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2013

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Full-Text Articles in Nuclear Engineering

Modified Sodium Diuranate Process For The Recovery Of Uranium From Uranium Hexafluoride Transport Cylinder Wash Solution, Austin Dean Meredith Dec 2013

Modified Sodium Diuranate Process For The Recovery Of Uranium From Uranium Hexafluoride Transport Cylinder Wash Solution, Austin Dean Meredith

Theses and Dissertations

Uranium hexafluoride (UF6) containment cylinders must be emptied and washed every five years in order to undergo recertification, according to ANSI standards. During the emptying of the UF6 from the cylinders, a thin residue, or heel, of UF6 is left behind. This heel must be removed in order for recertification to take place.

To remove it, the inside of the containment cylinder is washed with acid and the resulting solution generally contains three or four kilograms of uranium. Thus, before the liquid solution can be disposed of, the uranium must be separated. A modified sodium diuranate (SDU ...


System Studies Of Fission-Fusion Hybrid Molten Salt Reactors, Robert D. Woolley Dec 2013

System Studies Of Fission-Fusion Hybrid Molten Salt Reactors, Robert D. Woolley

Doctoral Dissertations

This work proposes and evaluates a Fission-Fusion Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (FFHMSR), combining two subsystems, a deuterium + tritium (DT) fusion reactor surrounded by a neutron-absorbing Fusion Blanket (FB) and a critical Molten Salt fission Reactor (MSR). The molten salt, which contains dissolved actinides, circulates at a high rate between them.

As envisioned the MSR exhibits the large Conversion Ratio of graphite moderated reactors having small fissile and large fertile inventories. DT fusion neutrons irradiating actinides in the molten salt release additional neutrons which increase isotope conversion and fission. Actinide fuel is continually added while fission products are continually removed so ...


Monte Carlo And Depletion Reactor Analysis For High-Performance Computing Applications, Brenden Thomas Mervin Dec 2013

Monte Carlo And Depletion Reactor Analysis For High-Performance Computing Applications, Brenden Thomas Mervin

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation discusses the research and development for a coupled neutron trans- port/isotopic depletion capability for use in high-preformance computing applications. Accurate neutronics modeling and simulation for \real" reactor problems has been a long sought after goal in the computational community. A complementary \stretch goal" to this is the ability to perform full-core depletion analysis and spent fuel isotopic characterization. This dissertation thus presents the research and development of a coupled Monte Carlo transport/isotopic depletion implementation with the Exnihilo framework geared for high-performance computing architectures to enable neutronics analysis for full-core reactor problems.

An in-depth case study of ...


Assessing Different Zeolitic Adsorbents For Their Potential Use In Kr And Xe Separation, Breetha Alagappan Dec 2013

Assessing Different Zeolitic Adsorbents For Their Potential Use In Kr And Xe Separation, Breetha Alagappan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Separation of Kr from Xe is an important problem in spent nuclear fuel fission gas management. The energy intensive and expensive cryogenic distillation method is currently used to separate these gases. In this thesis, we have carried out the research into appropriate sorbents for the separation of Kr and Xe using pressure swing adsorption. We have examined zeolites using gas adsorption studies as they have the potential to be more cost effective than other sorbents. Zeolites are microporous aluminosilicates and have ordered pore structures. The pores in zeolites have extra-framework cations are substantially free to move. The mobility of cations ...


Criticality And Characteristic Neutronic Analysis Of A Transient-State Shockwave In A Pulsed Spherical Gaseous Uranium-Hexafluoride Reactor, Jeremiah Boles Dec 2013

Criticality And Characteristic Neutronic Analysis Of A Transient-State Shockwave In A Pulsed Spherical Gaseous Uranium-Hexafluoride Reactor, Jeremiah Boles

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study is to analyze the theoretical criticality of a spherical uranium-hexafluoride reactor with a transient, pulsed shockwave emanating from the center of the sphere in an outward-radial direction. This novel nuclear reactor design, based upon pulsed fission in a spherical enclosure is proposed for possible use in direct energy conversion, where the energy from fission products is captured through the use of electrostatic fields or through induction. An analysis of the dynamic behavior of the shockwave in this reactor is the subject of this thesis. As a shockwave travels through a fluid medium, the characteristics of ...


