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2015

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

2015 Final Report: Status Of The Arizona Toad (Anaxyrus Microscaphus) In New Mexico, Mason J. Ryan, Ian M. Latella, Jacek T. Giermakowski, Howard L. Snell Dec 2015

2015 Final Report: Status Of The Arizona Toad (Anaxyrus Microscaphus) In New Mexico, Mason J. Ryan, Ian M. Latella, Jacek T. Giermakowski, Howard L. Snell

Biology Faculty & Staff Publications

In 2013, we initiated a field study to assess the status of the Arizona Toad (Anaxyrus microscaphus) in New Mexico. Herein we provide the results of three years (2013-2015) of range-wide population monitoring, a review of threat assessments, and several contributions to the basic ecology of the Arizona Toad in New Mexico. This work highlights the sensitivity of the species to abiotic factors and emphasizes the nature of annual population fluctuations in a variable environment. We provide analyses of environmental factors that influence toad reproductive behaviors, employ occupancy and detection modeling at breeding sites, and provide analyses of tadpole habitat ...


Moths Fight Back: Arms Race In The Cloud Forest, Diana Pamela Rivera Dec 2015

Moths Fight Back: Arms Race In The Cloud Forest, Diana Pamela Rivera

Theses

Moths and bats engage in a coevolutionary arm race, where the same signals bats use to find moths are being used by moths to avoid bats. Moths evolve not only behavioral but acoustic responses to avoid predation by bats. This research examines one small component of a complex, multispecies arm race between moths and bats. In this study we found that the moth Amastus hyalina displayed both flight and acoustic responses to ultrasonic stimuli.

In tethered flight the tiger moth Amastus hyalina (Arctiinae) exhibits a complex array of reactions to ultrasonic tones that includes changes in flight and production of ...


Provisioning And Its Effects On The Social Interactions Of Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana) At Mt. Huangshan, China, Brianna I. Schnepel Dec 2015

Provisioning And Its Effects On The Social Interactions Of Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana) At Mt. Huangshan, China, Brianna I. Schnepel

All Master's Theses

The dispersal patterns of food resources has a significant effect on the composition of primate groups and social interactions within those groups. Humans often alter the dispersal of food. Non-humans often use affiliative behaviors to elicit tolerance or support from other group members. I investigated whether provisioned food resources alter the social interactions and group dynamics of Macaca thibetana. All-occurrence sampling and scan sampling were used for data recorded by camera traps. Trail-cameras were placed at six locations that contain natural and human food resources and recorded 60-second videos. Social behavior and proximity of the monkeys were recorded. I found ...


Effects Of Melatonin On Heartbeat And Possible Identification Of A Melatonin Receptor In Drosophila Melanogaster, Tricia L. Vankirk Dec 2015

Effects Of Melatonin On Heartbeat And Possible Identification Of A Melatonin Receptor In Drosophila Melanogaster, Tricia L. Vankirk

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chapter 1 of this manuscript is a literature review that serves as an introduction to the entire dissertation. Chapter 2 examines the effects of the melatonin injection on heart rate and rhythmicity in Drosophila melanogaster Canton-S (wild-type) pupae and pupae bearing a variety of heart mutations. Chapter 3 investigates further the possible mechanisms of melatonin’s ability to increase heart rhythmicity without significantly affecting heart rate. A melatonin antagonist, luzindole; a high-affinity melatonin agonist, 2-iodomelatonin and RNAi techniques are used to identify a possible melatonin receptor in Drosophila melanogaster.

An appendix contains a previously published manuscript detailing experiments performed at ...


