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Michigan Technological University

2018

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Articles 1 - 28 of 28

Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Multidimensional Optimal Droop Control For Dc Microgrids In Military Applications, Kaitlyn J. Bunker, Michael D. Cook, Wayne Weaver, Gordon Parker Oct 2018

Multidimensional Optimal Droop Control For Dc Microgrids In Military Applications, Kaitlyn J. Bunker, Michael D. Cook, Wayne Weaver, Gordon Parker

Michigan Tech Publications

Reliability is a key consideration when microgrid technology is implemented in military applications. Droop control provides a simple option without requiring communication between microgrid components, increasing the control system reliability. However, traditional droop control does not allow the microgrid to utilize much of the power available from a solar resource. This paper applies an optimal multidimensional droop control strategy for a solar resource connected in a microgrid at a military patrol base. Simulation and hardware-in-the-loop experiments of a sample microgrid show that much more power from the solar resource can be utilized, while maintaining the system’s bus voltage around ...


Method To Provide Meta-Stable Operation Of Dc Microgrid Comprising A Pulsed Load, David G. Wilson, Wayne Weaver, Rush D. Robinett Iii, Ronald Matthews, Steven F. Glover Oct 2018

Method To Provide Meta-Stable Operation Of Dc Microgrid Comprising A Pulsed Load, David G. Wilson, Wayne Weaver, Rush D. Robinett Iii, Ronald Matthews, Steven F. Glover

Michigan Tech Patents

A Hamiltonian surface shaping power flow control (HSSPFC) method is used to analyze the meta-stability and adjust pulsed power loads on a DC electric power distribution network. Pulsed power loads are nonlinear, time-variant systems that cause nonlinear limit-cycles. During the on periods of a pulsed load, the system can be in an unstable state and is damped back to stability during the off state of the load. Therefore, over the entire period of the pulse the system may only be assessed as meta-stable. As shown through simulation, HIL and hardware results, the HSSPFC method is more accurate than the other ...


Pyrolysis Of Fiber-Plastic Waste Blends, Shreyas Kolapkar Jan 2018

Pyrolysis Of Fiber-Plastic Waste Blends, Shreyas Kolapkar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The main objective of this work is to investigate fast pyrolysis of fiber and plastic feedstocks in order to understand the synergistic effect from their co-pyrolysis. In this on-going work, fiber, plastic and their blend are characterized and pyrolysis oil is produced from them in the fast batch pyrolysis reactor. Based on a heat transfer model it is shown that results of oil produced from batch reactor will be applicable to the continuous paddle reactor. From feedstock characterization, chlorine was observed particularly in the plastic feedstock. Thus, chlorine removal method using torrefaction and high shear mixing was implemented and was ...


Thermomagnetic Convective Cooling Of Hall Effect Thruster, Elizabeth M. Vanheusden Jan 2018

Thermomagnetic Convective Cooling Of Hall Effect Thruster, Elizabeth M. Vanheusden

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This work proposes and shows that thermomagnetic convection could be used in zero gravity to cool components of a Hall-effect thruster. A ferrofluid cavity was develop in the thermal and geometric model of a Hall-effect thruster. Simulations show that with an Ionic Liquid Ferrofluid after two minutes of thruster operations thermomagnetic convection occurs and in zero gravity will produce a larger velocity then natural convection that occurs in earth gravity. However, experiments did not result in heat transfer enhancement due to the limitation of the ferrofluid. Replacement of the Ferrotec EFH1 dispersant with dodecylbenzene did not result in Ionic Liquid ...


System Architecture Optimization Using Hidden Genes Genetic Algorithms With Applications In Space Trajectory Optimization, Shadi Ahmadi Darani Jan 2018

System Architecture Optimization Using Hidden Genes Genetic Algorithms With Applications In Space Trajectory Optimization, Shadi Ahmadi Darani

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

In this dissertation, the concept of hidden genes genetic algorithms is developed. In system architecture optimization problems, the topology of the solution is unknown and hence, the number of design variables is variable. Hidden genes genetic algorithms are genetic algorithm based methods that are developed to handle such problems by hiding some genes in the chromosomes. The genes in the hidden genes genetic algorithms evolve through selection, mutation, and crossover operations. To determine if a gene is hidden or not, binary tags are assigned to them. The value of the tags determine the status of the genes. Different mechanisms are ...


