approaches to link transcriptomic, proteomic, and peptidomic datasets mined from
brain tissue to the original locations within the brain that they are derived from using digital atlas
mapping techniques. We use, as an example, the transcriptomic, proteomic and peptidomic
analyses conducted in the mammalian hypothalamus. Following a brief historical overview, we
highlight studies that have mined biochemical and molecular information from the hypothalamus
and then lay out a strategy for how these data can be linked spatially to the mapped locations in a
canonical brain atlas ...


Development Of Lc-Ms For The Identification And Characterization Of Non-Adjacent Dna Photoproduct Formation In G-Quadruplex Forming Sequences, Claudia Posadas May 2018

Development Of Lc-Ms For The Identification And Characterization Of Non-Adjacent Dna Photoproduct Formation In G-Quadruplex Forming Sequences, Claudia Posadas

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ultraviolet light is well known to induce cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine (6–4) pyrimidone photoproducts in duplex DNA, which interfere with DNA replication and transcription. Recently, a new class of DNA photoproducts known as anti cyclobutanepyrimidine dimers have been discovered, which form in G-quadruplex forming sequences in solution. G-quadruplex structures have been proposed to form in human DNA telomeres and certain promoters in vivo but evidence for their existence has been lacking. Since anti-cyclobutante pyrimidine dimers have been shown to form in G-quadruplex forming sequences, their formation in irradiated human cells could be used to confirm the ...


Ketone Bodies And Signaling In Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines, Kyla B. Buettner, Pankaj K. Singh, Surendra K. Shukla May 2018

Ketone Bodies And Signaling In Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines, Kyla B. Buettner, Pankaj K. Singh, Surendra K. Shukla

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and 95% of these cases are caused by PDAC (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma). Ketone bodies have previously been shown to decrease cell proliferation and cancer-induced cachexia. The molecular mechanism of ketone body-mediated growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer cells is not well understood. Research conducted thus far has not explored which molecular pathways are affected by ketone body treatment in pancreatic cancer cells. In the current study, the effect of the ketone body sodium hydroxybutyrate on the JAK-STAT and mTOR pathways and cell migration was explored. A decrease ...


Optimizing Genetic Manipulation Of Methanogens Through Faster Cloning Techniques, Merrisa Jennings May 2018

Optimizing Genetic Manipulation Of Methanogens Through Faster Cloning Techniques, Merrisa Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogenesis is the biological production of methane. Only anaerobic archaea known as methanogens are capable of such a metabolic feat. They have strict living conditions and substrate sources which determine their rate of metabolism. This is of particular importance from a greenhouse gas reduction perspective or biogas capturing perspective. One of the best ways to optimize methanogen methane production is via genetic manipulation. The current procedures are timely though, therefore a faster cloning processes should be developed. The objective of this study was to optimize a premade genetic transformation kit known as the Gibson Kit. The Gibson Kit was supposed ...


Two Distinct Domains Contribute To The Substrate Acyl Chain Length Selectivity Of Plant Acyl-Acp Thioesterase, Fuyuan Jing, Le Zhao, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau Feb 2018

Two Distinct Domains Contribute To The Substrate Acyl Chain Length Selectivity Of Plant Acyl-Acp Thioesterase, Fuyuan Jing, Le Zhao, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The substrate specificity of acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) plays an essential role in controlling the fatty acid profile produced by type II fatty acid synthases. Here we identify two groups of residues that synergistically determine different substrate specificities of two acyl-ACP TEs from Cuphea viscosissima (CvFatB1 and CvFatB2). One group (V194, V217, N223, R226, R227, and I268 in CvFatB2) is critical in determining the structure and depth of a hydrophobic cavity in the N-terminal hotdog domain that binds the substrate’s acyl moiety. The other group (255-RKLSKI-260 and 285-RKLPKL-289 in CvFatB2) defines positively charged surface patches that may facilitate binding of ...


