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The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

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Full-Text Articles in Nuclear Engineering

Incorporating Collisions And Resistance Into The Transition From Field Emission To The Space Charge Regime, Samuel D. Dynako, Adam M. Darr, Allen L. Garner Aug 2018

Incorporating Collisions And Resistance Into The Transition From Field Emission To The Space Charge Regime, Samuel D. Dynako, Adam M. Darr, Allen L. Garner

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Advancements in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microplasmas, particularly with respect to applications in combustion and biotechnology, motivate studies into microscale gas breakdown to enable safe system design and implementation. Breakdown at microscale deviates from that predicted by Paschen’s law due to field emission—the stripping of electrons from the cathode in the presence of strong surface field—and follows the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) law. As injected current increases at this length scale, electrons accumulate in the gap and FN electron emission becomes space charge limited, leading to the Child-Langmuir (CL) law at vacuum and the Mott-Gurney (MG) law at high ...


A Security Approach For The Example Sodium Fast Reactor, Christian X. Young, Robert S. Bean Aug 2018

A Security Approach For The Example Sodium Fast Reactor, Christian X. Young, Robert S. Bean

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Increases in the spread of nuclear technology and the rise of non-state terrorism in the modern era has proved the need for effective security approaches to new nuclear facilities. Many documents about security approaches for nuclear plants are non-public material, however, making it difficult to teach others about the basics of security design. To alleviate this issue, we used available texts in the security realm to design a security approach for the Generation IV International Forum’s Example Sodium Fast Reactor. Our approach utilized infrared, microwave, fiber optic, and other advanced technologies to provide security for the special nuclear material ...


Development Of An Unmanned Aerial System For Radiation Mapping In Nuclear Facilities, Jackson Ball, Guangying Jiang, Robert Bean Aug 2017

Development Of An Unmanned Aerial System For Radiation Mapping In Nuclear Facilities, Jackson Ball, Guangying Jiang, Robert Bean

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Efficiently planning a decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operation at a nuclear facility requires detailed information on the conditions present. In the wake of a disaster, or just years of abandonment, a facility’s layout may have dramatically changed, making previous facility drawings unreliable, and radioactive particles may have been spread over the site, contaminating equipment and structures. Rather than tasking workers with mapping and characterizing the contamination, which can take days or weeks and poses a health and safety risk to the workers, mapping the site and locating contamination can be done remotely by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV ...


Investigating Tantalum As A Plasma-Facing Component For Nuclear Fusion Reactors, Arvind Sundaram, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Theodore J. Novakowski, Ahmed Hassanein Ph. D. Aug 2017

Investigating Tantalum As A Plasma-Facing Component For Nuclear Fusion Reactors, Arvind Sundaram, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Theodore J. Novakowski, Ahmed Hassanein Ph. D.

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Nuclear fusion is a potential source for producing unlimited environment-friendly energy. Tungsten (W) is selected as the primary candidate material for plasma facing component in nuclear fusion reactors due to its high melting temperature (3695 K), low sputtering erosion yield and strong mechanical properties. However, recent investigations on W have confirmed that it undergoes severe surface morphology changes during low energy He plasma and/or ion irradiation similar to a harsh fusion environment. Additionally, our previous studies indicate that tantalum (Ta) may show better resistance to the harsh radiation environment and is therefore worthy of investigation. Hydrogen retention properties, specifically ...


Irradiation-Induced Nanocluster Evolution, Didier Ishimwe, Matthew J. Swenson, Janelle P. Wharry Aug 2017

Irradiation-Induced Nanocluster Evolution, Didier Ishimwe, Matthew J. Swenson, Janelle P. Wharry

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) and commercial ferritic-martensitic (F-M) alloys are widely accepted candidate structural materials for designing advanced nuclear reactors. Nanoclusters embedded in the steel matrix are key microstructural features of both alloy types. Irradiation from nuclear fusion and fission affects the morphology of these nanoparticles, altering the performance of the alloys and potentially decreasing their usable lifetime. Thus, it is important to understand the effect of irradiation on these nanoparticles in order to predict long-term nuclear reactor performance. It was found that the evolution of nanoclusters in each material is different depending on the experimental irradiation parameters. The ...


