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Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Linguistic Analysis Of Natural Language Engineering Requirements, Carl Lamar Dec 2009

Linguistic Analysis Of Natural Language Engineering Requirements, Carl Lamar

All Theses

In engineering design, the needs of the customer are expressed through engineering requirement statements. These requirement statements are often expressed using natural language because they are easily created and read. However, there are several problems associated with natural language requirements including but not limited to ambiguity, incompleteness, understandability, testability and over specificity. Several representation and analysis tools have been proposed to address these problems within a requirement statement. These tools include formal languages, such as UML and SysML, requirement management tools, such as IBM Telelogic Doors, and natural language processors such as QuARS. These tools assist in the systematic elicitation ...


Experimental Characterization Of Stress Relaxation In Glass, Hemanth Kadali Dec 2009

Experimental Characterization Of Stress Relaxation In Glass, Hemanth Kadali

All Theses

Glass viscoelasticity has gained importance in recent years as glass lens molding appeared as a valuable alternative to the traditional grinding and polishing process for manufacturing glass lenses. In the precision lens molding process, knowledge of viscoelastic properties of glass in the transition region, which affect the stress relaxation behavior, is required to precisely predict the final size and shape of molded lenses. The purpose of this study is to establish a step-by-step procedure for characterizing the viscoelastic behavior of glass in the glass transition region using a finite term Prony series of a Generalized Maxwell model. This study focuses ...


Vibrations Of Thin Plate With Piezoelectric Actuator: Theory And Experiments, Parikshit Mehta Dec 2009

Vibrations Of Thin Plate With Piezoelectric Actuator: Theory And Experiments, Parikshit Mehta

All Theses

Vibrations of flexible structures have been an important engineering study owing to its both deprecating and complimentary traits. These flexible structures are generally modeled as strings, bars, shafts and beams (one dimensional), membranes and plate (two dimensional) or shell (three dimensional). Structures in many engineering applications, such as building floors, aircraft wings, automobile hoods or pressure vessel end-caps, can be modeled as plates. Undesirable vibrations of any of these engineering structures can lead to catastrophic results. It is important to know the fundamental frequencies of these structures in response to simple or complex excitations or boundary conditions.
After their discovery ...


Charging Kinetics Of Electric Double Layer Capacitors, Clint Cagle Dec 2009

Charging Kinetics Of Electric Double Layer Capacitors, Clint Cagle

All Theses

A recent increase in the popularity of EDLCs and AC-EOF has necessitated a deeper understanding of the structure and charging kinetics of electrical double layers (EDLs) at electrode-electrolyte interfaces. Here, the charging kinetics of EDLs in nanoscale EDLCs is studied by a circuit model, a Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) mo del, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results of the MD simulations demonstrate a linear charging behavior of EDLs near planar electrodes for both aqueous and organic electrolytes at charging below 90% and time larger than tens of picoseconds. Additionally, we will show that the circuit and PNP models are capable of ...


Design And Analysis Of Alternating Spoke Pair Concepts For A Non-Pneumatic Tire With Reduced Vibration At High Speed Rolling, Shashank Bezgam Dec 2009

Design And Analysis Of Alternating Spoke Pair Concepts For A Non-Pneumatic Tire With Reduced Vibration At High Speed Rolling, Shashank Bezgam

All Theses

Recently, Michelin has invented an innovative non-pneumatic tire which has potential for improved handling, grip, comfort, and less rolling resistance when compared to a traditional pneumatic tire. The non-pneumatic wheel is manufactured from a molding process with integrated shear ring and collapsible spokes designed to provide optimal uniform ground contact patch with low rolling resistance. The shear band is constructed from a polyurethane material with imbedded inextensible reinforcements. During high speed rolling in initial testing, the original prototype showed high noise levels at frequencies above 100 Hz. A possible source of noise could be due to vibration initiated from the ...


Robust Parameter Design And Finite Element Analysis For A Non-Pneumatic Tire With Low Vibration, Amarnath Proddaturi Dec 2009

Robust Parameter Design And Finite Element Analysis For A Non-Pneumatic Tire With Low Vibration, Amarnath Proddaturi

All Theses

During rolling of a non-pneumatic tire, vibration may be produced by the interaction of collapsible spokes with a shear deformable ring as they enter the contact region, buckle and then snap back into a state of tension. Other potential sources of vibration include the interaction of tire tread with the ground and ring vibration. In the present work, a systematic study of the effects of key geometric design parameters is presented using Taguchi's Robust Parameter Design Method and Orthogonal Arrays.
In the present work, a 2D planar finite element model with geometric non-linearity and explicit time-stepping is used to ...


Relationships Between Lane Change Performance And Open-Loop Handling Metrics, Robert Powell Dec 2009

Relationships Between Lane Change Performance And Open-Loop Handling Metrics, Robert Powell

All Theses

This work deals with the question of relating open-loop handling metrics to driver-in-the-loop performance (closed-loop). The goal is to allow manufacturers to reduce cost and time associated with vehicle handling development. A vehicle model was built in the CarSim environment using kinematics and compliance, geometrical, and flat track tire data. This model was then compared and validated to testing done at Michelin's Laurens Proving Grounds using open-loop handling metrics. The open-loop tests conducted for model validation were an understeer test and swept sine or random steer test. Four commonly used handling metrics (steady state yaw rate gain, yaw rate ...