Manipulation Of Genes Involved In Secondary Cell Wall Development During Wood Formation In Poplar, Kavitha Satish Kumar Jan 2018

Manipulation Of Genes Involved In Secondary Cell Wall Development During Wood Formation In Poplar, Kavitha Satish Kumar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Lignins are second most abundant components of vascular plant cell walls. They provide plants with structural rigidity and are polymers of monolignols. Lignin polymerization is catalyzed by peroxidases and/or laccases. These enzymes are suggested to share functional overlap and mechanism by which they coordinate this process is not clearly understood. There are about 100 peroxidases and 50 laccase genes known in poplar genome out of which some stem differentiating xylem-specific (SDX) enzymes were selected for our study. The main objective was to genetically manipulate genes expressed in the SDX region in the cell wall to see the effects on ...


Biosynthetic Mechanism Of The Antibiotic Capuramycin, Erfu Yan Jan 2018

Biosynthetic Mechanism Of The Antibiotic Capuramycin, Erfu Yan

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

A-102395 is a member of the capuramycin family of antibiotics which was isolated from the culture broth of Amycolatopsis sp. SANK 60206. A-102339 is structurally classified as a nucleoside antibiotic, which like all members of the capuramycin family, inhibits bacterial MraY (translocase I) with IC50 of 11 nM which is the lowest among the capuramycin family. A semisynthetic derivative of capuramycin is currently in clinical trials as an antituberculosis antibiotic, suggesting high potential for using A-102395 as a starting point for new antibiotic discovery. In contrast to other capuramycins, A-102395 has a unique arylamine-containing polyamide side chain. The biosynthetic ...


Dielectric Properties Of Isolated Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Determined By Microfluidic Impedance Spectroscopy, A. C. Sabuncu, M. Stacey, G. L. Graviso, N. Semenova, P. T. Vernier, N. Leblanc, I. Chatterjee, J. Zaklit Jan 2018

Dielectric Properties Of Isolated Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Determined By Microfluidic Impedance Spectroscopy, A. C. Sabuncu, M. Stacey, G. L. Graviso, N. Semenova, P. T. Vernier, N. Leblanc, I. Chatterjee, J. Zaklit

Bioelectrics Publications

Knowledge of the dielectric properties of biological cells plays an important role in numerical models aimed at understanding how high intensity ultrashort nanosecond electric pulses affect the plasma membrane and the membranes of intracellular organelles. To this end, using electrical impedance spectroscopy, the dielectric properties of isolated, neuroendocrine adrenal chromaffin cells were obtained. Measured impedance data of the cell suspension, acquired between 1 kHz and 20 MHz, were fit into a combination of constant phase element and Cole-Cole models from which the effect of electrode polarization was extracted. The dielectric spectrum of each cell suspension was fit into a Maxwell-Wagner ...


Quantitative Genetics Of Populus, Roba Bdeir Jan 2018

Quantitative Genetics Of Populus, Roba Bdeir

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Evidence for bark, stem and stomatal density adaptation to different climates in the model species Populus is seen in both the natural population as well as in the greenhouse, but the genetic basis of these adaptation remains poorly understood. The present thesis investigates bark texture, bark thickness, diameter and stomatal density variations among Populus population using two quantitative genetics methods to attempt understand the genetic system controlling inheritance of these traits and to associate them with respective genes. The first approach aimed at detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with all phenotypic traits in an interspecific hybrid pedigree (Populus trichocarpa ...


High-Throughput Single-Molecule Telomere Characterization, Jennifer Mccaffrey, Eleanor Young, Katy Lassahn, Justin Sibert, Steven Pastor, Harold Riethman, Ming Xiao Nov 2017

High-Throughput Single-Molecule Telomere Characterization, Jennifer Mccaffrey, Eleanor Young, Katy Lassahn, Justin Sibert, Steven Pastor, Harold Riethman, Ming Xiao

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

We have developed a novel method that enables global subtelomere and haplotype-resolved analysis of telomere lengths at the single-molecule level. An in vitro CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-directed nickase system directs the specific labeling of human (TTAGGG) n DNA tracts in genomes that have also been barcoded using a separate nickase enzyme that recognizes a 7bp motif genome-wide. High-throughput imaging and analysis of large DNA single molecules from genomes labeled in this fashion using a nanochannel array system permits mapping through subtelomere repeat element (SRE) regions to unique chromosomal DNA while simultaneously measuring the (TTAGGG) n tract length at the end of ...