Analysis Of Injection Parameters Influencing Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (Gdici) Engine Operation In Ltc Using Naphtha, Devyani Patil Jan 2018

Analysis Of Injection Parameters Influencing Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (Gdici) Engine Operation In Ltc Using Naphtha, Devyani Patil

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

A multi-dimensional CFD study using MTU-KIVA-Geq-CHEMKIN code has been carried out for direct injection compression ignition engine combustion fueled with heavy naphtha, light naphtha, and PRF50 in low-temperature combustion (LTC) regime. At constant fueling, combustion characteristics are investigated as a function of injection timing and injection pressure. Further, operating limits of fuel confined by combustion efficiency, noise level (Maximum Pressure rise rate) and emissions at exhaust valve opening (EVO) are evaluated using parametric variation of initial gas temperature, exhaust gas recirculation fraction, boost pressure. Research conducted focuses on ability of fuel to get good combustion which is combustion efficiency >/= 90 ...


Experimental And Computational Investigation Of Dual Fuel Diesel- Natural Gas Rcci Combustion In A Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine, Mufaddel Dahodwala Jan 2018

Experimental And Computational Investigation Of Dual Fuel Diesel- Natural Gas Rcci Combustion In A Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine, Mufaddel Dahodwala

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Among the various alternative fuels, natural gas is considered as a leading candidate for heavy-duty applications due to its availability and applicability in conventional internal combustion diesel engines. Compared to their diesel counterparts natural gas fueled spark-ignited engines have a lower power density, reduced low-end torque capability, limited altitude performance, and ammonia emissions downstream of the three-way catalyst. The dual fuel diesel/natural gas engine does not suffer with the performance limitations of the spark-ignited concept due to the flexibility of switching between different fueling modes. Considerable research has already been conducted to understand the combustion behavior of dual fuel ...


Investigation On The Potential Of A Co2 Capture System, Downstream Of The Aftertreatment System For A Heavy-Duty Engine Application, Murchana Pathak Jan 2018

Investigation On The Potential Of A Co2 Capture System, Downstream Of The Aftertreatment System For A Heavy-Duty Engine Application, Murchana Pathak

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The transportation sector accounts for the second largest source of CO2 emissions after power generation. New Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations are focusing on improving energy through reduced fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This work investigates the potential of a CO2 capture system downstream of an aftertreatment system for a heavy-duty engine application. Amine absorption has been described as one of the most effective ways to capture CO2 from the exhaust for point sources. Therefore, using thermal-swing absorption process with potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as the absorbent liquid, a process was analyzed for ...


Agile–Stage Gate Management (Asgm): Npd Implementation Practices From Global Firms Developing Complex, Physical Products, John J. Salvato Jan 2018

Agile–Stage Gate Management (Asgm): Npd Implementation Practices From Global Firms Developing Complex, Physical Products, John J. Salvato

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Stage Gate Management (SGM) has been used successfully by global organizations to direct the New Product Development process (NPD) for years, recently a new variant of this venerable approach has emerged. Researchers and firms have begun to intersperse elements of Agile, as popularized for the development of software, to create an Agile – Stage Gate Management (ASGM) hybrid NPD framework. Agile practitioners believe in process waste reduction, an intense focus on customers, and the creation of nimble entrepreneurial project teams, which, for software products, has positively impacted development time to market, resource utilization, and market success, more generally, improved business outcomes ...


Capillary-Assisted Enhanced Condensation Heat Transfer For Low Surface Tension Liquids, Gnana Vishnu Durgam Jan 2018

Capillary-Assisted Enhanced Condensation Heat Transfer For Low Surface Tension Liquids, Gnana Vishnu Durgam

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Extensive research has been carried out over the course of the last few decades to induce dropwise condensation as it offers 5 - 7 times better heat transfer performance compared to filmwise condensation process. A number of methods such as low surface energy hydrophobic coatings, surface modification of hydrophobic surfaces to fabricate micro, nano and hierarchical structures, and the recent incorporation of jumping droplet phenomenon have provided effective means to further enhance the condensation heat transfer. However, existing methods to enhance condensation heat transfer rate fail in the case of low surface tension, highly wetting liquids such as hydrocarbons, cryogens, and ...


