Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Molecular Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2013

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 360

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

The Global Translation Profile In A Ribosomal Protein Mutant Resembles That Of An Eif3 Mutant, Bayu Sisay Tiruneh, Byung-Hoon Kim, Daniel R. Gallie, Bijoyita Roy, Albrecht G. Von Arnim Dec 2013

The Global Translation Profile In A Ribosomal Protein Mutant Resembles That Of An Eif3 Mutant, Bayu Sisay Tiruneh, Byung-Hoon Kim, Daniel R. Gallie, Bijoyita Roy, Albrecht G. Von Arnim

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

Background

Genome-wide assays performed in Arabidopsis and other organisms have revealed that the translation status of mRNAs responds dramatically to different environmental stresses and genetic lesions in the translation apparatus. To identify additional features of the global landscape of translational control, we used microarray analysis of polysomal as well as non-polysomal mRNAs to examine the defects in translation in a poly(A) binding protein mutant, pab2 pab8, as well as in a mutant of a large ribosomal subunit protein, rpl24b/shortvalve1.

Results

The mutation of RPL24B stimulated the ribosome occupancy of mRNAs for nuclear encoded ribosomal proteins. Detailed analysis yielded ...


The Function Of Carmil1 In Migrating Cells, Marc Edwards Dec 2013

The Function Of Carmil1 In Migrating Cells, Marc Edwards

All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs)

This dissertation describes the physiological role of the Capping Protein- CARMIL interaction in migrating cells. I establish the CARMIL-CP complex as a key regulator of lamellipodial actin assembly and of lamellipodial dynamics. Membrane ruffling at the leading edge of motile cells and macropinocytosis were also found to be dependent on the CARMIL1-CP interaction. This is consistent with macropinocytosis and ruffling being dependent on a functional and dynamic lamellipodium.: Kerr and Teasdale, 2009).

In chapter two I demonstrate that the CBR of CARMIL1 is competent to inhibit CP in cells. I show that overexpression of the CBR in cells leads to ...


The Effects Of Salinity, Ph, Temperature, And Dissolved Oxygen On Sensitivity Of Pcr Identification Of T4 Bacteriophage, Joesph F. Cannon, Nicholas A. Thurn, Paul E. Richardson Dec 2013

The Effects Of Salinity, Ph, Temperature, And Dissolved Oxygen On Sensitivity Of Pcr Identification Of T4 Bacteriophage, Joesph F. Cannon, Nicholas A. Thurn, Paul E. Richardson

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Bacteriophages are used as indicators of pathogenic bacteria in drinking, and wastewaters. They also show potential in limiting aquatic bacterial populations through their lytic properties. The effect of different water characteristics (salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature) on the sensitivity of the PCR identification of virus particles were analyzed to determine at what levels bacteriophage can be detected in environmental samples. Results from this preliminary study indicate that a PCR bacteriophage detection technique has potential as a relatively efficient and economical indicator of coliform contamination in multiple aquatic environments. While further evaluation is needed, the protocol appears to function in ...


Prmt7 Is Dispensable In Tissue Culture Models For Adipogenic Differentiation, Yu-Jie Hu, Said Sif, Anthony N. Imbalzano Dec 2013

Prmt7 Is Dispensable In Tissue Culture Models For Adipogenic Differentiation, Yu-Jie Hu, Said Sif, Anthony N. Imbalzano

Imbalzano Lab Publications

Protein arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification that has been implicated in numerous biological processes including gene expression. The mammalian genome encodes nine protein arginine methyltransferases (Prmts) that catalyze monomethylation, asymmetric dimethylation, and symmetric dimethylation on arginine residues. Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (Prmt7) is categorized as a type II and type III enzyme that produces symmetric dimethylated arginine and monomethylated arginine, respectively. However, the biological role of Prmt7 is not well characterized. We previously showed that Prmt5, a type II Prmt that associates with Brg1-based SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, is required for adipocyte differentiation. Since Prmt7 also associates ...