Comparison Of Pm-Hip To Cast Alloy 625 For Nuclear Applications, Alexander L. Bullens, Keyou Mao, Janelle P. Wharry, Esteban Bautista Aug 2017

Comparison Of Pm-Hip To Cast Alloy 625 For Nuclear Applications, Alexander L. Bullens, Keyou Mao, Janelle P. Wharry, Esteban Bautista

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

PM-HIP, or Powder Metallurgy and Hot Isostatic Pressing, metals have been a low cost alternative to forged and cast structural metals within various industries. The nuclear industry has recently developed interest in PM-HIP alloys, but further research needs to be done to quantify their mechanical properties and characterize the microstructure. Specifically, we must understand the mechanical and microstructural evolution of PM-HIP materials after long-term operation at the elevated temperatures that PM-HIP components will experience in service. We focus on Ni-base alloy Inconel 625, and compare the PM-HIP version to the cast version. Our methodology consists of annealing samples to various ...


Numerical Simulations Of Transcritical Natural Convection, Ruiwen Wei, Carlo Scalo, Mario Tindaro Migliorino, Kukjin Kim, Jean-Pierre Hickey Aug 2017

Numerical Simulations Of Transcritical Natural Convection, Ruiwen Wei, Carlo Scalo, Mario Tindaro Migliorino, Kukjin Kim, Jean-Pierre Hickey

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In modern engineering applications, system overheating is a key issue that needs to be solved with efficient and reliable cooling technologies. Among the possible mechanisms that these are based on, natural convection cooling is one of the most frequently employed, with applications ranging from cooling of computer micro-components to large nuclear reactors. While many studies have been performed on natural convection employing supercritical or subcritical fluids, little attention has been given to fluids in their transcritical regime. The latter has the potential to yield high performances while avoiding detrimental effects of two-phase systems (e.g. cavitation). In the present study ...


Temporal Resolution Of Cell Death Signaling Events Induced By Cold Atmospheric Plasma And Electroporation In Human Cancer Cells, Danielle M. Krug, Prasoon K. Diwakar, Ahmed Hassanein Aug 2017

Temporal Resolution Of Cell Death Signaling Events Induced By Cold Atmospheric Plasma And Electroporation In Human Cancer Cells, Danielle M. Krug, Prasoon K. Diwakar, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Cancer treatment resistance and their invasive and expensive nature is propelling research towards developing alternate approaches to eradicate cancer in patients. Non-thermal, i.e., cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and electroporation (EP) applied to the surface of cancerous tissue are new methods that are minimally invasive, safe, and selective. These approaches, both independently and synergistically, have been shown to deplete cancer cell populations, but the signaling mechanisms of death and their timelines of action are still widely unknown. To better understand the timeframe of signaling events occurring upon treatment, human cancer cell lines were treated with CAP, EP, and combined CAP ...


Verification Of Tfit Code Numerical Method For Flow Excursion Simulation, Patrick S. Foster, Subash Sharma, Martin L. Bertodano Aug 2017

Verification Of Tfit Code Numerical Method For Flow Excursion Simulation, Patrick S. Foster, Subash Sharma, Martin L. Bertodano

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

This research is aimed towards accurately modeling and predicting the onset of the two-phase flow excursion instability using the code TFIT (Two Fluid Interfacial Temperature). In order to do this we first had to show that the numerical diffusion of the code’s finite difference equations could be reduced to an insignificant level by decreasing the mesh size.

Understanding and being able to accurately model flow excursion can help us understand how to prevent the potential negative effects of this instability. We are using a two-fluid model with physics-based closure relations. The results will be validated against the experimental data ...


Radiation Tailored Polymers For Detectors, Adhesive-Coatings And Other Industrial Uses, Anna M. Earley, Alex Bakken, Rusi P. Taleyarkhan Aug 2016

Radiation Tailored Polymers For Detectors, Adhesive-Coatings And Other Industrial Uses, Anna M. Earley, Alex Bakken, Rusi P. Taleyarkhan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The ever growing importance of humans to depend on renewable resources has shifted the focus of consumers, producers, and even politicians to more sustainable answers. Furthermore, pressure on the oil and natural gas industry has elevated the status of biopolymers in this regard. Polylactic acid (PLA) is unique polymer that offers unique abilities for tailored property derivation; thereby, enabling one to replace many engineered polymers and provide a sustainable solution as a nontoxic renewable resource. As a bioplastic, the tailoring of PLA under various conditions is important to the application and integration into current industry uses. After irradiating high molecular ...


Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas For Food Applications, Michael V. Lauria, Russell S. Brayfield Ii, Ronald G. Johnson, Allen L. Garner Aug 2016

Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas For Food Applications, Michael V. Lauria, Russell S. Brayfield Ii, Ronald G. Johnson, Allen L. Garner

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Successfully distributing shelf food requires treatment to eliminate microorganisms. Current chemical methods, such as chlorine wash, can alter food quality while only being effective for a limited time. Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPs) can eradicate the microorganisms responsible for food spoilage and foodborne illness. Optimizing CAP treatments requires understanding the reactive species generated and relating them to eradication efficiency. Recent studies have used optical emission spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species generated in a sealed package that would hold food. In this study,we supplement the OES results with optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS) using the same gases (helium, nitrogen, compressed ...


Modeling Of Ion/Target Interactions In Plasma Facing Components Of Fusion Reactor, Nicole Neto Godry Farias, Tatyana Sizyuk, Ahmed Hassanein Aug 2016

Modeling Of Ion/Target Interactions In Plasma Facing Components Of Fusion Reactor, Nicole Neto Godry Farias, Tatyana Sizyuk, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Nuclear fusion is a promising source of clean energy that can be one of the key future suppliers of the world’s increasing power demand. One of today’s main challenges faced by scientists and engineers regarding nuclear reactors is to design plasma-facing components (PFCs) that can withstand extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, and ions/particles irradiation. Material evolution and damage of PFCs are strongly related to the bombardment and diffusion processes of ions resulting from fusion fuel, i.e., deuterium and tritium and reaction products, i.e., helium. However, work is still needed in order to understand fuel diffusion ...


Computer Modeling Of Graphene Field Effect Transistors, Drew M. Ryan, Robert S. Bean Aug 2016

Computer Modeling Of Graphene Field Effect Transistors, Drew M. Ryan, Robert S. Bean

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Graphene has been the centerpiece of numerous research projects since its discovery in 2004, greatly due to its multitude of unique properties. Its variable conductivity, relative strength, and electron mobility make graphene a prime candidate for applications in the field of radiation detection. While work has been performed in the past on testing radiation detection using graphene using Graphene Field Effect Transistors (GFET), due to its limited size, fabricating GFETs can be tedious and costly. Therefore, a need arose for a way to test potential GFET designs without the cost and limitations of fabricating GFETs for each test iteration. Using ...


Tfit Modeling Of Wave Propagation For Flow Excursion, Brachston Grubbs, Krishna Chetty, Martin Bertodano Aug 2016

Tfit Modeling Of Wave Propagation For Flow Excursion, Brachston Grubbs, Krishna Chetty, Martin Bertodano

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In the nuclear power industry, the Two-Fluid Model (TFM) is mainly used in the simulation of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The Two-Fluid Model is a wave mechanics formulation that may also be used to analytically perform stability analysis, which requires numerous assumptions and simplifications. This project aimed to advance the TFIT-TFM simulations in the modeling of the flow excursion instability. By using the TFIT computational code, simulation results can be obtained without the need for assumptions and simplifications. In this project, a simulation was performed to verify the nonlinear wave propagation capability of TFIT. During the verification process, the ...


Temperature Dependent Surface Modification Of Tungsten Exposed To High-Flux Low-Energy Helium Ion Irradiation, Antony Q. Damico, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Theodore J. Novakowski, Gennady Miloshevsky, Ahmed Hassanein Aug 2016

Temperature Dependent Surface Modification Of Tungsten Exposed To High-Flux Low-Energy Helium Ion Irradiation, Antony Q. Damico, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Theodore J. Novakowski, Gennady Miloshevsky, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Nuclear fusion is a great potential energy source that can provide a relatively safe and clean limitless supply of energy using hydrogen isotopes as fuel material. ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor) is the world first fusion reactor currently being built in France. Tungsten (W) is a prime candidate material as plasma facing component (PFC) due to its excellent mechanical properties, high melting point, and low erosion rate. However, W undergoes a severe surface morphology change when exposed to helium ion (He+) bombardment under fusion conditions. It forms nanoscopic fiber-form structures, i.e., fuzz on the surface. Fuzz is brittle and ...