The Integration Of African Americans In The Civilian Conservation Corps In Massachusetts, Caitlin E. Pinkham Dec 2015

The Integration Of African Americans In The Civilian Conservation Corps In Massachusetts, Caitlin E. Pinkham

Graduate Masters Theses

The Civilian Conservation Corps employed young white and black men between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five. In 1935 Robert Fechner, the Director of the Civilian Conservation Corps, ordered the segregation of Corps camps across the country. Massachusetts’ camps remained integrated due in large part to low funding and a small African American population. The experiences of Massachusetts’ African American population present a new general narrative of the Civilian Conservation Corps. The Federal government imposed a three percent African American quota, ensuring that African Americans participated in Massachusetts as the Civilian Conservation Corps expanded. This quota represents a Federal acknowledgement ...


Living With Coyotes, Owen H. Agnew Dec 2015

Living With Coyotes, Owen H. Agnew

Capstones

Coyotes have been slowly moving into New York State from Canada since the 1930s. They reached Westchester County and the Bronx decades ago, and their numbers have been slowly rising. Sighting in Manhattan reached an all-time high last spring, and pet attacks in Westchester County have increased slightly in the last several years. But the slight increase in sightings and pet attacks in recent years has been amplified on social media in towns like Chappaqua, New York, where anxiety and fear about coyotes has pitted neighbors against neighbors.

Main character Frank Vincenti is a Long Island barber and a self-proclaimed ...


Special Muscles, Annamaria C. Scaccia Dec 2015

Special Muscles, Annamaria C. Scaccia

Capstones

Special Muscles is a documentary that explores living with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a fatal degenerative disease that weakens the muscles at an aggressive rate. The film will give an uncensored look at how one family copes with inevitability of the disease and their journey chasing a promising experimental cure.

Special Muscles follows 7-year-old Pietro Scarso and his family as they face the challenges, complications and promise of treating Pietro’s progressive muscle disorder. The film travels from New York to Los Angeles to Philadelphia to document the Scarso family’s race against time as Pietro undergoes a 96-week clinical trial ...


Testing The Efficacy Of Lsn2463359, A Metabotropic Glutamate 5 Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulator, In Animal Models Of Schizophrenia, Dierdre M. Freamon Dec 2015

Testing The Efficacy Of Lsn2463359, A Metabotropic Glutamate 5 Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulator, In Animal Models Of Schizophrenia, Dierdre M. Freamon

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

For many years the dominant theory surrounding the cause of schizophrenia was focused on elevated dopamine levels found in critical areas of the brain. Recently a new theory has emerged pointing to elevated glutamate levels resulting from hypofunction of NMDA receptors and hypoactivity of GABAergic neurons which normally inhibit glutamatergic cells in a tonic manner. Therefore, while traditional antipsychotics directly block dopamine receptors, some of the newly generated compounds are designed to modulate glutamate to normal levels.

I propose testing the efficacy of the metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor modulator LSN2463359, previously shown to act as an indirect agonist of the ...


Examining Sociological Differences And The Influence Of Prey Distribution And Environmental Variability In The Distribution Of A Top Marine Predator, The Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus), Stefanie K. Gazda Dec 2015

Examining Sociological Differences And The Influence Of Prey Distribution And Environmental Variability In The Distribution Of A Top Marine Predator, The Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus), Stefanie K. Gazda

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the influence of environmental variability on the distribution of prey, and the influence of prey spatial structure and habitat variability may have on the distributions of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Additionally I examined how sociological differences (behavior type and the changes in a foraging behavior specific to Cedar Key Florida) influences the relative roles of bottlenose dolphins within the population.

The Gowans et al. scheme assumes that small groups form small communities and that foraging groups are small and rare as there are few foraging benefits to promote grouping. Using network analysis ...


Critical Forces That Structure Subtidal Ecological Communities In The Gulf Of Maine, And The Integration Of Invasive Species Into These Communities, Martine C. Wagstaff Dec 2015

Critical Forces That Structure Subtidal Ecological Communities In The Gulf Of Maine, And The Integration Of Invasive Species Into These Communities, Martine C. Wagstaff

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Shallow subtidal epibenthic communities worldwide are under threat from exploitation, pollution, eutrophication, acidification, climate change, and invasive species, with implications for ecosystem diversity, productivity, function, and services. Subtidal ecosystems in the Gulf of Maine are particularly impacted, making it crucial to understand these habitats so that our impacts can be predicted and mitigated. I investigated the basic ecological forces that structure shallow subtidal epibenthic communities in this region, and how invasive species integrate themselves into these communities. I used community phylogenetic and functional trait analyses to investigate if invertebrate communities in the rocky subtidal are assembled via deterministic or random ...