Fluorescent Protein Biosensor For Use In Parkinson's Research, Piper R. Miller, Keelan Trull, Mathew Tantama Aug 2017

Fluorescent Protein Biosensor For Use In Parkinson's Research, Piper R. Miller, Keelan Trull, Mathew Tantama

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Purinergic signaling is a type of extracellular communication that occurs between cells, mediated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine. In Parkinson’s Disease, purinergic signaling is disrupted, which contributes to neurodegeneration. In order to monitor this change in cell-to-cell signaling, there is a need for the development of a fluorescent protein (FP) biosensor to study the changes in the concentration of the signaling molecule ATP and its decomposition bioproduct ADP. This summer a genetically encoded ADP sensor that measures changes in ADP concentration was developed. This sensor utilizes Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) which is a sensing ...


Fret Biosensors: Engineering Fluorescent Proteins As Biological Tools For Studying Parkinson’S Disease, Nathan J. Leroy, Jacob R. Norley, Saranya Radhakrishnan, Mathew Tantama Aug 2017

Fret Biosensors: Engineering Fluorescent Proteins As Biological Tools For Studying Parkinson’S Disease, Nathan J. Leroy, Jacob R. Norley, Saranya Radhakrishnan, Mathew Tantama

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease with over 200,000 new cases each year. In general, the cause of the disease is unknown, but oxidative stress inside of neurons has been associated with the disease’s pathology for some time. Currently, techniques to study the onset of PD inside of neurons are limited. This makes treatments and causes difficult to discover. One solution to this has been fluorescent protein biosensors. In short, these proteins can be engineered to glow when a certain state is achieved inside a cell. The present research discusses the engineering of a genetically-encoded ...


Genetic Engineering Studies Of Escherichia Coli And Microalgae For Expression Of Hydrolytic Enzymes And Development Of High Throughput Screening Technique, Shreyas S. Yedahalli Jul 2017

Genetic Engineering Studies Of Escherichia Coli And Microalgae For Expression Of Hydrolytic Enzymes And Development Of High Throughput Screening Technique, Shreyas S. Yedahalli

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The field of biochemical engineering has made substantial progress through major advances in genetic and metabolic engineering with applications in various sectors such as energy, food science, pharmaceuticals, etc. The hosts used for this work are constantly broadening. A host particularly important for energy applications are microalgae. The potential to enhance microalgae genetically for energy applications is not well explored and was therefore investigated in this thesis. Non-photosynthetic micro-organisms and photosynthetic microalgae offer a potential approach to enhance sustainable biochemical production. In this study expression vectors for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) were constructed for the ...


Rational Drug Design Directed At Blocking The Initial Signaling Events In Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis., Christopher A. Tipton Jul 2017

Rational Drug Design Directed At Blocking The Initial Signaling Events In Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis., Christopher A. Tipton

Theses

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is classified as an immune system response to an infectious state. If left untreated, SIRS leads to sepsis, septic shock, end-organ dysfunction, and death. As a patient progresses through these stages, associations of acute respiratory distress, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute renal failure persist, resulting in millions of deaths annually. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, is released into the blood stream, triggering SIRS. LPS is found in the outer cell-wall of Gram-negative bacteria and is responsible for initiation of a devastating cytokine storm. One of the regions of LPS, lipid A, is a polyacylated glucosamine ...


Protein-Protein Interactions Of Bacterial Topoisomerase I, Srikanth Banda Jun 2017

Protein-Protein Interactions Of Bacterial Topoisomerase I, Srikanth Banda

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essential features of cellular processes including DNA replication, transcription, translation, recombination, and repair. In my study, the protein interactions of bacterial DNA topoisomerase I, an essential enzyme, were investigated. The topoisomerase I in bacteria relaxes excess negative supercoiling on DNA and maintains genomic stability. Investigating the PPI network of DNA topoisomerase I can further our understanding of the various functional roles of this enzyme. My study is focused on topoisomerase I of Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Firstly, we have explored the biochemical mechanisms for an interaction between RNA Polymerase, and topoisomerase I in E. coli ...