Fluence Dependent Surface Modification On Tungsten Coatings Using Low Energy Helium Ion Irradiation At Elevated Temperatures, Cheng Ji, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Theodore J. Novakowski, Valeryi Sizyuk, Ahmed Hassanein Aug 2016

Fluence Dependent Surface Modification On Tungsten Coatings Using Low Energy Helium Ion Irradiation At Elevated Temperatures, Cheng Ji, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Theodore J. Novakowski, Valeryi Sizyuk, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Nuclear fusion is the most promising renewable energy source for the near future. It can provide a large amount of energy using a very small amount of fuel, as compared with that of the coal, oil, or nuclear fission. The chain reaction in nuclear fusion produces the energy and fuel, from hydrogen isotopes available in see water. Tungsten (W) is a leading candidate material for the plasma-facing component (PFC) in nuclear fusion reactors such as ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor), because of its high melting point, high yield strength, low erosion and low hydrogen isotope retention. Recent studies showed deeply ...


Effect Of Carbon Impurity On Molybdenum Nanostructure Evolution Under Helium Ion Irradiation In Extreme Conditions, Nikhil A. Bharadwaj, Jitendra Tripathi, Ahmed Hassanein, Sean Gonderman Aug 2015

Effect Of Carbon Impurity On Molybdenum Nanostructure Evolution Under Helium Ion Irradiation In Extreme Conditions, Nikhil A. Bharadwaj, Jitendra Tripathi, Ahmed Hassanein, Sean Gonderman

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The performance of plasma facing components (PFC) is of great important for the realization of prototype nuclear fusion. Tungsten has been considered as the leading high-Z PFC material for these reactors and tokamaks due to its superior thermophysical properties, high melting point, low sputtering yield, and low tritium inventory. However, its surface deteriorates significantly under helium ion irradiation in extreme (fusion) conditions and forms nanoscopic fiber like structures (fuzz) Recent studies show that the formation of fuzz nanostructure on tungsten can be suppressed by the presence of plasma impurities such as carbon and beryllium. In the present study, the effects ...


Optical Emission Spectroscopy Diagnostics Of Cold Plasmas For Food Sterilization, Abhijit Jassem, Michael Lauria, Russell Brayfield Ii, Kevin M. Keener, Allen L. Garner Aug 2015

Optical Emission Spectroscopy Diagnostics Of Cold Plasmas For Food Sterilization, Abhijit Jassem, Michael Lauria, Russell Brayfield Ii, Kevin M. Keener, Allen L. Garner

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

There is a growing need for economical, effective, and safe methods of sterilizing fresh produce. The most common method is a chlorine wash, which is expensive and may introduce carcinogens. High voltage cold atmospheric pressure plasmas are a promising solution that has demonstrated a germicidal effect; however, the responsible chemical mechanisms and reaction pathways are not fully understood. To elucidate this chemistry, we used optical emission spectroscopy to measure the species produced in the plasma generated by a 60 Hz pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in a plastic box containing various fill gases (He, N2, CO2, dry air, or ...


Effect Of Helium Ions Energy On Molybdenum Surfaces Under Extreme Conditions, Joseph Fiala, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Sean Gonderman, Ahmed Hassanein Aug 2015

Effect Of Helium Ions Energy On Molybdenum Surfaces Under Extreme Conditions, Joseph Fiala, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Sean Gonderman, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Plasma facing components (PFCs) in fusion devices must be able to withstand high temperatures and erosion due to incident energetic ion radiations. Tungsten has become the material of choice for PFCs due to its high strength, thermal conductivity, and low erosion rate. However, its surface deteriorates significantly under helium ion irradiation in fusion-like conditions and forms nanoscopic fiber-like structures, or fuzz. Fuzz is brittle in nature and has relatively lower thermal conductivity than that of the bulk material. Small amounts of fuzz may lead to excessive contamination of the plasma, preventing the fusion reaction from taking place. Despite recent efforts ...


Temperature Dependence Of Electrical Performance Of Tritium Sourced Betavoltaic Cells, Darrell S. Cheu, Tom Adams, Shripad Revankar Aug 2015

Temperature Dependence Of Electrical Performance Of Tritium Sourced Betavoltaic Cells, Darrell S. Cheu, Tom Adams, Shripad Revankar

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

There is an increasing need for devices that can be powered for extended periods of time where it is impossible for maintenance or replacement, such as pacemakers, long term space flight or undisturbed sensors for military use. Since 1971, most devices run off a Lithium-Iodide battery, which gives a high amount of power but could only last approximately 2 to 5 years, requiring frequent replacement. However, replacement is unnecessary for betavoltaic cells as they can last at least 20 years. Commercially available tritium betavoltaic cells provided by City Labs Inc. were tested at a temperature range of -50°C to ...