Kinesthetic Learning Experience Simulation Using An Online Intervention To Improve Hands-On Ability, David Leach Jan 2018

Kinesthetic Learning Experience Simulation Using An Online Intervention To Improve Hands-On Ability, David Leach

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Students enrolled in mechanical and manufacturing engineering programs employ differing levels of mechanical aptitude and practical hands-on ability. Many students lack practical experience tinkering with mechanical devices and mechanisms prior to entering their post-secondary years. Student attention spans in traditional classroom environments appear to be decreasing with the ever-increasing addiction to immediate gratification provided by electronic devices, gaming software, and social media platforms. The question is then raised whether or not modern engineering students have the ability to improve mechanical aptitude by simulating a kinesthetic or tactile learning experience through an online tutorial. This project describes the development and testing ...


Commercialization Of The Carbon Nanotube Thermophone For Active Noise Control Applications, Steven A. Senczyszyn Jan 2018

Commercialization Of The Carbon Nanotube Thermophone For Active Noise Control Applications, Steven A. Senczyszyn

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The rate of commercialization for technology developed in junction with academic institutions has risen dramatically over the past 30 years. Since the introduction of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980, the amount of intellectual property owned by academic institutions has increased exponentially, and with that, there has also been an increase in the number of university spinouts generated. However, the increase of spinouts does not match the rate of increase in intellectual property. The National Science Foundation has created the Innovation Corps (I-Corps) program to help bridge this gap and provide academic professionals and students the tools necessary to commercialize technology ...


Optimization And Control Of An Array Of Wave Energy Converters, Jianyang Lyu Jan 2018

Optimization And Control Of An Array Of Wave Energy Converters, Jianyang Lyu

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This study explored optimal configuration of both the array layout and the dimension of each WEC in the array. The array contains heaving buoys with full interaction and exact hydrodynamics. Optimization of dimension was done on each WEC in the array with a given optimal layout, and a higher q-factor was achieved. Both impedance matching optimal control and derivative control were employed, which provides both theoretical maximum energy and a more realistic case. Then the work was expanded to optimization of both the array layout and the dimension of each WEC in the array. An average of 39.21% higher ...


Spray And Combustion Studies Of High Reactivity Gasoline In Comparison To Diesel Under Advanced Compression Ignition Engine Conditions, Meng Tang Jan 2018

Spray And Combustion Studies Of High Reactivity Gasoline In Comparison To Diesel Under Advanced Compression Ignition Engine Conditions, Meng Tang

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) technology has demonstrated great potentials in improving fuel economy and reducing engine-out NOx and particulate matter emissions. Development and application of the GCI technology on multi-cylinder engines require both fundamental understandings of the gasoline spray combustion characteristics and accurate numerical tools. Due to the large differences in the thermo-physical and the chemical properties between gasoline and diesel range fuels, differences in the spray combustion characteristics between gasoline and diesel is expected. Reports on the gasoline spray combustion characteristics under conditions relevant to medium to heavy-duty engines are scarce and this dissertation aims to fill in ...


Experimental And Modeling Study Of Particulate Matter Oxidation Under Loading Conditions For A Scr Catalyst On A Diesel Particulate Filter, Abhishek Jadav Jan 2018

Experimental And Modeling Study Of Particulate Matter Oxidation Under Loading Conditions For A Scr Catalyst On A Diesel Particulate Filter, Abhishek Jadav

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The heavy-duty diesel engines use a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Catalyzed Particulate Filter (CPF), a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with urea injection and a Ammonia Oxidation Catalyst (AMOX), to meet the US EPA 2010/2013 particulate matter (PM) and NOx emission standards. However, it is not possible to achieve the 2015 California low NOx standards with this arrangement. Hence, there is a need to improve the existing aftertreatment system. This can be achieved by coating the SCR catalyst on a diesel particulate filter (DPF), thus combining the PM filtration and NOx reduction functionality into a single ...


Physical Modeling Of Lithium-Ion Aging For Automotive Applications, Anurag Kamal Jan 2018

Physical Modeling Of Lithium-Ion Aging For Automotive Applications, Anurag Kamal

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This thesis extends the full-scale electrochemical model for a Lithium-ion battery based on the porous electrode theory to incorporate aging mechanisms of solid electrolyte interface formation, cyclic electrode degradation, and lithium plating during overcharge, automotive vibrations, mechanical stress, and cell temperature, as reported in the existing literature. Further, the thesis presents the scope of the parameters used in the model to enable designers to extend the equations for new mechanisms and variability of other parameters.

An increased set of equations makes the complexity of the model even higher, and it would be very computationally complex to simulate this model. This ...