Biochemical Characterization Of Arsi: A Novel C-As Lyase For Degradation Of Environmental Organoarsenicals, Shashank Suryakant Pawitwar Jun 2017

Biochemical Characterization Of Arsi: A Novel C-As Lyase For Degradation Of Environmental Organoarsenicals, Shashank Suryakant Pawitwar

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Organoarsenicals such as methylarsenical methylarsenate (MAs(V)) and aromatic arsenicals including roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsenate or Rox(V)) have been extensively used as an herbicide and growth enhancers in animal husbandry, respectively. They undergo environmental degradation to more toxic inorganic arsenite (As(III)) that contaminates crops and drinking water. We previously identified a bacterial gene (arsI) responsible for aerobic MAs(III) demethylation. The gene product, ArsI, is a Fe(II)-dependent extradiol dioxygenase that cleaves the carbon-arsenic (C-As) bond in MAs(III) and trivalent aromatic arsenicals. The objective of this study was to elucidate the ArsI mechanism. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we ...


B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips May 2017

B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Cancer-based immunotherapy has led the evolution of biologics that can stimulate immune responses towards tumor eradication. The synthesis of small to intermediate size molecules with the targeting and effector functions of mAb may represent a novel class of immunotherapeutics that may overcome the limitations of their biological counterparts.Towards this objective, B7H6 has been identified as a protein ligand localized on the cell surface of transformed tumor cells. B7H6 binds specifically to the activating receptor NKp30, constitutively expressed on all resting and active NK cells. Upon ligand:receptor binding, B7H6 triggers NK cell activation and release of chemokines and pro-inflammatory ...


Three-Dimensional Folding Of Eukaryotic Genomes, Tsung-Han S. Hsieh May 2017

Three-Dimensional Folding Of Eukaryotic Genomes, Tsung-Han S. Hsieh

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Chromatin packages eukaryotic genomes via a hierarchical series of folding steps, encrypting multiple layers of epigenetic information, which are capable of regulating nuclear transactions in response to complex signals in environment. Besides the 1-dimensinal chromatin landscape such as nucleosome positioning and histone modifications, little is known about the secondary chromatin structures and their functional consequences related to transcriptional regulation and DNA replication. The family of chromosomal conformation capture (3C) assays has revolutionized our understanding of large-scale chromosome folding with the ability to measure relative interaction probability between genomic loci in vivo. However, the suboptimal resolution of the typical 3C techniques ...


Cloning, Purification, And Biochemical Characterization Of Human Prolyl Endopeptidase, Travis K. Moore May 2017

Cloning, Purification, And Biochemical Characterization Of Human Prolyl Endopeptidase, Travis K. Moore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Eurygaster integriceps Puton, common name sunn Pest, is one of the primary sources of wheat crop wastes in North Africa, Middle East, and Eastern Europe. It feeds by injecting the wheat grain with an enzyme characterized as prolyl endoprotease (spPEP) that breaks down Gluten, the wheat’s main constitutive protein necessary for bread production (Darkoh et al., 2010). Previously, it has been shown that peptides isolated from Lactobacillus hydrolysates of caseins in bovine milk are able to inhibit mammalian PEP in colon cells, as well as bacterial PEP (Juillerat-Jeanneret et al., 2010). While recombinant versions of these peptides are also ...


Validation Of The Pre-B Cell Receptor As A Therapeutic Target In B Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Michael F. Erasmus Apr 2017

Validation Of The Pre-B Cell Receptor As A Therapeutic Target In B Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Michael F. Erasmus

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

This dissertation is built upon the fundamental idea that the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) is important to leukemia cell survival and a logical therapeutic target in B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). The pre-BCR is expressed early at a specific stage during B cell development where it plays a central role in survival of healthy B lymphocytes. This receptor is composed of the membrane heavy chain (mIgμ) associated with surrogate light chain components, 5 and VpreB. Through the use of advanced imaging modalities, in particular two-color single particle tracking (SPT), we showed that pre-BCRs formed transient, homotypic interactions. These ...


Engineering Fret Biosensors For Microrna Presence/Absence Analysis, Nicholas E. Larkey, Sean M. Burrows Feb 2017

Engineering Fret Biosensors For Microrna Presence/Absence Analysis, Nicholas E. Larkey, Sean M. Burrows

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

No abstract provided.