Optimization Of Scintillator Based Radiation Portal Monitors, Matthew J. Urffer Dec 2013

Optimization Of Scintillator Based Radiation Portal Monitors, Matthew J. Urffer

Doctoral Dissertations

Alternative neutron detection technologies are needed to replace the current He- 3 based Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM) which are employed to detect special nuclear material that may be entering the United States illicitly. Replacement technologies must fulfill the following criteria established by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS): 1) a neutron detection efficiency, 2) a gamma insensitivity, and 3) the performance of the detector should not suffer in the presence of a strong gamma field. Polymeric films containing Li-6 ranging from 15 to 300 microns have the ability to fulfill these criteria if suitably utilized. For a typical detector material ...


Development Of A Monitoring Framework For The Detection Of Diversion Of Intermediate Products In A Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant, Jennifer L. Ladd-Lively Dec 2013

Development Of A Monitoring Framework For The Detection Of Diversion Of Intermediate Products In A Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant, Jennifer L. Ladd-Lively

Doctoral Dissertations

The objective of this work is the development of an on-line monitoring and data analysis framework that could detect the diversion of intermediate products such as uranium dioxide, uranium tetrafluoride, and uranium hexafluoride in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP) using a multivariate statistical approach. This was an initial effort to determine the feasibility of this approach for safeguards applications. This study was limited to a 100 metric ton of uranium (MTU) per year NUCP using the wet solvent extraction method for the purification of uranium ore concentrate. A key component in the multivariate statistical methodology was the Principal Component ...


Two-Equation Two-Fluid Model For Bubbly Flow In A Vertical Channel, Jeffrey Feliszak, Martin Bertodano Oct 2013

Two-Equation Two-Fluid Model For Bubbly Flow In A Vertical Channel, Jeffrey Feliszak, Martin Bertodano

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The one-dimensional two-fluid model is widely acknowledged as the most detailed and accurate macroscopic formulation of the thermo-fluid dynamics in nuclear reactor safety analysis. Several thermo-fluid dynamics codes have sprung up based on the one dimensional two-fluid model, such as RELAP5, TRAC, RETRAN, CATHARE, etc. However, these codes are quasi-steady because they lack the short wavelength models that are necessary to make the models well-posed; therefore they must rely on excessive numerical viscosity. Not utilizing short wavelength models causes small wavelength waves to grow quickly to infinity. The project objective is to develop a drafting force model for a one ...


Evolution Of Laser Produced Aluminum Plasma In The Presence Of A Transverse Magnetic Field, Nicholaus Mckenna, Niral Shah, Faisal Odeh, Prasoon Diwakar, Fillipo Genco, Sivanandan Harilal, Syed Hassan, Ahmed Hassanein Oct 2013

Evolution Of Laser Produced Aluminum Plasma In The Presence Of A Transverse Magnetic Field, Nicholaus Mckenna, Niral Shah, Faisal Odeh, Prasoon Diwakar, Fillipo Genco, Sivanandan Harilal, Syed Hassan, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Surface erosion of plasma-facing components is a very important problem in fusion reactors. In order to make fusion reactors economically viable the lifetime of plasma-facing components must be extended. My research entails using magnetic field interactions with plasma in order to determine how the plasma moves through the field, and if it can be stopped by using a certain orientation of magnetic field. A magnetic field should be able to alter the path of evolving plasma due to the interaction of the magnetic field with the charged particles in the plasma. The optimal orientation for slowing the evolution of the ...