A Comparison Of Sign Searches, Live-Trapping, And Camera-Trapping For Detection Of American Badgers (Taxidea Taxus) In The Chihuahuan Desert, Robert L. Harrison Dec 2015

A Comparison Of Sign Searches, Live-Trapping, And Camera-Trapping For Detection Of American Badgers (Taxidea Taxus) In The Chihuahuan Desert, Robert L. Harrison

Western North American Naturalist

In communities where they occur, American badgers (Taxidea taxus) play important ecological, economic, and conservation roles. Central to understanding of badger ecology and management are estimates of badger population status. However, few studies have compared methods of detecting badgers for population surveys. I compared searches for burrows and diggings, live-trapping, and the use of automatic cameras at scent lures, bait stations, and anthropogenic permanent and temporary wildlife water sources in the Chihuahuan Desert of southern New Mexico. Searches for confirmed badger burrows and diggings yielded 0.14–0.88 detections per kilometer of transect. Badgers were trapped in 1.6 ...


Using Detection Dogs And Rspf Models To Assess Habitat Suitability For Bears In Greater Yellowstone, Jon P. Beckmann, Lisette P. Waits, Aimee Hurt, Alice Whitelaw, Scott Bergen Dec 2015

Using Detection Dogs And Rspf Models To Assess Habitat Suitability For Bears In Greater Yellowstone, Jon P. Beckmann, Lisette P. Waits, Aimee Hurt, Alice Whitelaw, Scott Bergen

Western North American Naturalist

In the northern U.S. Rockies, including the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), connectivity is a concern because large carnivores have difficulties dispersing successfully between protected areas. One area of high conservation value because of its importance for connecting the GYE to wilderness areas of central Idaho is the Centennial Mountains and surrounding valleys (2500 km2) along the Idaho–Montana border just west of Yellowstone National Park. The current expansion of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and other large carnivore populations outside protected areas of Yellowstone National Park and Grand Teton National Park has placed a greater emphasis on potential linkage zones ...


Phenetic Analyses And Revised Classification Of The Ptelea Trifoliata Complex (Rutaceae), Erin Skornia, Muxi Yang, Wendy L. Applequist Dec 2015

Phenetic Analyses And Revised Classification Of The Ptelea Trifoliata Complex (Rutaceae), Erin Skornia, Muxi Yang, Wendy L. Applequist

Western North American Naturalist

The current classification of Ptelea divides the widespread and highly variable Ptelea trifoliata L. into 5 subspecies and 11 varieties, while additionally terming many specimens “intermediate.” Although there are visually observable differences among regional variants, principal component analyses of quantitative characters failed to separate subspecies or to even incompletely separate most varieties within subspecies. Some recognized subgroups are also not well distinguished by discontinuous qualitative characters. Where multiple varieties appear to be part of a single continuum of variation or are extremely similar, it is suggested that a reduction in the number of infraspecific taxa would improve the utility of ...


Facing A Changing World: Thermal Physiology Of American Pikas (Ochotona Princeps), Hans W. Otto, James A. Wilson, Erik A. Beever Dec 2015

Facing A Changing World: Thermal Physiology Of American Pikas (Ochotona Princeps), Hans W. Otto, James A. Wilson, Erik A. Beever

Western North American Naturalist

American pikas (Ochotona princeps) are of concern with respect to warming montane temperatures; however, little information exists regarding their physiological ability to adapt to warming temperatures. Previous studies have shown that pikas have high metabolism and low thermal conductance, which allow survival during cold winters. It has been hypothesized that these characteristics may be detrimental, given the recent warming trends observed in montane ecosystems. We examined resting metabolic rate, surface activity, and den and ambient temperatures (Ta) of pikas in late summer (August 2011 and 2012) at 2 locations in the Rocky Mountains. Resting metabolic rate was calculated to be ...