Valproic Acid Causes Proteasomal Degradation Of Dicer And Influences Mirna Expression, Zhaiyi Zhang, Paolo Convertini, Manli Shen, Xiu Xu, Frédéric Lemoine, Pierre De La Grange, Douglas A. Andres, Stefan Stamm Dec 2013

Valproic Acid Causes Proteasomal Degradation Of Dicer And Influences Mirna Expression, Zhaiyi Zhang, Paolo Convertini, Manli Shen, Xiu Xu, Frédéric Lemoine, Pierre De La Grange, Douglas A. Andres, Stefan Stamm

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Valproic acid (VPA) is a commonly used drug to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorders. Known properties of VPA are inhibitions of histone deacetylases and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK), which cannot fully explain VPA's clinical features. We found that VPA induces the proteasomal degradation of DICER, a key protein in the generation of micro RNAs. Unexpectedly, the concentration of several micro RNAs increases after VPA treatment, which is caused by the upregulation of their hosting genes prior to DICER degradation. The data suggest that a loss of DICER protein and changes in micro RNA concentration contributes to ...


Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim Dec 2013

Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The human vaginal microbiome undoubtedly has a significant role in reproductive health and for protection from infectious organisms. Recent efforts to characterize the bacterial species of the vagina using molecular techniques have uncovered an unexpected diversity. Using high-throughput sequencing I sought to describe the structure and function of the vaginal microbiome under different physiological states including healthy, bacterial vaginosis (BV), post-menopausal vaginal atrophy, and acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).

Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that healthy, asymptomatic women most often have vaginal biotas dominated by Lactobacillus iners or L. crispatus. In contrast, BV is a heterogeneous, highly diversified condition with ...


Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes Dec 2013

Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pin1 is a phosphorylation-dependent peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that has been shown to be neuroprotective in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is not active in AD brain, and a recent proteomic screen of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) brain samples revealed that Pin1 is oxidized in the brains of these pre-AD patients. This suggests that this oxidation may be the cause of the loss of the neuroprotective Pin1 function in AD. The Pin1 active site contains a functionally critical cysteine residue (Cys113) with a low predicted pKa, making it highly susceptible to oxidation. We hypothesize that Pin1 ...


Hdac6 Regulates Tip60-P400 Function In Stem Cells, Poshen B. Chen, Jui-Hung Hung, Taylor L. Hickman, Andrew H. Coles, James F. Carey, Zhiping Weng, Feixia Chu, Thomas G. Fazzio Dec 2013

Hdac6 Regulates Tip60-P400 Function In Stem Cells, Poshen B. Chen, Jui-Hung Hung, Taylor L. Hickman, Andrew H. Coles, James F. Carey, Zhiping Weng, Feixia Chu, Thomas G. Fazzio

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase activates genes required for proliferation and silences genes that promote differentiation. Here we show that the class II histone deacetylase Hdac6 co-purifies with Tip60-p400 complex from ESCs. Hdac6 is necessary for regulation of most Tip60-p400 target genes, particularly those repressed by the complex. Unlike differentiated cells, where Hdac6 is mainly cytoplasmic, Hdac6 is largely nuclear in ESCs, neural stem cells (NSCs), and some cancer cell lines, and interacts with Tip60-p400 in each. Hdac6 localizes to promoters bound by Tip60-p400 in ESCs, binding downstream of transcription start sites. Surprisingly, Hdac6 does not ...


The Role Of Gap-43 Phosphorylation In Axon Behavior In The Developing Zebrafish Visual System, Jennifer Forecki Dec 2013

The Role Of Gap-43 Phosphorylation In Axon Behavior In The Developing Zebrafish Visual System, Jennifer Forecki

Theses and Dissertations

Developing neurons extend processes to specific targets and establish connections that are essential for future function of the nervous system. One of these processes, the axon, has a motile tip called a growth cone that rearranges its membrane-associated actin cytoskeleton to turn toward or away from environmental guidance cues. Growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) is one of the most abundant proteins associated with axonal growth cone membranes and is known to modulate the formation and stability of the actin cytoskeleton during axon guidance. Protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of GAP-43 on serine 42 regulates its interactions with actin. Phosphorylated ...


Transcriptomic Analyses Of The Co2-Concentrating Mechanisms And Development Of Molecular Tools For Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Andrew J. Brueggeman Dec 2013

Transcriptomic Analyses Of The Co2-Concentrating Mechanisms And Development Of Molecular Tools For Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Andrew J. Brueggeman

Theses and Dissertations in Biochemistry

Microalgae, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, account for a large percentage of photosynthesis that occurs on the planet. Many algae possess a Carbon-Concentrating Mechanism, or CCM, that actively transports inorganic carbon (Ci) into the cell to create artificially high internal levels of CO2, enhancing their rate of carbon fixation. The production of biofuels from algal sources can serve as both a renewable and carbon-neutral energy source. This thesis details research in Chlamydomonas, in the effort to both better understand the CCM in algae and improve laboratory and industrial manipulations with algae.