Ion Beam Sputtering Yield Measurements By Quartz Crystal Microbalance, Norris W. Watkins Ii, Kaitlyn Grundy, Ahmed Hassanein, Theodore J. Novakowski, Al-Montaser Ba Al-Ajlony, Mark Catalfano, Sivanandan Harilal Oct 2013

Ion Beam Sputtering Yield Measurements By Quartz Crystal Microbalance, Norris W. Watkins Ii, Kaitlyn Grundy, Ahmed Hassanein, Theodore J. Novakowski, Al-Montaser Ba Al-Ajlony, Mark Catalfano, Sivanandan Harilal

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) has been used as a sensitive device for the measurement of small mass changes for a long ago. In fact, using QCM we can measure the differential sputtering yield profile of a material, over a hemisphere above the target, very precisely. The sputtering yield depends on properties of both the incident ions (energy, mass, and incidence angle) and the target (mass, surface binding energy, surface topography, and even the crystal orientation). In our present study, we used a highly sensitive QCM to detect the mass change of the electrode material (gold and silver) through oscillations and calculated ...


Collimation Effects On Magnetically Confined Laser Produced Plasmas, Niral Shah, Nick Mckenna, Faisal Odeh, Prasoon Diwakar, Fillipo Genco, Sivanandan Harilal, Syed Hassan, Ahmed Hassanein Oct 2013

Collimation Effects On Magnetically Confined Laser Produced Plasmas, Niral Shah, Nick Mckenna, Faisal Odeh, Prasoon Diwakar, Fillipo Genco, Sivanandan Harilal, Syed Hassan, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Tokamaks for fusion research are extremely complex and are still limited by inherent instabilities such as material erosion from plasma instabilities. Due to the lack of data and high demand of resources, simulations to portray Tokamaks are essential. A Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation for plasma erosion on materials within the Tokamak is to be benchmarked using the experimental data obtained in these experiments. The effects of an axial magnetic field (magnetic field lines are along the plasma propagation direction) on an expanding laser produced plasma plume are investigated. A Continuum Surelite Nd:YAG laser system at 1064 nm wavelength and 6 ...


The Role Of Surface Roughness On Ion Sputtering Yield Measurements, Katie Grundy, Norris W. Watkins Ii, Al-Montaser Ba Al-Ajlony, Theodore J. Novakowski, Mark Catalfano, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Sivanandan Harilal, Ahmed Hassanein Oct 2013

The Role Of Surface Roughness On Ion Sputtering Yield Measurements, Katie Grundy, Norris W. Watkins Ii, Al-Montaser Ba Al-Ajlony, Theodore J. Novakowski, Mark Catalfano, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Sivanandan Harilal, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Ion sputtering is the removal of surface atoms or molecules in a solid under energetic ion irradiation. This technique is promising for its applications in material modification and characterization. Sputtering yield, the average number of atoms removed from a sample per incident ion, is a crucial parameter in material modification. In the present study, a quartz crystal microbalance was used within an ultra-high vacuum chamber (10E-8 torr) to measure the sputtering yield of gold. An NTI-1401 ion gun was used to bombard argon and helium ions onto a gold sample. The argon and helium ions used ranged in energy from ...


Development Of A Multiscale Atomistic Code To Investigate Self-Organized Pattern Formation Induced By Ion Irradiation, Zhangcan Yang Oct 2013

Development Of A Multiscale Atomistic Code To Investigate Self-Organized Pattern Formation Induced By Ion Irradiation, Zhangcan Yang

Open Access Dissertations

Various self-organized patterns including ripples and quantum dots can be induced by ion beam sputtering (IBS). For the past decades, the understanding of such phenomenon has been mainly relied on the Bradley-Harper theory that attributes the formation of self-organized patterns to the interplay between roughening by curvature dependence of erosion and smoothening by surface diffusion. Recently, the development of the crater function theory has overturned this erosion-based paradigm to a redistribution-based paradigm. The theory has proved that erosion is irrelevant and negligible in the pattern formation at low and intermediate incidence angles. Despite the success, there are still some questions ...


Response Of Plasma Facing Components In Tokamaks Due To Intense Energy Deposition Using Particle-In-Cell(Pic) Methods, Filippo Genco Oct 2013

Response Of Plasma Facing Components In Tokamaks Due To Intense Energy Deposition Using Particle-In-Cell(Pic) Methods, Filippo Genco

Open Access Dissertations

Damage to plasma-facing components (PFC) due to various plasma instabilities is still a major concern for the successful development of fusion energy and represents a significant research obstacle in the community. It is of great importance to fully understand the behavior and lifetime expectancy of PFC under both low energy cycles during normal events and highly energetic events as disruptions, Edge-Localized Modes (ELM), Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), and Run-away electron (RE). The consequences of these high energetic dumps with energy fluxes ranging from 10 MJ/m2 up to 200 MJ/m2 applied in very short periods (0.1 to 5 ...