Production And Nutrient Content Of Two Shrub Species Related To Fire In Central Idaho, James M. Peek Dec 2015

Production And Nutrient Content Of Two Shrub Species Related To Fire In Central Idaho, James M. Peek

Western North American Naturalist

Nutrient content and weight of current year’s growth of Cercocarpus ledifolius Nuttall and Physocarpus malvaceus (Greene) Kuntze in central Idaho were obtained during early July in the years 1987–2007. The purpose of this work was to determine whether there was significant variation between years and whether mean monthly temperatures and total monthly precipitation could predict the variation. A wildfire in August 2000 causedP. malvaceus to vigorously resprout. Significant differences between years occurred for all nutrients for both species. October temperatures best predicted weight of current year’s growth in C. ledifolius, whereas prediction equations for nutrients involved ...


Maternity Roost Selection By Fringed Myotis In Colorado, Mark A. Hayes, Rick A. Adams Dec 2015

Maternity Roost Selection By Fringed Myotis In Colorado, Mark A. Hayes, Rick A. Adams

Western North American Naturalist

Fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes) is a bat species of conservation concern in western North America that may be impacted by increased recreational activity near roost sites, changes in water resource availability caused by increased urban and agricultural water use, and anthropogenic climate change. Our purpose was to describe and model maternity roost use by fringed myotis in Colorado. We compared differences between roosts occupied by maternal fringed myotis and randomly selected potential roosting locations that were not known to be occupied by this species during the maternity period. We evaluated the strength of evidence for competing hypotheses on 2 scales ...


Life History, Burrowing Behavior, And Distribution Of Neohermes Filicornis (Megaloptera: Corydalidae), A Long-Lived Aquatic Insect In Intermittent Streams, Matthew R. Cover, Jeong Ho Seo, Vincent H. Resh Dec 2015

Life History, Burrowing Behavior, And Distribution Of Neohermes Filicornis (Megaloptera: Corydalidae), A Long-Lived Aquatic Insect In Intermittent Streams, Matthew R. Cover, Jeong Ho Seo, Vincent H. Resh

Western North American Naturalist

Several species of fishflies (Megaloptera: Corydalidae: Chauliodinae) have been reported from intermittent streams in western North America, but the life histories and distributions of these species are poorly understood. We studied the life history ofNeohermes filicornis (Banks 1903) for 2 years in Donner Creek (Contra Costa County, California), a small intermittent stream that flows for 5–7 months per year. Neohermes filicornis had a 3–4-year life span and larval growth was asynchronous. Analysis of gut contents showed that larvae were generalist predators of aquatic insect larvae including Diptera, Ephemeroptera, and Plecoptera. Final instars dug pupal chambers in the ...


Black-Tailed And White-Tailed Jackrabbits In The American West: History, Ecology, Ecological Significance, And Survey Methods, Matthew T. Simes, Kathleen M. Longshore, Kenneth E. Nussear, Greg L. Beatty, David E. Brown, Todd C. Esque Dec 2015

Black-Tailed And White-Tailed Jackrabbits In The American West: History, Ecology, Ecological Significance, And Survey Methods, Matthew T. Simes, Kathleen M. Longshore, Kenneth E. Nussear, Greg L. Beatty, David E. Brown, Todd C. Esque

Western North American Naturalist

Across the western United States, Leporidae are the most important prey item in the diet of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Leporids inhabiting the western United States include black-tailed (Lepus californicus) and white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and various species of cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.). Jackrabbits (Lepus spp.) are particularly important components of the ecological and economic landscape of western North America because their abundance influences the reproductive success and population trends of predators such as coyotes (Canis latrans), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and a number of raptor species. Here, we review literature pertaining to black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits comprising over 170 published ...