In the first chapter of this thesis, changes ...


Transcending Microbial Source Tracking Techniques Across Geographic Borders: An Examination Of Human And Animal Microbiomes And The Integration Of Molecular Approaches In Pathogen Surveillance In Brazil And The United States, Amber Mae Koskey Dec 2013

Transcending Microbial Source Tracking Techniques Across Geographic Borders: An Examination Of Human And Animal Microbiomes And The Integration Of Molecular Approaches In Pathogen Surveillance In Brazil And The United States, Amber Mae Koskey

Theses and Dissertations

Waterborne illnesses, attributed to the ingestion or contact with contaminated water, present a significant global health concern. Surface water sources can be impacted by wide array of pollution inputs, but fecal pollution generates the most significant and acute threat to human health. Therefore, the detection of fecal bacteria in surface water sources remains an important public health objective. Current surface water monitoring employs the use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including E. coli and enterococci as proxies for pathogenic organisms carried in fecal pollution. These traditional indicators, detected by culture-based microbiological methods, do not discriminate fecal sources from another. New ...


Development Of Novel Subunit Vaccine Against H5n1 Influenza, Lu Zhang Dec 2013

Development Of Novel Subunit Vaccine Against H5n1 Influenza, Lu Zhang

Theses and Dissertations

Influenza is a common infectious disease resulting from a frequently mutated RNA virus. Vaccination is currently the most effective method to prevent people from seasonal or pandemic influenza. The production of traditional egg-based influenza vaccine is time-consuming and provides limited effect against new strains. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a rapid method to produce influenza vaccines. We proposed a novel influenza vaccine based on the E.coli expression system. Hemagglutinin (HA) is the major target surface protein of influenza virus for vaccine development. In this study, we sub-cloned the HAs encoding gene into an E. coli expression vector; the ...


The Role Of Histone H3 And H4 In Centromere Function And Genome Integrity, Payel Chaudhuri Dec 2013

The Role Of Histone H3 And H4 In Centromere Function And Genome Integrity, Payel Chaudhuri

Theses and Dissertations

Histone H2A plays an important role in chromosomal segregation among parent and daughter cells during mitosis. While it is established that this histone is important in maintaining chromosome number in cell, further work is carried out to explore the role of other histones like H3 and H4 for similar effects. A systematic study is initiated by screening a library based on mutation of different amino acid residues in these histones. This detailed screening identified specific regions within H3 and H4, which are critically important for centromeric function. These histones residing near the DNA entry/exit region of nucleosome effects the ...


Evaluating The Influence Of Environmental Factors On The Rate Of Extra-Pair Matings In Tropical And Temperate Populations Of The House Wren (Troglodytes Aedon), Kaitlin Claire Mckenney Dec 2013

Evaluating The Influence Of Environmental Factors On The Rate Of Extra-Pair Matings In Tropical And Temperate Populations Of The House Wren (Troglodytes Aedon), Kaitlin Claire Mckenney

Theses and Dissertations

Considerable variation exists in the rate of extra-pair matings (EPMs) in birds. Environmental variability likely influences EPM rates within species, but the effects of local environmental factors on EPM rates are largely unpredictable. To determine whether broad-scale environmental factors might be better predictors of EPM rates within species, we quantified levels of extra-pair paternity in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon) in four populations spanning a range of latitude, elevation, and primary productivity (measured by actual evapotranspiration rates). Our results indicated an intermediate and variable level of EPM among populations (6 -31% extra-pair young) that was not significantly affected by 3 ...


New Insights Into The Roles Of Human Dna Damage Checkpoint Protein Atr In The Regulation Of Nucleotide Excision Repair And Dna Damage-Induced Cell Death, Zhengke Li Dec 2013

New Insights Into The Roles Of Human Dna Damage Checkpoint Protein Atr In The Regulation Of Nucleotide Excision Repair And Dna Damage-Induced Cell Death, Zhengke Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Integrity of the human genome is frequently threatened by endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging reagents that may lead to genome instability and cancer. Cells have evolved multiple mechanisms to repair DNA damage or to eliminate the damaged cells beyond repair and to prevent diverse diseases. Among these are ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA damage checkpoint and nucleotide excision repair (NER) that are the major pathways by which cells handle ultraviolet C (UV-C)- or other exogenous genotoxin-induced bulky DNA damage. However, it is unclear how these 2 pathways may be coordinated. In this study we show that ATR physically ...