A New Technique To Determine Accommodation Coefficients Of Cryogenic Propellants, Kishan Bellur Jan 2018

A New Technique To Determine Accommodation Coefficients Of Cryogenic Propellants, Kishan Bellur

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The control of propellant boil-off is essential in long-term space missions. However, a clear understanding of cryogenic propellant phase change and the values of accommodation coefficients are lacking. To that effect, a new method to determine accommodation coefficients using a combination of neutron imaging, thin film evaporation modeling and CFD modeling has been established. Phase change experiments were conducted in the BT-2 Neutron Imaging Facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) by introducing cryogenic vapor (H2 and CH4) at a set pressure into Al6061 and SS316L test cells placed inside a 70mm cryostat. Condensation is achieved by ...


Design Optimization And High Cycle Fatigue Analysis And Of A Differential Case, Praveen Bulusu Surya Naga Jan 2018

Design Optimization And High Cycle Fatigue Analysis And Of A Differential Case, Praveen Bulusu Surya Naga

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Lightweight Innovations for Tomorrow (LIFT) is a consortium with several industries, universities and research institutes. It is operated by the American Lightweight Materials Manufacturing Innovation Institute (ALMMII). One of their projects, melt 5a, is to develop high silicon ductile iron (DI) alloys with improved mechanical properties and thin walled DI castings. These alloys have high strength to weight ratio compared to that of standard ductile iron (7003). Using these alloys, components can be re-designed that are much lighter which results in improved fuel efficiency, and reduced manufacturing costs and emissions. I

In this project, a differential case is being re-designed ...


Analysis Of The Shock Response Spectrum And Resonant Plate Testing Methods, William Larsen Jan 2018

Analysis Of The Shock Response Spectrum And Resonant Plate Testing Methods, William Larsen

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Intricacies of the shock response spectrum were discovered and investigated by testing a circular plate structure with integral damping. Effects on the SRS from physical alterations to the nonlinear structure were monitored from low and high shock impulses. A method was developed and validated to estimate high amplitude shock inputs from low amplitude frequency response functions. Finite element models explored variable thickness plate designs.


Extending Maneuverability Of Internally Actuated Underwater Gliders, An Attempt To Develop An Open Platform For Research And Education, Saeedeh Ziaeefard Jan 2018

Extending Maneuverability Of Internally Actuated Underwater Gliders, An Attempt To Develop An Open Platform For Research And Education, Saeedeh Ziaeefard

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Increasing maneuverability of internally actuated Underwater Gliders (UGs) is inevitable due to high demands in underwater surveillance and reconnaissance missions where agility and stealthiness are the keys to success. High maneuverability is needed to provide the opportunity for optimal trajectory planning, planar motion smoothness, and re-planning adapting to the dynamic environments.

This work explores extending the maneuverability of underwater gliders through coupled improvement in mechanical design, efficient use of internal actuation, and motion planning strategy utilizing flight concatenation. The existence of five flight patterns ``advanced flight", inspired by air gliders, enabled solely by utilizing internal actuation are investigated: Circle, Oval ...


An Experimental And Computational Study Of Fuel Spray Interaction: Fundamentals And Engine Applications, Le Zhao Jan 2018

An Experimental And Computational Study Of Fuel Spray Interaction: Fundamentals And Engine Applications, Le Zhao

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

An efficient spray injection results in better vaporization and air-fuel mixing, leading to combustion stability and reduction of emissions in the internal combustion (IC) engines. The impingement of liquid fuels on chamber wall or piston surface in IC engines is a common phenomenon and fuel film formed in the spray-piston or cylinder wall impingement plays a critical role in engine performance and emissions. Therefore, the study of the spray impingement on the chamber wall or position surface is necessary.

To understand the spray-wall interaction, a single droplet impingement on a solid surface with different conditions was first examined. The droplet-wall ...


Meniscus Modeling And Emission Studies Of An Ionic Liquid Ferrofluid Electrospray Source Emitting From A Magneto-Electric Instability, Brandon Jackson Jan 2018

Meniscus Modeling And Emission Studies Of An Ionic Liquid Ferrofluid Electrospray Source Emitting From A Magneto-Electric Instability, Brandon Jackson

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This dissertation presents three studies on the electrospray of ionic liquid ferrofluid. Ionic liquid ferrofluids are electrically conductive super-paramagnetic fluids which respond strongly in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. When a small reservoir of ionic liquid ferrofluid is positioned within a magnetic field, magnetic stresses will deform the fluid interface into a peak. The addition of a strong electric field will further stress the fluid interface until a threshold stress is reached at which point the surface tension cannot contain the combined stresses and a spray of fluid or ions results at the apex. This process is termed ...