Cold Atmospheric Plasma: An Inside Look Through Optical Diagnostics For Biomedical Applications, Liesl Krause, Ahmed Hassanein, Prasoon Diwakar Aug 2015

Cold Atmospheric Plasma: An Inside Look Through Optical Diagnostics For Biomedical Applications, Liesl Krause, Ahmed Hassanein, Prasoon Diwakar

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

An emerging technology for medical applications is cold atmospheric plasma (CAP). CAP is generated using various gasses in a “pen” to create room temperature plasma and then carry the effluents and species. Success has been shown when cold atmospheric plasma is applied to oncology treatments, accelerated wound healing, pathogen disinfection, and various material-changing effects. However, the mechanisms behind these effects are still speculative. This study uses multiple diagnostic techniques including fast photography, two wavelength emission spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy to characterize the plasma properties and eventually further test the plasma’s interaction with biological samples. The plume dynamics are ...


Graphene Field Effect Transistor For Radiation Detection On A Micron To Millimeter Scale, Peter C. Lamm, Robert Speer Bean, Zachary Shollar Aug 2015

Graphene Field Effect Transistor For Radiation Detection On A Micron To Millimeter Scale, Peter C. Lamm, Robert Speer Bean, Zachary Shollar

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Novel technology in radiation detection is critical to advancing radiation detectors for their many applications. Graphene has shown to be able to change its conductivity in the presence of an electric field; this makes it an excellent candidate to be used as a radiation detector for the detection of the charges generated during radiation interactions. Research has been done on making micron scale graphene field effect transistors (GFET) with graphene on a Si/SiO2 wafer, but it is critical that we try to increase the scale. Unknowns persist in scaling graphene to millimeter sizes. This study plans to elucidate ...


Exploring The Effect Of Sample Properties On Spark-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Michael J. Marino, Payson Dieffenbach, Liesl A. Krause, Prasoon Diwakar, Ahmed Hassanein Aug 2015

Exploring The Effect Of Sample Properties On Spark-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Michael J. Marino, Payson Dieffenbach, Liesl A. Krause, Prasoon Diwakar, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Optical emission spectroscopy techniques such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS) provide portable and robust methods for elemental detection in real-time. Laser-produced emissions are then used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of a sample material with applications in explosives detection. For both techniques, the main obstacles have always been signal intensity, accuracy, and sensitivity of detection. The main advantage of the SIBS method is more safe operation, while still maintaining the portability of the technique. In this study, detailed characterization of spark induced plasma, analyte emission intensity, plasma temperature, electron density, and plasma persistence has been ...


Quantum Modeling Of Thermodynamic Properties Of Warm Dense Aluminum, Nicholas Termini, Gennady Miloshesky, Ahmed Hassanein Aug 2015

Quantum Modeling Of Thermodynamic Properties Of Warm Dense Aluminum, Nicholas Termini, Gennady Miloshesky, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Warm dense matter is attracting a lot of attention in the scientific community, due to its formation during intense laser-matter interaction and inertial confinement fusion. However, there is no accurate solution to mapping out the thermodynamic properties of warm dense matter. Experimental data are also incredibly scarce making computational models an incredibly useful tool. This paper provides equation of state (EOS) data for aluminum at specific densities within the warm dense matter regime. The EOS data were calculated using quantum molecular dynamics, which was performed by the computational package QuatumEspresso. EOS were determined by collecting and recording pressure after achieving ...


Energy Deposition In A Graphene Field Effect Transistor Based Radiation Detector, Nickolas Upole, Robert Bean, Allen Garner Aug 2014

Energy Deposition In A Graphene Field Effect Transistor Based Radiation Detector, Nickolas Upole, Robert Bean, Allen Garner

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The development of high-performance radiation detectors is essential for commercial, scientific, and security applications [1]. Due to the unique electronic properties of graphene (high-speed, low-noise), recent radiation detectors utilize graphene field effect transistors to sense charge carriers produced by radiation interactions in a gated semiconductor [2]. A study of the energy deposition due to the transport of gamma rays and electrons/positrons through typical elemental and compound semiconductors (Si, Ge, GaAs, and CdTe) will allow for a material optimization of these detectors. Geant4, a Monte Carlo based program that simulates the passage of particles through matter, was used to simulate ...