Mechanisms Of The Anti-Pneumococcal Function Of C-Reactive Protein, Toh B. Gang Dec 2013

Mechanisms Of The Anti-Pneumococcal Function Of C-Reactive Protein, Toh B. Gang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human C-reactive protein (CRP) increases survival of and decreases bacteremia in mice infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Such protection of mice against pneumococcal infection is seen only when CRP is administered into mice 6 hours before to 2 hours after the injection of pneumococci, but not when CRP is given to mice at a later time. Our first aim was to define the mechanism of CRP-mediated initial protection of mice against infection. It was proposed that CRP binds to phosphocholine (PCh) moieties present in the cell wall and activates the complement system on the pneumococcal surface that kills the pathogen. We ...


The Glycine And Proline Reductase Systems: An Evolutionary Perspective And Presence In Enterobacteriaceae, Joshua Witt Dec 2013

The Glycine And Proline Reductase Systems: An Evolutionary Perspective And Presence In Enterobacteriaceae, Joshua Witt

HIM 1990-2015

The Glycine and Proline Reduction systems are two of the best characterized selenoenzymes in bacteria and have been found to occur in a wide variety of clostridia [1-5]. These enzymes are utilized to reduce glycine or D-proline to obtain energy via substrate level phosporylation or membrane gradients, respectively [6, 7]. This includes the pathogens C. difficile and C. botulinum [5, 8]. Strains of C. difficile are activate toxigenic pathways whenever either of these pathways is active within the cell [5, 8]. Though evolutionary studies have been conducted on ammonia producing bacteria [9] none has been done to directly characterize these ...


Characterization Of The Rna Binding And Rna Degrading Subunits Of The Eukaryotic Exosome, Borislava Tsanova Dec 2013

Characterization Of The Rna Binding And Rna Degrading Subunits Of The Eukaryotic Exosome, Borislava Tsanova

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The exosome is an essential complex of ten proteins involved in the processing and degradation of many RNAs in the cell. These include various stable RNAs, mRNAs, and aberrant transcripts both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm.

In this work I characterize the three members of the exosome “cap”, the RNA binding proteins Rrp4, Rrp40, and Csl4. I determine that in spite of their structural similarity, they each have a unique essential role. Second, I determine that two of the cap proteins Rrp4 and Rrp40 have a role in bridging subunits of the PH ring of the exosome. The ...


Prolactin And Isplatin Combination Treatment Inhibit Tumorspheres Formation And Tumor Growth In Mice, Eric Hingleung Lee Dec 2013

Prolactin And Isplatin Combination Treatment Inhibit Tumorspheres Formation And Tumor Growth In Mice, Eric Hingleung Lee

All Dissertations

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined as a small population of tumor initiating cells that are responsible for the initiation, development, progression, and recurrence of cancer. The chemo and radiation resistance of CSCs remains one of the major obstacles in conventional anti-cancer therapies. One of the reasons that conventional chemotherapeutics are not effective in targeting CSCs is that CSCs are usually in a non-proliferative or dormant state. In this perspective, targeting CSCs by inducing its proliferation and differentiation and simultaneously applying chemotherapeutics may be an alternative approach. The current study investigates the effect of prolactin (PRL), a hormone intimately involved ...


Functional Overlap Among Distinct G1/S Inhibitory Pathways Allows Robust G1 Arrest By Yeast Mating Pheromones, Patricia A. Pope, Peter M. Pryciak Dec 2013

Functional Overlap Among Distinct G1/S Inhibitory Pathways Allows Robust G1 Arrest By Yeast Mating Pheromones, Patricia A. Pope, Peter M. Pryciak

GSBS Student Publications

In budding yeast, mating pheromones arrest the cell cycle in G1 phase via a pheromone-activated Cdk-inhibitor (CKI) protein, Far1. Alternate pathways must also exist, however, because deleting the cyclin CLN2 restores pheromone arrest to far1 cells. Here we probe whether these alternate pathways require the G1/S transcriptional repressors Whi5 and Stb1 or the CKI protein Sic1, whose metazoan analogues (Rb or p27) antagonize cell cycle entry. Removing Whi5 and Stb1 allows partial escape from G1 arrest in far1 cln2 cells, along with partial derepression of G1/S genes, which implies a repressor-independent route for inhibiting G1/S transcription. This ...