First Record Of Jaguar (Panthera Onca) From The State Of Hidalgo, México, Melany Aguilar-López, Josefina Ramos-Frías, Alberto E. Rojas-Martínez, Cristian Cornejo-Latorre Dec 2015

First Record Of Jaguar (Panthera Onca) From The State Of Hidalgo, México, Melany Aguilar-López, Josefina Ramos-Frías, Alberto E. Rojas-Martínez, Cristian Cornejo-Latorre

Western North American Naturalist

We documented the first record of jaguar (Panthera onca) in the state of Hidalgo, México. With this record, the gap in the distribution of jaguar between San Luis Potosí and northwestern Puebla is reduced. In July 2013, we found 2 tracks on a trail in a pine-oak forest, and in October, we photographed a jaguar in an oak forest. Both sites are located within the Parque Nacional Los Mármoles in Sierra Gorda of Hidalgo. These records represent the first evidence of the presence of jaguar in Hidalgo, which is among the few states where all 6 species of felids that ...


A Herpetological Inventory Of Naval Air Station Fallon, Churchill County, Nevada, Jonathan P. Rose, Oliver J. Miano, Gary R. Cottle, Robert E. Lovich, Robert L. Palmer, Brian D. Todd Dec 2015

A Herpetological Inventory Of Naval Air Station Fallon, Churchill County, Nevada, Jonathan P. Rose, Oliver J. Miano, Gary R. Cottle, Robert E. Lovich, Robert L. Palmer, Brian D. Todd

Western North American Naturalist

Much of the western United States is managed by state and federal agencies for multiple uses, including recreation, grazing, extraction, and defense. Biological inventories are integral to proper management and conservation of biodiversity on these lands. We surveyed for amphibians and reptiles occurring on Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada, USA, using a variety of methods. We documented the presence of a majority of the amphibian and reptile species native to this region of the Great Basin. We found 5 species on NAS Fallon that are listed as Species of Conservation Priority by the Nevada Department of Wildlife: the ...


Front Matter, Vol. 75 No. 4 Dec 2015

Front Matter, Vol. 75 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


End Matter, Vol. 75 No. 4 Dec 2015

End Matter, Vol. 75 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Suppression Of F1 Male-Specific Lethality In Caenorhabditis Hybrids By Cbr-Him-8, Vaishnavi Ragavapuram, Emily Elaine King, Scott Everet Baird Dec 2015

Suppression Of F1 Male-Specific Lethality In Caenorhabditis Hybrids By Cbr-Him-8, Vaishnavi Ragavapuram, Emily Elaine King, Scott Everet Baird

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Haldane's Rule and Darwin's Corollary to Haldane's Rule are the observations that heterogametic F1 hybrids frequently are less fit than their homogametic siblings and that asymmetric results often are obtained from reciprocal hybrid crosses. In Caenorhabditis, Haldane's Rule and Darwin's Corollary have been observed in several hybrid crosses, including crosses of Caenorhabditis briggsae and Caenorhabditis nigoni. Fertile F1 females are obtained from reciprocal crosses. However, F1 males obtained from C. nigoni mothers are sterile and F1 males obtained from C. briggsae die during embryogenesis. We have identified cbr-him-8 as a recessive maternal-effect suppressor of F1 ...


Quantifying The Adaptive Cycle, David G. Angeler, Craig R. Allen, Ahjond S. Garmestani, Lance H. Gunderson, Olle Hjerne, Monika Winder Dec 2015

Quantifying The Adaptive Cycle, David G. Angeler, Craig R. Allen, Ahjond S. Garmestani, Lance H. Gunderson, Olle Hjerne, Monika Winder

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term ...


