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Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

The Effects Of Chlorine Dioxide Gas On The Sensory Properties Of Whole Tomatoes, Christopher Gottilla Dec 2014

The Effects Of Chlorine Dioxide Gas On The Sensory Properties Of Whole Tomatoes, Christopher Gottilla

All Theses

This experiment sought to measure the changes in sensory quality that occur in tomatoes as the result of chlorine dioxide gas treatment. Tasti-Lee tomatoes (VFFF Hybrid #5755) were treated with two different levels of chlorine dioxide gas (10mg and 50mg of ClO2-forming material per kg of tomato) utilizing sachets. Testing compared the treated tomatoes and an untreated control group. These tests included flat-plate compression for firmness, sensory evaluation using a difference from control test, color analysis of the skin and flesh using a colorimeter, and enumeration of aerobic microbes and yeasts and molds. Flat-plate compression of whole tomatoes revealed no ...


Combining Modified Atmosphere Packaging And Nisin To Extend The Shelf Life Of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar), Dong Han Dec 2014

Combining Modified Atmosphere Packaging And Nisin To Extend The Shelf Life Of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar), Dong Han

All Theses

Atlantic salmon is often used in laboratory experiments to represent marine fishes. Many researchers try to optimize the levels and dosage of preservatives to maintain the freshness and extend the shelf-life of Atlantic salmon. Little information has been provided about the effectiveness of combined method between MAP and nisin, especially on the preservation of Atlantic salmon. Strong evidences suggest that MAP associated with nisin may have a potential to improve Atlantic salmon storage quality. Preservation effectiveness of combining modified atmosphere package (MAP) and nisin on fresh Atlantic salmon was determined using various methods. Six groups of farmed Atlantic salmon were ...


Relationship Between Peel Force, Opening Force, And Burst Force For A Semi-Rigid Cup And Lid, Pre- And Post-Retort, Raj Navalakha Dec 2014

Relationship Between Peel Force, Opening Force, And Burst Force For A Semi-Rigid Cup And Lid, Pre- And Post-Retort, Raj Navalakha

All Theses

This research determines if there is any relationship between the peel force, the opening force and the burst force for a semi-rigid cup and lid system, for pre- and post-retort conditions. It also compares the relationship (regression lines) between these forces pre- and post-retort. These seal results were studied by varying the sealing parameters of dwell time and temperature while keeping the pressure constant. Polypropylene cups and a peelable barrier retort lidding were used in this study. As compared to past research, a different peel testing technique was used to measure the peel and the opening force. The entire lid ...


Microanalysis Of Polymer Chain Diffusion In Heat Seals, Russell Cooper Dec 2014

Microanalysis Of Polymer Chain Diffusion In Heat Seals, Russell Cooper

All Theses

Heat sealing is an integral method for the closure and protection of packaging. Previous work has shown that seal strength is developed by the interdiffusion of polymer chains within heat seals. Heat seals were made between two dissimilar materials. Poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (EAA) was heat sealed to ionomer. Diffusion within the EAA-ionomer heat seals was estimated. The diffusion estimates were then related to resulting seal strength in the EAA-ionomer sealant system. Heated tooling sealing was utilized to make heat seals at 40 psi (275.79 kPa), 0.5 seconds, and a range of temperatures between 180˚F (82.22˚C ...


The Effect Of Decorative Foil Stamping On Consumer Attention, Julianne Holmes May 2014

The Effect Of Decorative Foil Stamping On Consumer Attention, Julianne Holmes

All Theses

Packaging plays a key role in communicating product benefits to consumers at the point of sale (Rundh, 2009). Oftentimes, designers use high visibility enhancements to help the package stand out among competitors. Although luxury products often use high-end graphic techniques to convey high quality product, many private label package designers are also using these enhancements to attract attention to their products. Foil stamping is a high visibility enhancement that can create a rich and elegant effect on a package. The process involves transferring a thin layer of foil onto a substrate by using pressure and heat. No quantitative research has ...