Molecular And Biochemical Mechanisms Of Pathogenesis In The Maize Foliar Pathogen Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Winfred-Peck Dorleku Dec 2013

Molecular And Biochemical Mechanisms Of Pathogenesis In The Maize Foliar Pathogen Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Winfred-Peck Dorleku

Theses and Dissertations

GLS is a serious foliar disease of maize, a major staple crop grown commercially in the USA for both human and animal feed production, and increasingly, for ethanol production. The disease is caused by two Cercospora species, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina, both of which infect maize in the USA and in other parts of the world, with yield losses potentially greater than 50%, depending on local conditions. In culture, C. zeae-maydis produces a phytotoxic, host non-specific perylenequinone, cercosporin, and abscisic acid (ABA), for which there is no known pathological or physiological function in the fungus. Experimental evidence indicates that ...


Demonstration Of A Targeted Proteome Characterization Approach For Examining Specific Metabolic Pathways In Complex Bacterial Systems, Adam Justin Martin Dec 2013

Demonstration Of A Targeted Proteome Characterization Approach For Examining Specific Metabolic Pathways In Complex Bacterial Systems, Adam Justin Martin

Masters Theses

Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) is a powerful tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) tool frequently implemented in proteomic studies to provide targeted analysis of proteins and peptides. The selectivity that MRM delivers is so strong that it provides the quadrupole mass spectrometers (QQQ), on which it is commonly employed, with pertinence to proteomic studies that they would otherwise lack for their relatively low resolution. Additionally, this increased level of selectivity is sufficient enough to supplant complicated fractionation techniques, additional dimensions of chromatography, and 24 hour long MS/MS experiments in simplistic biological samples. But there is a deficiency of evidence to ...


The Development Of An In Vivo Microdialysis Collection Method Of Cytokines From Brain Tissue, Anthony W. Herbaugh Dec 2013

The Development Of An In Vivo Microdialysis Collection Method Of Cytokines From Brain Tissue, Anthony W. Herbaugh

Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, different methods to improve the microdialysis collection procedure for cytokines from brain tissue are presented. The first method was based on stopped flow and results indicating that no significant difference in relative recovery between stopped flow and continuous flow are shown. The second method is an antibody bead-based enhancement method. With the antibody bead-based method, a 3.5 fold increase in the collected concentrations of Chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) were observed. However, there was no significant increase in the in vivo collection efficiency of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) using the antibody enhancement. Finally the development of an ...


Rna Seeds Higher-Order Assembly Of Fus Protein, Jacob V. Schwartz, Xueyin Wang, Elaine R. Podell, Thomas R. Cech Nov 2013

Rna Seeds Higher-Order Assembly Of Fus Protein, Jacob V. Schwartz, Xueyin Wang, Elaine R. Podell, Thomas R. Cech

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Contributions (1986-2018)

The abundant nuclear RNA binding protein FUS binds the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNApolymerase II in an RNA-dependent manner, affecting Ser2 phosphorylation and transcription. Here, we examine the mechanism of this process and find that RNA binding nucleates the formation ofhigher-order FUS ribonucleoprotein assemblies that bind the CTD. Both the low-complexity domain and the arginine-glycine rich domain of FUS contribute to assembly. The assemblies appear fibrous by electron microscopy and have characteristics of β zipper structures. These results support the emerging view that the pathologic protein aggregation seen in neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may occur via the ...


Stellaris Fishing 20131125mon Part 1 Of 2, George Mcnamara Nov 2013

Stellaris Fishing 20131125mon Part 1 Of 2, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Stellaris FISH dataset using three FISH probe sets. Slides courtesy of Biosearch Technologies,

https://www.biosearchtech.com/store/product.aspx?catid=224,318,324

see http://stellarisfish.smugmug.com/ for online gallery by Biosearch.

This experiment was to evaluate the crosstalk between the Biosearch fluorophores:

Quasar 570

CAL Fluor Red 610 (CFR 610)

Quasar 670

DAPI (DNA counterstain)

Autofluorescence (green, but sometimes showing up in other channels).

and our lab's Leica DMI6000 fluorescence microscope with Leica filter sets:

DAPI

GFP (L5)

Cy3 (N3)

Texas Red (TxRed2)

Cy5 (Y5)

I also acquired green channel and red channel with exciter filters ...


Stellaris Fishing 20131125mon Part 2 Of 2, George Mcnamara Nov 2013

Stellaris Fishing 20131125mon Part 2 Of 2, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Stellaris FISH dataset using three FISH probe sets.

Slides courtesy of Biosearch Technologies,

https://www.biosearchtech.com/store/product.aspx?catid=224,318,324

see http://stellarisfish.smugmug.com/ for online gallery by Biosearch.