Smart Sampling Of Noble Gases To Detect Underground Nuclear Explosions, Lindsey M. Skelton, Steven Hunter, Charles Carrigan Aug 2013

Smart Sampling Of Noble Gases To Detect Underground Nuclear Explosions, Lindsey M. Skelton, Steven Hunter, Charles Carrigan

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

One element of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is the provision for an on site inspection (OSI). The purpose of an OSI is to monitor for the occurrence of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) in violation of the treaty. Detection of certain rare radioactive noble gases transported to the surface can be an excellent indicator of a UNE. These gases can be very difficult to capture and require specialized sampling methods. This study aims to determine an algorithm that will increase the efficiency of the subsurface gas sampling technique being used to detect UNEs. Continuous sampling of subsurface ...


A Context For Assessing The Efficacy Of A Radiological/Nuclear Materials Interdiction Mission At Border Crossings, James Dale White Aug 2013

A Context For Assessing The Efficacy Of A Radiological/Nuclear Materials Interdiction Mission At Border Crossings, James Dale White

Doctoral Dissertations

There is no widely accepted contextual framework for planning, designing, and evaluating systems of protocols and equipment for detecting, intercepting, and deterring transport of high consequence radiological and nuclear threats. The author posits a candidate framework for design and application of a security system for detection and interdiction of these threats at an international border crossing. The author then examines the efficacy of this framework. Results indicate that the use of rarely considered criteria provide a promising framework for a broad community of stakeholders to use in planning, design and application of security system upgrades for high consequence threats in ...


Investigation Of Time And Position Resolved Alpha Transducers For Multi-Modal Imaging With A D-T Neutron Generator, Joshua William Cates Aug 2013

Investigation Of Time And Position Resolved Alpha Transducers For Multi-Modal Imaging With A D-T Neutron Generator, Joshua William Cates

Doctoral Dissertations

Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generators have been used as an active interrogation source for associated particle imaging (API) techniques. The D-T reaction yields a 14.1 MeV neutron and a 3.5 MeV alpha (or assoicated) particle, projected nearly back-to-back. The kinetics of the reaction allow the direction and initial time of the neutron to be determined utilizing position sensitive detectors for both the alpha and neutron. This information facilitates multi-modal fast neutron imaging of inspection objects and closed containers to infer the geometry within them and the presence of special nuclear material (SNM). Since position and time of interaction of ...


A Compact, Convective Flow Nak Test Loop For Material Exposure Contained In An Argon Atmosphere, David Joseph Rowekamp Aug 2013

A Compact, Convective Flow Nak Test Loop For Material Exposure Contained In An Argon Atmosphere, David Joseph Rowekamp

Masters Theses

The objective of this research project was to construct a compact NaK loop to test weld configurations for application in a space reactor. The NaK loop fits inside of standard welding glove-box, and holds 64 weld specimens and a diffusion bonded tube-plate assembly. The NaK loop has a furnace which operates at a 650 degrees Celsius. It contains two independent and by-passable cold traps to maintain low oxygen levels in the NaK. The loop also contains a coil heat exchanger to cool the NaK. The loop operates with purely with convective flow, which is driven by the temperature differential between ...


Studies Of Reaction Processesfor Voloxidation Methods, Jared Allen Johnson May 2013

Studies Of Reaction Processesfor Voloxidation Methods, Jared Allen Johnson

Doctoral Dissertations

Various facets of the voloxidation process and processes that have been derived from the voloxidation process have been investigated since its development over four decades ago. Despite the numerous studies performed, gaps remain in understanding of particular fundamental aspects of the reaction processes. In this work, several of these specific aspects of the oxidation processes for standard voloxidation and NO2 [nitrogen dioxide] voloxidation are studied experimentally and modeled.