Effectiveness Of Display Trays On Attention And Purchase Of Consumer Products, Erin Snyder Aug 2013

Effectiveness Of Display Trays On Attention And Purchase Of Consumer Products, Erin Snyder

All Theses

Through the collection of qualitative and quantitative data, consumer perception and preference of display trays in the retail environment was examined and evaluated. Purchase decision and eye-tracking data was collected, as well as qualitative survey information, to determine if participants favored packages in a display tray opposed to packages placed directly on store shelving. This preference was measured in terms of time to first fixation, total fixation duration, fixation count as well as final purchasing decision. The experiment analyzed liquid dish soap and canned tomatoes, and was organized as a 2 (products per category) x 1 (display tray per category ...


Comparison Of Methods To Evaluate Chitosan As An Antimicrobial Against Listeria Spp. Cultures, Scott Hartley Aug 2013

Comparison Of Methods To Evaluate Chitosan As An Antimicrobial Against Listeria Spp. Cultures, Scott Hartley

All Theses

The antimicrobial properties of a chitosan-coated vacuum-packaged pouch were tested against Listeria monocytogenes (LM) inoculated on frankfurters. A 1.5% chitosan solution was successfully coated onto a corona-treated poly/nylon based film and then heat-sealed to form a pouch. An initial 5 log CFU/mL population of LM was used to inoculate a frankfurter in the pouch, which was then vacuum-sealed and stored at 4¡ and 13¡ C for a period of 8 weeks, with bacteria enumeration performed on weekly intervals. An uncoated pouch was tested as a control. It was found that the chitosan-coated pouches did not exhibit any ...


The Effect Of Applying Established Color Theory To Packaging When Visible Product And External Labels Exist Simultaneously, Rachel Randall May 2013

The Effect Of Applying Established Color Theory To Packaging When Visible Product And External Labels Exist Simultaneously, Rachel Randall

All Theses

Color is affected by what is around it. A color doesn't necessarily look the same when its placed against two different colored backgrounds (Ryan, William, and Theodore Conover, 2004) Oftentimes, designers are given a blank package and given the task of creating a label or package for the product. What is missing is the product, which can be an integral part of this design process. What is not yet to be determined by current packaging research is how colors work together through the product and package. One way to determine this would be through transparent bottled packages that contain ...


Measuring Arousal Through Physiological Responses To Packaging Designs: Investigating The Validity Of Electrodermal Activity As A Measure Of Arousal In A Realistic Shopping Environment, Daniel Hutcherson May 2013

Measuring Arousal Through Physiological Responses To Packaging Designs: Investigating The Validity Of Electrodermal Activity As A Measure Of Arousal In A Realistic Shopping Environment, Daniel Hutcherson

All Theses

The validity of electrodermal activity is investigated in the context of packaging design evaluation as a sensitive measure of arousal. Analysts agree that purchasing decisions are subconscious and emotional decisions, contrasted against the popular belief that consumers make purely rational decisions. To understand the personal and rapid character of a consumer's purchasing decisions we must find methods of which to measure and interpret consumer reactions to various packaging designs. Focus groups are discussed as antiquated research methods and new, advanced technologies are outlined as physiological responses. Past literature displays methodological approaches to using electrodermal activity measures in consumer studies ...


The Effect Of Packaging Material Properties On Consumer Food Quality Perception In Quick-Service Restaurants, Emily Thackston May 2013

The Effect Of Packaging Material Properties On Consumer Food Quality Perception In Quick-Service Restaurants, Emily Thackston

All Theses

The majority of menu items available in quick-service restaurants (QSR) are consumed directly from a container or package. The main reasons consumers choose to eat fast food are because it is convenient, prepared quickly, a good value, and inexpensive. Therefore, the packaging becomes an integral part of the food product and from a consumer perspective must be consistent with their expectations and motives for choosing to eat fast food. Prior research has directly linked characteristics of consumer food packaging experience to their perception of its contents. The purpose of this research is to determine if consumer quality perception of food ...