An Assessment Of Potential False Positive E.Coli Pyroprints In The Cplop Database, Skyler A. Gordon Feb 2017

An Assessment Of Potential False Positive E.Coli Pyroprints In The Cplop Database, Skyler A. Gordon

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The genetic information found in each species of organism is unique, and can be used as a tool to differentiate at the molecular level. This has caused rapid genotyping methods to become the cornerstone of a new area of research dependent on reading the genome as a form of identification. One of these specific identification methods, known as pyroprinting, relies on the small variation of DNA sequences within the same species to develop a unique, reproducible fingerprint. By simultaneously pyrosequencing multiple polymorphic loci within the ribosomal operons known as the intergenic transcribed spacers, a reproducible output is obtained, known as ...


Investigating The Essential Roles Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alex Lee Jan 2017

Investigating The Essential Roles Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alex Lee

Summer Research

Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver (PRL) proteins regulate a number of important cellular processes, including cell growth and division. Humans have three PRL proteins: PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3. An accumulation of evidence has shown that elevated levels of PRLs are strongly correlated with uncontrollable growth and metastasis of tumors. However, contradictory findings have arisen indicating that PRLs instead function to halt cell division thereby preventing uncontrollable tumor growth. In light of these results, the underlying mechanisms regarding how PRLs function within cellular processes remains unclear. To investigate the functions of PRLs, we will create transgenic fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) with knockout ...


Portulaca Oleracea Extract Can Inhibit Nodule Formation Of Colon Cancer Stem Cells By Regulating Gene Expression Of Notch Signal Transduction Pathway, Li Chen Jan 2017

Portulaca Oleracea Extract Can Inhibit Nodule Formation Of Colon Cancer Stem Cells By Regulating Gene Expression Of Notch Signal Transduction Pathway, Li Chen

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Portulaca oleracea extract on tumor formation in colon cancer stem cells and chemotherapy sensitivity. In addition, this study analyzed the genetic changes within the Notch signal transduction pathway associated with the effects of the extracts. Serum-free cultures of colon cancer cells (HT-29) and HT-29 stem cells were treated with the chemotherapeutic drug 5-FU to assess sensitivity. Injections of the stem cells were also given to BALB/c mice to confirm tumor growth and characteristics. In addition, the effect of different concentrations of P. oleracea extract was tested on ...


Transcriptomic Analyses Of Cathatranthus Roseus Hairy Roots Overexpressing Crmyc2 And Orca3 And Roles Of Cross-Family Transcription Factor Interaction In Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Xueyi Sui Jan 2017

Transcriptomic Analyses Of Cathatranthus Roseus Hairy Roots Overexpressing Crmyc2 And Orca3 And Roles Of Cross-Family Transcription Factor Interaction In Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Xueyi Sui

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), is a well-known medicinal plant that produces a vast array of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), including two anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Industrial scale production of TIAs is hampered by the difficulties of total chemical synthesis of these compounds and the fragmented knowledge on TIA pathway. Transcriptional regulation of the TIA biosynthetic pathway has not been thoroughly investigated in Catharanthus and only a few structural genes have been identified as the targets of two master regulators: the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor (TF) CrMYC2 and APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF), ORCA3. Next generation sequencing (NGS ...


Tissue Specific Microenvironments: A Key Tool For Tissue Engineering And Regenerative Medicine, Patrick C. Sachs, Peter A. Mollica, Robert D. Bruno Jan 2017

Tissue Specific Microenvironments: A Key Tool For Tissue Engineering And Regenerative Medicine, Patrick C. Sachs, Peter A. Mollica, Robert D. Bruno

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

The accumulated evidence points to the microenvironment as the primary mediator of cellular fate determination. Comprised of parenchymal cells, stromal cells, structural extracellular matrix proteins, and signaling molecules, the microenvironment is a complex and synergistic edifice that varies tissue to tissue. Furthermore, it has become increasingly clear that the microenvironment plays crucial roles in the establishment and progression of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, cancer, and ageing. Here we review the historical perspectives on the microenvironment, and how it has directed current explorations in tissue engineering. By thoroughly understanding the role of the microenvironment, we can begin to correctly ...