Investigation Of The Performance Of Different Types Of Zirconium Microstructures Under Extreme Irradiation Conditions, Eric M. Acosta, Osman J. El-Atwani Aug 2014

Investigation Of The Performance Of Different Types Of Zirconium Microstructures Under Extreme Irradiation Conditions, Eric M. Acosta, Osman J. El-Atwani

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The safe and continued operation of the US nuclear power plants requires improvement of the radiation resistant properties of materials used in nuclear reactors. Zirconium is a material of particular interest due to its use in fuel cladding. Studies performed on other materials have shown that grain boundaries can play a significant role on the radiation resistant properties of a material. Thus, the focus of our research is to investigate the performance of different zirconium microstructures under irradiation conditions similar to those in commercial nuclear reactors. Analysis of the surface morphology of zirconium both pre- and post-irradiation was conducted with ...


Doube-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Of Multi-Element Sample Containing Low- And High-Z Analytes, Patrick J. Skrodzki, Jason R. Becker, Prasoon K. Diwakar Ph. D., Sivanandan S. Harilal Ph. D., Ahmed Hassanein Ph. D. Aug 2014

Doube-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Of Multi-Element Sample Containing Low- And High-Z Analytes, Patrick J. Skrodzki, Jason R. Becker, Prasoon K. Diwakar Ph. D., Sivanandan S. Harilal Ph. D., Ahmed Hassanein Ph. D.

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a portable, remote, non-invasive analytical technique which effectively distinguishes neutral and ionic species for a range of low- to high-Z elements in a multi-element target. Subsequently, LIBS holds potential in special nuclear material (SNM) sensing and nuclear forensics requiring minimal sample preparation and detecting isotopic shifts which allows for differentiation in SNM (namely U) enrichment levels. Feasible applications include not only nonproliferation and homeland security but also nuclear fuel prospecting and industrial safeguard endorsement. Elements of higher mass with complex atomic structures, such as U, however, result in crowded emission spectra with LIBS, and characteristic ...


Optimizing Neutron Yield For Active Interrogation, Amanda M. Loveless, Allen L. Garner, Robert D. Bean, Nader Satvat Aug 2014

Optimizing Neutron Yield For Active Interrogation, Amanda M. Loveless, Allen L. Garner, Robert D. Bean, Nader Satvat

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Neutrons are commonly used for many applications, including active interrogation and cancer therapy. One critical aspect for active interrogation efficiency is neutron yield, which is more important for successful resolution than the energy spectrum. The typical approach for improving neutron yield entails producing more neutrons, which has motivated multiple studies using the interaction of increasingly more powerful tabletop lasers with plastic targets to generate protons or deuterons that are absorbed by another target to create neutrons [1]. Alternatively, one may use lenses to focus the neutrons to increase yield rather than simply generating more neutrons with more powerful lasers [2 ...


He+ Ion Irradiation On Tungsten Surface In Extreme Conditions, George I. Joseph, Jitendra Tripathi, Sivanandan S. Harilal, Ahmed Hassanein Aug 2014

He+ Ion Irradiation On Tungsten Surface In Extreme Conditions, George I. Joseph, Jitendra Tripathi, Sivanandan S. Harilal, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Higher melting point (3695K), lower sputtering yield and most importantly, lower in-bulk, and co-deposit retention at elevated temperature makes tungsten (W) as a potential candidate for plasma-facing component (PFC) in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-divertor. Helium ion (He+) bombardment on W can cause wide variety of microstructural evolution, such as dislocation loops, helium holes/bubbles and fibre-form nanostructures (Fuzz) etc. In this work, 100 eV He+ ion irradiation, at temperature ranges from 500°C to 1000°C, will be performed on mechanically polished mirror like W surfaces. The surface modification and compositional analysis, due to ion irradiation, will ...


Comparison Of Thermal And Γ-Photon Induced Degradation In Polylactic Acid For Potential As A Solid-State Radiation Detector, Nathan M. Boyle, Alex Bakken, Rusi P. Taleyarkhan Aug 2014

Comparison Of Thermal And Γ-Photon Induced Degradation In Polylactic Acid For Potential As A Solid-State Radiation Detector, Nathan M. Boyle, Alex Bakken, Rusi P. Taleyarkhan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Degradation of the biopolymer Polylactic Acid, both thermally and through irradiation will cause physical changes in the material. These changes can be used in applications such as adhesives and sealants or in medical applications, but the primary focus of this study is for use as a solid-state radiation detector. A literature review shows that current research has been focused on thermal and γ-photon degradation in PLA but the physical characteristics such as melting temperature, latent heat of fusion, and composition of molecular bonds have not been compared in the same study. This study focuses on how thermal properties of PLA ...