In the case of standard voloxidation, the oxidation rates of simulant UO­2 [uranium dioxide] pressurized water reactor pellets in oxygen-rich environments were studied with an emphasis on the controlling phenomena ...


Investigation Of Higher Count Rate And Helium-3 Alternative Beam Monitors For Neutron Scattering Facilities, Amanda Kay Barnett May 2013

Investigation Of Higher Count Rate And Helium-3 Alternative Beam Monitors For Neutron Scattering Facilities, Amanda Kay Barnett

Masters Theses

Beam monitors are an important diagnostic tool at neutron science facilities. At high flux neutron scattering facilities, neutron beam monitors with very low intrinsic efficiency (10-5) are presently selected to keep the counting rate within a feasible range, even when a higher efficiency would improve the counting statistics and yield a better measurement of the incident beam. This report outlines a beam monitor with a parallel-plate avalanche chamber design that is capable of measuring a high count rate without saturation. Several designs of the beam monitor using different electrode materials and different neutron conversion materials were constructed and tested ...


The Effect Of Pellet Geometry On The Specific Activity Of Ni-63, Spenser Riley Walsh May 2013

The Effect Of Pellet Geometry On The Specific Activity Of Ni-63, Spenser Riley Walsh

Masters Theses

63Ni [Nickel-63] is routinely produced at HFIR with a specific activity of ~15 Ci/g [Curies/gram] by irradiating highly enriched stable 62Ni [Nickel-62] (86.31 %) for 2 years. Impurities in the original material are also activated and must also be accounted for, as well as removed through anion and cation exchange columns. The main goal is to investigate if a greater specific activity can be achieved by reducing target thickness axially (i.e. neutron depletion), thus reducing neutron interaction within the target interior. Because of rather high neutron capture cross-section of 62Ni (σth [cross-section] = 14 ...


Semi-Implicit Direct Kinetics Methodology For Deterministic, Time-Dependent, Three-Dimensional, And Fine-Energy Neutron Transport Solutions, James Ernest Banfield May 2013

Semi-Implicit Direct Kinetics Methodology For Deterministic, Time-Dependent, Three-Dimensional, And Fine-Energy Neutron Transport Solutions, James Ernest Banfield

Doctoral Dissertations

Using a semi-implicit direct kinetics (SIDK) method that is developed in this dissertation, a finer neutron energy discretization and improved fidelity for transient radiation transport calculations are facilitated to reduce uncertainties and conservatisms in transient power and temperature predictions. These capabilities are implemented within a parallel computational solver framework, which is able to represent an arbitrary number of neutron energy groups, angles, and spatial discretizations, while internally coupled to an unstructured finite element multi-physics code for temperature and displacement calculations. This capability is demonstrated on a three-dimensional control rod ejection simulation run in parallel utilizing forty-four neutron energy groups.

An ...


Simulations Of Ti-Y-O Nanoclusters In Ferritic Alloys, Natalie Browning Camilli May 2013

Simulations Of Ti-Y-O Nanoclusters In Ferritic Alloys, Natalie Browning Camilli

Masters Theses

Nanostructured ferritic alloys possess high strength and resistance to radiation effects due to the presence of nanoprecipitates. Though nanostructured ferritic alloys have desirable mechanical properties, the exact composition and structure of the nanoprecipitates is unknown; thus, atomistic simulations involving the formation of nanoclusters give insight as to their structure. This thesis focuses on the structure, formation and radiation stability of Ti-Y-O [titanium-yttrium-oxygen] nanoclusters in iron. The activation energies for diffusion and the diffusion coefficients of oxygen interstitial atoms in iron are determined. The binding energies of various combinations of oxygen interstitial atoms and iron vacancies are also tabulated. Thermodynamic formation ...


Energy, U.S. Department Of, Bert Chapman May 2013

Energy, U.S. Department Of, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Provides information about the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies and how DOE influences federal energy policy and scientific research in the western U.S.