Product Display Versus Graphical Representation On Packaging, Joshua Galvarino Dec 2012

Product Display Versus Graphical Representation On Packaging, Joshua Galvarino

All Theses

ABSTRACT
Previous research conducted (Hurley, et al., 2012) concerning physical and graphical product visibility from the primary display panel (PDP) is limited to one product category. This research expands previous peer-reviewed research, which indicates that there is a significant difference between consumer preferences of graphical display vs. physical product display on packaging.
The shelf presence of packages showing actual product visibility versus packages showing only a graphical representation of the product was evaluated. Both shopping results and quantitative data using eye-tracking technology were collected and cross-referenced with a qualitative, post-experiment survey.
Specifically, variables of packaging within pasta, snacks, prepared frozen ...


Development And Characterization Of Shellac-Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose Composite Films With Acid Catalyst, Sana Asrar Aug 2012

Development And Characterization Of Shellac-Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose Composite Films With Acid Catalyst, Sana Asrar

All Theses

The objective of this research was to develop a shellac-hydroproyl methyl cellulose (Sh-HPMC) composite film with enhanced water vapor barrier. Citric acid (CA) was used as an acid catalyst, to promote miscibility between HPMC and shellac. In a preliminary test, three different concentrations of CA (1000:1, 200:1, 100:1) were tested to identify the best Sh:CA ratio. Based on the Water vapor permeability properties and mechanical properties, Sh-CA (1000:1 ratio) had the most enhanced water vapor barrier and the lowest reduction in tensile strength compared to the pure HPMC film (control). In the later part of ...


Relating Burst Pressure To Seal Peel Strength In Pouches, William Bernal Aug 2012

Relating Burst Pressure To Seal Peel Strength In Pouches, William Bernal

All Theses

This work was aimed at studying the relationship between burst pressure and seal peel strength. Past researchers developed a force balance equation based on the analysis of a force diagram to relate burst pressure to seal strength. The theoretical formula S=P(D/2) (S=Seal Strength, P=Burst Pressure, D=Restraining Plate Gap) has been studied by past researchers with contrasting results.
The theoretical formula was tested by varying dwell time to produce seals of varying strength. Pouches were burst tested at each of these dwell times to obtain burst pressures, burst peeling times, and burst locations. Corresponding peel ...


Determining The Proper Point Size For Display Type On Packaging, Joanna Fischer Aug 2012

Determining The Proper Point Size For Display Type On Packaging, Joanna Fischer

All Theses

Through the use of a preference test, the proper point size of display text on a package was evaluated in relation to a package's proportions. The test involved the examination of packaging images displaying the product or brand name in various point sizes by 150 participants who were then asked to choose the option they most preferred. The participants were then provided with a post-survey intended to gather additional information regarding potential preference motives.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the most preferred display type size of a package based on its relationship with the package ...


The Effect Of Food Ingredients On The Oxygen Barrier Properties Of Retort Materials, Amanda Ward Aug 2012

The Effect Of Food Ingredients On The Oxygen Barrier Properties Of Retort Materials, Amanda Ward

All Theses

An unexplored area in research is addressing how retorted food ingredients interact with retort packaging's oxygen barrier. Ten common food ingredients (whey protein isolate, soy protein isolate, bovine gelatin, fish gelatin, high molecular weight fish gelatin, water, air, oil, potato starch, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) were assessed to find their effect on the barrier properties of CPP, PET, and high barrier commercial retort pouches. OxySense Gen III 300 and Mocon OxTran 2/21 were used to evaluate the samples. CPP pouches were first assessed with the OxTran 2/21 and indicated that treatments affected the OTR's of the film ...