Modeling And Analysis For Driveline Jerk Control, Prince Lakhani Jan 2018

Modeling And Analysis For Driveline Jerk Control, Prince Lakhani

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

In modern-day automotive industry, automotive manufacturers pay keen attention to driver’s safety and comfort by ensuring good vehicle drivability, feel of acceleration, limiting jerk and noise. The vehicle driveline plays a critical role to meet these criteria. By using high-fidelity simulation tool such as AMESim®, it is now possible to accurately model the vehicle driveline to be tested for different scenarios. With Simulink®, one can develop an efficient torque-based control system to limit the driveline oscillations and the generated noise. So, a joint simulation is used which provides a platform to evaluate the estimators and control system while considering ...


Development Of Bosch Rate Of Injection Measurement Procedure And Results, Tyler Menucci Jan 2018

Development Of Bosch Rate Of Injection Measurement Procedure And Results, Tyler Menucci

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Recent developments in internal combustion engine technology have shown that gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion modes provide a viable pathway to meet future emission regulations. Lower octane middle distillate gasoline like fuels have also been formulated for GCI combustion applications and have shown similar benefits of improved fuel conversion efficiency and a reduction in particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions. As these gasoline like GCI fuels have not been well studied, characterization of their rate of injection (ROI) will be beneficial to supplement injector spray characterization measurements and the development of computational fluid dynamic simulations. A fuel collection method and ...


Control Oriented Modeling Of An Automotive Drivetrain For Anti-Jerk Control, Gurijala Venkat Prithvi Reddy Jan 2018

Control Oriented Modeling Of An Automotive Drivetrain For Anti-Jerk Control, Gurijala Venkat Prithvi Reddy

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Drivability is an important metric during the development of an automobile. Calibration engineers spend a significant amount of time trying to improve the drivability of vehicles for various driving conditions. With an increase in the available computational power in an automobile, novel model-based methods are being implemented for further improving the drivability, while reducing calibration time and effort. Phenomenon known as clunk and shuffle, which are caused due to backlash and compliance in the driveline, are a major cause of issues related to drivability and noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) during tip-in and tip-out scenarios.

This thesis focuses on developing ...


Modelling And Analysis Of Chevy Volt Gen Ii Hybrid Vehicle In Electric Mode, Kaushik Surresh Jan 2018

Modelling And Analysis Of Chevy Volt Gen Ii Hybrid Vehicle In Electric Mode, Kaushik Surresh

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The technical report discusses the high fidelity modelling of the powertrain of Chevy Volt Gen II Hybrid Vehicle in the Electric Mode. The overall objective of the powertrain model was to predict total energy consumed within 5% of experimental data for different drive cycles in Charge Depleting Mode. The following powertrain elements were modelled in Matlab and Simulink using parameters and performance maps provided by General Motors: battery, E-Motor, TPIM power electronics, transmission auxiliary pumps and spin losses.

An electric circuit based dynamic model of the Li-ion battery was developed. Static models of the E Motor, TPIM inverter, transmission auxiliary ...


Optimal Control Of Wave Energy Converters, Shangyan Zou Jan 2018

Optimal Control Of Wave Energy Converters, Shangyan Zou

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

In this dissertation, we address the optimal control of the Wave Energy Converters. The Wave Energy Converters introduced in this study can be categorized as the single body heaving device, the single body pitching device, the single body three degrees of freedoms device, and the Wave Energy Converters array. Different types of Wave Energy Converters are modeled mathematically, and different optimal controls are developed for them. The objective of the optimal controllers is to maximize the energy extraction with and without the motion and control constraints. The development of the unconstrained control is first introduced which includes the implementation of ...


Pressure Measurements Inside Multiple Cavities Of A Torque Converter And Cfd Correlation, Edward De Jesus Rivera Jan 2018

Pressure Measurements Inside Multiple Cavities Of A Torque Converter And Cfd Correlation, Edward De Jesus Rivera

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

A torque converter was instrumented with 29 pressure transducers. The pressure transducers were located in multiple cavities. The instrumented cavities included, four transducers mounted on the impeller shell, on the channel between blades. Six transducers mounted on the pressure and suction sides on the middle streamline of a turbine blade. Another seven transducers mounted on the pressure and suction sides of the core, middle and shell streamlines of a stator blade. Seven transducers mounted on the torque converter clutch cavity. Finally, five on the cavity between the pressure plate and the turbine shell. The torque converter was part of a ...