Sensitivity And Uncertainty Analysis Of A Fixed Source Criticality Accident Alarm System Benchmark Experiment, Kevin Howard Reynolds May 2013

Sensitivity And Uncertainty Analysis Of A Fixed Source Criticality Accident Alarm System Benchmark Experiment, Kevin Howard Reynolds

Doctoral Dissertations

The Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) funded the development of a criticality accident alarm system (CAAS) benchmark to be published by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (handbook). While there are shielding related benchmark evaluations published in the handbook, the effort in this dissertation concerns a first of its kind experiment that has been conceived from the ground up as a pulsed critical fixed source benchmark.

The experiment was designed in conjunction with the French government and conducted at their SILENE reactor facility at ...


Enrichment Determination Of Uranium Metal In Shielded Configurations Without Calibration Standards, Jason Michael Crye May 2013

Enrichment Determination Of Uranium Metal In Shielded Configurations Without Calibration Standards, Jason Michael Crye

Doctoral Dissertations

The determination of the enrichment of uranium is required in many safeguards and security applications. Typical methods to determine the enrichment rely on detecting the 186 keV gamma ray emitted by uranium-235. In some applications the uranium is surrounded by external shields, and removal of the shields is undesirable. In these situations, methods relying on the detection of 186 keV gamma rays fail because these gamma rays are shielded easily.

This research presents a novel method to estimate the enrichment of uranium metal when heavily shielded by high-Z materials. The method uses fast neutron tomography to estimate the geometry ...


Wireless Transmission Network : A Imagine, Radhey Shyam Meena Engineer, Neeraj Kumar Garg Asst.Prof Apr 2013

Wireless Transmission Network : A Imagine, Radhey Shyam Meena Engineer, Neeraj Kumar Garg Asst.Prof

Radhey Shyam Meena

World cannot be imagined without electrical power. Generally the power is transmitted through transmission networks. This paper describes an original idea to eradicate the hazardous usage of electrical wires which involve lot of confusion in particularly organizing them. Imagine a future in which wireless power transfer is feasible: cell phones, household robots, mp3 players, laptop computers and other portable electronic devices capable of charging themselves without ever being plugged in freeing us from that final ubiquitous power wire. This paper includes the techniques of transmitting power without using wires with an efficiency of about 95% with non-radioactivemethods. In this paper ...


Mehanical Characterization Of Ion-Iradiated Silicon Carbide By Nanoindentation, Alex Hackett, Kurt Johanns, Haizhou Xue, Yanwen Zhang, Erik Herbert, George Pharr Mar 2013

Mehanical Characterization Of Ion-Iradiated Silicon Carbide By Nanoindentation, Alex Hackett, Kurt Johanns, Haizhou Xue, Yanwen Zhang, Erik Herbert, George Pharr

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Tests are done on various types of silicon carbide in order to analyze mechanical properties and radiation resistance.


In-Situ Condition Monitoring Of Components In Small Modular Reactors Using Process And Electrical Signature Analysis, Victor Lollar Mar 2013

In-Situ Condition Monitoring Of Components In Small Modular Reactors Using Process And Electrical Signature Analysis, Victor Lollar

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Components in small modular reactors (SMRs) are located in a hazardous environment and must be monitored remotely. Electrical signature analysis (ESA) is a viable option for component monitoring as it can be implemented on-line away from the actual equipment. This research attempts to use both electrical signatures from a pump motor and process variables such as flow and pressure to effectively monitor reactor components. An experimental flow loop with pump health monitoring equipment and a data acquisition system was used for experiments. Process variables analyzed include pressure, flow rate, water level, and motor vibrations. The electrical signatures monitored were the ...


Battery Energy Storage System In Solar Power Generation, Radhey Shyam Meena Er., Deepa Sharma Mar 2013

Battery Energy Storage System In Solar Power Generation, Radhey Shyam Meena Er., Deepa Sharma

Radhey Shyam Meena

Grid-connected solar PV dramatically changes the load profile of an electric utility customer. The expected widespread adoption of solar generation by customers on the distribution system poses significant challenges to system operators both in transient and steady state operation, from issues including voltage swings, sudden weather-induced changes in generation, and legacy protective devices designed with one-way power flow in mind