The Effect Of Full Body Versus Partial Body Graphic Labeling On Beverage Packaging, Toni Gomes May 2012

The Effect Of Full Body Versus Partial Body Graphic Labeling On Beverage Packaging, Toni Gomes

All Theses

Through the collection of quantitative and qualitative data, the shelf presence of
full body graphic labels versus partial body graphic labels on plastic beverage bottles was
examined and evaluated. Eye tracking was used to collect phenomenological data atop
the stimuli, while a shopping checklist was used to collect purchase preference. A postexperiment
survey was also conducted in order to gather qualitative data regarding
possible purchase influences.
The experiment was a 2 (label size) x 6 (beverage flavor) x 2 (age group) study,
conducted with 28 participants in a consumer retail environment using mobile eye
tracking technology. The goal of this ...


Statistical Analysis Of The Stress-Energy Methodology Applied To Cushion Curve Determination, Kendalyn Paulin May 2012

Statistical Analysis Of The Stress-Energy Methodology Applied To Cushion Curve Determination, Kendalyn Paulin

All Theses

The stress-energy method is a proposed enhancement to ASTM D1596 that reduces all drop height, thickness and static load combinations into a single equation that can be used to generate any reasonable cushion curve for a particular material. There remains a question as to how accurate the stress-energy method can predict acceleration values and whether it is statistically comparable to ASTM D1596. There are three phases to this research that attempt to determine the accuracy of the stress-energy method: gathering data using the stress-energy method and analyzing the goodness of fit of the stress-energy equation, predicting a cushion curve and ...


The Effects Of Solvent Mixture On The Thermal And Mechanical Properties Of Solvent Cast Poly-Lactic Acid (Pla) Film, Jeremy Hughes Dec 2011

The Effects Of Solvent Mixture On The Thermal And Mechanical Properties Of Solvent Cast Poly-Lactic Acid (Pla) Film, Jeremy Hughes

All Theses

CH 1 ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of various solvents on the crystallinity and thermal expansion stability of PLA film. Three different PLA films were produced by the solvent casting technique; PLA in chloroform (PLA-C), PLA in methylene chloride (PLA-M), and PLA in methylene chloride: acetonitrile = 50: 50 (PLA-MA). The PLA-MA had higher % crystallinity, 46.15, than the PLA-C, 24.03, and the PLA-M, 14.25. With this increase in crystallinity, the PLA-MA had improved thermal expansion stability as shown by very low accumulated dimensional changes at 20-100 ¡C. Wide angle x-ray diffraction identified ...


The Effect Of Barrier Properties Of Non-Foil Retort Films On Shelf Life Of Oxygen Sensitive Foods, Mahalaxmi Dharman Aug 2011

The Effect Of Barrier Properties Of Non-Foil Retort Films On Shelf Life Of Oxygen Sensitive Foods, Mahalaxmi Dharman

All Theses

A simulated food product sensitive to oxygen, which was a mixture of tomato paste, water, and corn oil (2:2:1), was filled into five different barrier coated pouches, a foil barrier and a low barrier pouch. These pouches were thermally processed at 250¡F for 30 minutes and stored in darkness under accelerated conditions (45±2¡C and 50±2%RH) for up to 180 days.
The simulant was analyzed for lipid oxidation by TBARS and lycopene degradation by colorimetry (L*,a*,b* values and Hue angle). The oxygen permeability (OP) in all the pouches increased by 5 to ...


Effect Of Different Oxygen Barrier Pouches On The Quality Of Retorted Carrots, Sarah Khor Aug 2011

Effect Of Different Oxygen Barrier Pouches On The Quality Of Retorted Carrots, Sarah Khor

All Theses

Thermally processed (TP) baby carrots were packaged in pouches with varying oxygen transmission rate (OTR) pouches. The pouches were four layer laminate (PET-Nylon-Barrier-CPP) with barrier layer being foil, aluminum oxide (AlOx), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), and nylon. Retort pouches were placed in boxes that were stored in an environmental chamber (43 °C, 50%RH). The objective of the study was to determine an alternative barrier retort pouch that is microwavable and still had similar barrier functions to foil for baby carrots and determine how the alternative compare with regard to shelf life. Instrumental analysis of color (L*, a*, b*) and ...