This experiment was to evaluate the crosstalk between the Biosearch fluorophores:

Quasar 570

CAL Fluor Red 610 (CFR 610)

Quasar 670

DAPI (DNA counterstain)

Autofluorescence (green, but sometimes showing up in other channels).

and our lab's Leica DMI6000 fluorescence microscope with Leica filter sets:

DAPI

GFP (L5)

Cy3 (N3)

Texas Red (TxRed2)

Cy5 (Y5)

I also acquired green channel and red channel with exciter filters ...


Quantitative Analysis Of Neurotransmitter Pathways Under Steady State Conditions - A Perspective, Arthur J L Cooper Nov 2013

Quantitative Analysis Of Neurotransmitter Pathways Under Steady State Conditions - A Perspective, Arthur J L Cooper

NYMC Faculty Publications

In a contribution to this Research Topic Erkki Somersalo and Daniela Calvetti carried out a mathematical analysis of neurotransmitter pathways in brain, modeling compartmental nitrogen flux among several major participants - ammonia, glutamine, glutamate, GABA, and selected amino acids. This analysis is important because cerebral nitrogen metabolism is perturbed in many diseases, including liver disease and inborn errors of the urea cycle. These diseases result in an elevation of blood ammonia, which is neurotoxic. Here, a brief description is provided of the discovery of cerebral metabolic compartmentation of nitrogen metabolism - a key feature of cerebral glutamate-glutamine and GABA-glutamine cycles. The work ...


Real-Time Qpcr Assay Development For Detection Of Bacillus Thuringiensis And Serratia Marcescens Dna And The Influence Of Complex Microbial Community Dna On Assay Sensitivity, Jonathan Segal Nov 2013

Real-Time Qpcr Assay Development For Detection Of Bacillus Thuringiensis And Serratia Marcescens Dna And The Influence Of Complex Microbial Community Dna On Assay Sensitivity, Jonathan Segal

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) assays are an effective technique to detect biological warfare agents and surrogate organisms. In my study, primers were designed to detect chromosomal DNA of biological warfare agent surrogates B. thuringiensis and S. marcescens (representing B. anthracis and Y. pestis, respectively) via real-time qPCR. Species-level specificity of the primers was demonstrated through comparisons with a bacterial strain panel and corroborated by qPCR data. Additionally, the primer efficacy was tested when template DNA was spiked into metagenomic DNA extracted from clinical lung microbiome samples. The results showed that while detection of B. thuringiensis or S ...


The Drosophila Gypsy Insulator Supports Transvection In The Presence Of The Vestigial Enhancer, Todd Schoborg, Srilalitha Kuruganti, Ryan Rickels, Mariano Labrador Nov 2013

The Drosophila Gypsy Insulator Supports Transvection In The Presence Of The Vestigial Enhancer, Todd Schoborg, Srilalitha Kuruganti, Ryan Rickels, Mariano Labrador

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

Though operationally defined as cis-regulatory elements, enhancers can also communicate with promoters on a separate homolog in trans, a mechanism that has been suggested to account for the ability of certain alleles of the same gene to complement one another in a process otherwise known as transvection. This homolog-pairing dependent process is facilitated in Drosophila by chromatin-associated pairing proteins, many of which remain unknown and their mechanism of action uncharacterized. Here we have tested the role of the gypsy chromatin insulator in facilitating pairing and communication between enhancers and promoters in trans using a transgenic eGFP reporter system engineered ...


The Interdomain Interface In Bifunctional Enzyme Protein 3/4a (Ns3/4a) Regulates Protease And Helicase Activities, Cihan Aydin, Sourav Mukherjee, Alicia Hanson, David Frick, Celia Schiffer Nov 2013

The Interdomain Interface In Bifunctional Enzyme Protein 3/4a (Ns3/4a) Regulates Protease And Helicase Activities, Cihan Aydin, Sourav Mukherjee, Alicia Hanson, David Frick, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Hepatitis C (HCV) protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) is a bifunctional enzyme comprising two separate domains with protease and helicase activities, which are essential for viral propagation. Both domains are stable and have enzymatic activity separately, and the relevance and implications of having protease and helicase together as a single protein remains to be explored. Altered in vitro activities of isolated domains compared with the full-length NS3/4A protein suggest the existence of interdomain communication. The molecular mechanism and extent of this communication was investigated by probing the domain-domain interface observed in HCV NS3/4A crystal structures. We found in ...