Meeting Calendar Dec 2015

Meeting Calendar

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


Therapeutic Raavrh10 Mediated Sod1 Silencing In Adult Sod1g93a Mice And Nonhuman Primates, Christian Mueller Dec 2015

Therapeutic Raavrh10 Mediated Sod1 Silencing In Adult Sod1g93a Mice And Nonhuman Primates, Christian Mueller

Christian Mueller

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease; survival in ALS is typically 3–5
years. No treatment extends patient survival by more than three months. Approximately 20% of familial
ALS and 1–3% of sporadic ALS patients carry a mutation in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1
(SOD1). In a transgenic ALS mouse model expressing the mutant SOD1G93A protein, silencing the SOD1
gene prolongs survival. One study reports a therapeutic effect of silencing the SOD1 gene in systemically
treated adult ALS mice; this was achieved with a short hairpin RNA, a silencing molecule that has raised
multiple safety ...


Prevalence And Predictors Of Pre-Diabetes And Diabetes Among Adults 18 Years Or Older: A Multinomial Logistic Modeling Approach, Agricola Odoi, Ifechukwude O. Okwechime Dec 2015

Prevalence And Predictors Of Pre-Diabetes And Diabetes Among Adults 18 Years Or Older: A Multinomial Logistic Modeling Approach, Agricola Odoi, Ifechukwude O. Okwechime

Agricola Odoi

BACKGROUND:
Individuals with pre-diabetes and diabetes have increased risks of developing macro-vascular complications including heart disease and stroke; which are the leading causes of death globally. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes, and to investigate their predictors among adults ≥18 years in Florida.
METHODS:
Data covering the time period January-December 2013, were obtained from Florida's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Survey design of the study was declared using SVYSET statement of STATA 13.1. Descriptive analyses were performed to estimate the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes. Predictors of pre-diabetes and ...


Amyloid Proteins Structure, Dynamics, Interactions And Early Stages Of Self-Assembly, Yuliang Zhang Dec 2015

Amyloid Proteins Structure, Dynamics, Interactions And Early Stages Of Self-Assembly, Yuliang Zhang

Theses & Dissertations

The self-assembly and aggregation of amyloid protein are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. The evidence indicates that the oligomeric intermediates, formed prior to the final fibrillary product, are the primary culprits of neurotoxicity. Although tremendous efforts have been dedicated for the characterization of structures, dynamics and toxic-related hallmarks of the oligomers, to date, yet the mechanism of such assembly from disordered monomers and their structure remain elusive.

In this dissertation, I focused on understanding the dimerization process of amyloid proteins and peptides of different sizes and I combined experimental studies with high-power computer simulations. The AFM force spectroscopy experiments showed ...


Lung Cancer And Mesothelioma, Jeffrey A. Gordon, Elizabeth Kurian, Arash Bedayat, Ali Akalin, Karl Uy, Richard S. Pieters Dec 2015

Lung Cancer And Mesothelioma, Jeffrey A. Gordon, Elizabeth Kurian, Arash Bedayat, Ali Akalin, Karl Uy, Richard S. Pieters

Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist

This chapter in Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist presents an overview of lung cancer and mesothelioma, including epidemiology, etiology, screening, pathology, staging, and treatment.


Alternative Use Of Dna Binding Domains By The Neurospora White Collar Complex Dictates Circadian Regulation And Light Responses, Bin Wang, Xiaoying Zhou, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap Dec 2015

Alternative Use Of Dna Binding Domains By The Neurospora White Collar Complex Dictates Circadian Regulation And Light Responses, Bin Wang, Xiaoying Zhou, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

In the Neurospora circadian system, the White Collar complex (WCC) of WC-1 and WC-2 drives transcription of the circadian pacemaker gene frequency (frq), whose gene product, FRQ, as a part of the FRQ-FRH complex (FFC), inhibits its own expression. The WCC is also the principal Neurospora photoreceptor; WCC-mediated light induction of frq resets the clock, and all acute light induction is triggered by WCC binding to promoters of light-induced genes. However, not all acutely light-induced genes are also clock regulated, and conversely, not all clock-regulated direct targets of WCC are light induced; the structural determinants governing the shift from WCC ...