Design Decisions Under Risk And Uncertainty, Sravya Thoomu Dec 2010

Design Decisions Under Risk And Uncertainty, Sravya Thoomu

All Theses

In the contemporary world of engineering, engineers strive towards designing reliable and robust artifacts while considering and attempting to control manufacturing costs. In due course they have to deal with some sort of uncertainty. Many aspects of the design are the result of properties that are defined within some tolerances, of measurements that are appropriate, and of circumstances and environmental conditions that are out of their control. This uncertainty was typically handled by using factors of safety, and resulted in designs that may have been overly conservative. Therefore, understanding and handling the uncertainties is critical in improving the design, controlling ...


Combined Musculo-Skeletal Multi-Body Dynamics/Finite Element Analysis Of Several Ergonomics And Bio-Mechanics Problems, Xin Xie Aug 2010

Combined Musculo-Skeletal Multi-Body Dynamics/Finite Element Analysis Of Several Ergonomics And Bio-Mechanics Problems, Xin Xie

All Theses

Within this thesis, two ergonomics (i.e. seating comfort and long-distance driving fatigue problems) and two structural bio-mechanics (i.e. femur-fracture fixation and radius-fracture fixation) problems are investigated using musculo-skeletal multi-body dynamics and finite element computational analyses.
Within the seating comfort problem analyzed, a complete-body finite element model is constructed and used to assess the effect of seat geometry and seating posture on the feel of comfort experienced by a seated human.
Within the long-distance driving fatigue problem, musculo-skeletal analysis is employed to assess the extent of fatigue experienced by a driver through the evaluation of level of activity of ...


Non-Contact Spatially Constrained Optical Scanning Methods Applied For Depth, Width And Gap Measurements, Konda Reddy Thotti Reddy Aug 2010

Non-Contact Spatially Constrained Optical Scanning Methods Applied For Depth, Width And Gap Measurements, Konda Reddy Thotti Reddy

All Theses

The thesis presents the non-contact laser projection based systems utilized for quantifying the feature dimensions like width, depth and air gaps. Laser diode, Charge coupled device (CCD) and post-processing software using image processing tools are the major components of the non-contact measurement systems. The study involves two methods where the first method comprises of active laser-based triangulation and morphological edge detection for depth and width measurement applications. The second method uses edge detection technique and Dynamic Field of View (DFOV) for gap detection and tracking. Using the developed techniques, the case studies are conducted with smooth plastic fenders with induced ...


Design Method Development For The Design Of Traction Systems, Avinash Kolla Aug 2010

Design Method Development For The Design Of Traction Systems, Avinash Kolla

All Theses

The objective of this research is to develop a design method for rapid exploration of traction concepts primarily for off-road vehicles. Different approaches available to achieve this objective are discussed and compared, such as computational, analytical, and physical methods. Computational approaches are based on simulations performed using Finite Element Method (FEM), Discrete Element Method (DEM), and combined Finite Element-Discrete Element (FE-DE) methods. Analytical approaches are based on closed form mathematical models developed by previous researchers based on the theory of plasticity. Physical approaches include fabrication and testing of prototypes at different levels of abstraction. This thesis compares these different approaches ...


Determination Of Higher Order Coefficients For A Crack Parallel To An Interface, Venkata Lakshman Kolluru Aug 2010

Determination Of Higher Order Coefficients For A Crack Parallel To An Interface, Venkata Lakshman Kolluru

All Theses

A general method based on the singular integral equations is developed to
computationally determine the higher order coefficients in mixed mode fracture
mechanics. These 'k' and 'T' coefficients are defined with respect to a polar coordinate
system centered at a crack tip, and give asymptotic expressions for stresses and
displacements according to the William's eigenfunction expansions,
(r, ) (2r) k f (n, ) k f (n, ) IIk
ij
II
n
Ik
ij
I
n
n 0
2
1
n
ij      



1
(0, ) (2 ) ( , ) ( , ) , , ; , , I IT n I IT II IIT
ij n ij n ij
n
T f  r T f ...


Modeling And Optimization Of A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Venkat Vijay Kishore Turlapati Aug 2010

Modeling And Optimization Of A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Venkat Vijay Kishore Turlapati

All Theses

Today, the world is faced with a situation where new technologies have to be developed to decrease the dependence on natural non-renewable resources. Each day, as the demand for non-renewable resources increases, it puts great pressure on the scientific fraternity to develop new technologies that are aimed at reducing this dependence.
Today's road traffic plays a major part in the energy consumption worldwide. Hence it is imperative that we develop environmentally friendly solutions to this problem that arises in the transportation sector. Hybrid vehicle is one of the alternatives that can be seen as a viable solution to this ...


Electromechanical Modeling And Analysis Of A Self-Excited Micro-Power Generator, Amin Bibo Aug 2010

Electromechanical Modeling And Analysis Of A Self-Excited Micro-Power Generator, Amin Bibo

All Theses

Micro-power generators (MPGs) are compact, scalable, and low-maintenance energy harvesting devices that capture and transform wasted ambient energy into electricity.
Such devices, which are currently being researched as a possible replacement for batteries, can act as a power source to maintain and allow autonomous operations of
remote low-power consumption sensors. This thesis introduces a novel MPG which transforms wind energy into electricity via wind-induced self-excited oscillations
of piezoelectric cantilever beams. The operation concept of the device is simple: similar to music-playing harmonica that create tones via oscillations of reeds when
subjected to air blow, the proposed device uses flow-induced self-excited ...


Ultracapacitor Heavy Hybrid Vehicle: Model Predictive Control Using Future Information To Improve Fuel Consumption, Seneca Schepmann Aug 2010

Ultracapacitor Heavy Hybrid Vehicle: Model Predictive Control Using Future Information To Improve Fuel Consumption, Seneca Schepmann

All Theses

This research is concerned with the improvement in the fuel economy of heavy transport vehicles through the use of high power ultracapacitors in a mild hybrid electric vehicle platform. Previous work has shown the potential for up to 15% improvement on a hybrid SUV platform, but preliminary simulations have shown the potential improvement for larger vehicles is much higher.
Based on vehicle modeling information from the high fidelity, forward-looking modeling and simulation program Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), a mild parallel heavy ultracapacitor hybrid electric vehicle model is developed and validated to known vehicle performance measures. The vehicle is hybridized ...


Infrared Thermography And Ultrasonic Inspection Of Adhesive Bonded Structures, Overview And Validity, Suhas Vedula Aug 2010

Infrared Thermography And Ultrasonic Inspection Of Adhesive Bonded Structures, Overview And Validity, Suhas Vedula

All Theses

The work focuses on establishing a relationship between two different techniques of Nondestructive testing, namely Infrared Thermography and Ultrasonic Inspection. The integration of the two testing techniques is done with an expectation to achieve accurate characterization and determination of internal defects in adhesive bonded structures.
Experiments are done on sandwich samples with defects using various ultrasonic testing methods like pulse-echo and immersion techniques. The results thus obtained are documented and location of the defects is marked. The same samples are then tested using Infrared thermography to visualize the defects.
The results obtained by both the methods are compared to check ...


Fuzzy Logic Approach To Stability Control, Jeffery Anderson Aug 2010

Fuzzy Logic Approach To Stability Control, Jeffery Anderson

All Theses

Traditional Electronic Stability Control (ESC) for automobiles is usually accomplished through the use of estimated vehicle dynamics from simplified models. Starting with the conventional two degree-of-freedom vehicle model, one can estimate the vehicle states from the driver steering input. From this estimate, vehicle sideslip angle can be found and this is generally used with a threshold value to initiate a control action. The input/output relationship of the model depends heavily on the accuracy of the parameters used and various means to correct model inaccuracies. Specifically, these models depend on the tire cornering stiffness which is prone to change with ...