Monitoring Co Concentration In Fuel Cells Using Microcantilever Sensors, Tugba Demir Dec 2009

Monitoring Co Concentration In Fuel Cells Using Microcantilever Sensors, Tugba Demir

All Theses

Estimating the concentration of gases including carbon monoxide (CO) in the hydrogen fuel exiting the reformer and entering the fuel cell is imperative. A high concentration of CO can cause fuel-cell catalyst poisoning, which permanently destroys the cell. Current practices call for utilizing expensive and bulky spectral analyzers to achieve this task. In addition to their high cost, these methodologies, undoubtedly, hinder the portability and self-containment of the cell. To overcome these problems and achieve the desired objectives of a portable, self-contained, and real-time measurement module, this thesis presents and experimentally investigates a new enabling technology based on utilizing an ...


Friction Stir Welding Process And Material Microstructure Evolution Modeling In 2000 And 5000 Series Of Aluminum Alloys, Harshavardhan Yalavarthy Dec 2009

Friction Stir Welding Process And Material Microstructure Evolution Modeling In 2000 And 5000 Series Of Aluminum Alloys, Harshavardhan Yalavarthy

All Theses

Interactions between the rotating and advancing pin-shaped tool (terminated at one end with a circular-cylindrical shoulder) with the clamped welding-plates and the associated material and heat transport during a Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process are studied computationally using a fully-coupled thermo-mechanical finite-element analysis. To surmount potential numerical problems associated with extensive mesh distortions/entanglement, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation was used which enabled adaptive re-meshing (to ensure the continuing presence of a high-quality mesh) while allowing full tracking of the material free surfaces. To demonstrate the utility of the present computational approach, the analysis is applied to the cases ...


Straight Line Braking Performance Of A Road Vehicle With Non Linear Tire Stiffness Formulation, Anup Khekare Dec 2009

Straight Line Braking Performance Of A Road Vehicle With Non Linear Tire Stiffness Formulation, Anup Khekare

All Theses

The capability of a road vehicle equipped with an Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) to come to a safe stop depends on factors such as dynamic force between tire and road, surface adhesion coefficient, and the vertical profile of the road. When in panic, a driver's reaction is to step hard on the brakes to make the vehicle stop as soon as possible. Although the use of modern technologies such as ABS and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) have reduced the number of accidents significantly, any further improvement in stopping distance would only complement these technologies.
Michelin has undertaken the development ...


Identifying The Optimum Process Parameters Of Precision Glass Molding For Aspherical Lenses, Waqas Iqbal Dec 2009

Identifying The Optimum Process Parameters Of Precision Glass Molding For Aspherical Lenses, Waqas Iqbal

All Theses

The purpose of this research is to determine the optimum process parameters for the Precision Glass Molding (PGM) Process using Manufacturing Design, Design of Experiments and Metrology (for measuring the geometry of lenses). First, a custom machine is designed and manufactured which can carry out Precision Glass Lens Molding Experiments. This machine is then modified to improve temperature, position and force control. A literature review is performed to obtain data for process parameters that have been used in previous PGM studies. The collected data is then used in Design of Experiments to create twenty seven experiments that determine the optimum ...


Principal Component Thermography For Steady Thermal Perturbation Scenarios, Rohit Parvataneni Dec 2009

Principal Component Thermography For Steady Thermal Perturbation Scenarios, Rohit Parvataneni

All Theses

The work focuses on the qualitative enhancement of Thermographic Inspection data using Principal Component Analysis technique. A new processing tool named Economical Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is proposed for analyzing the infrared image sequences acquired from the test specimen.
Experiments are carried out on test sample using thermal excitation modalities such as flash, halogen and induction to create temperature variations. The infrared (IR) image sequence containing the information about the sample is captured using IR cameras. The acquired IR image sequences are processed using the proposed Economical SVD which projects the matrix of raw pixel values of image sequence into ...


Modeling The Cooling Phase Of The Lens Molding Process, Saravanan Kannan Dec 2009

Modeling The Cooling Phase Of The Lens Molding Process, Saravanan Kannan

All Theses

The lens molding process is a relatively new technique used to manufacture lenses, in particular, high precision aspheric lenses. In order to achieve the desired size and shape of the lens, the cooling process after pressing must be controlled precisely because of the time and temperature dependent viscoelastic behavior of glass near and below the molding temperature. This thesis gives a detailed description of a three-dimensional computational model for analyzing the cooling phase of the lens molding process. Conduction, convection and radiation are considered in the model by coupling a computational fluid dynamics analysis of the flow of nitrogen through ...


User Study Of Information Extracted From Engineering Representations, Rachel Hannah Dec 2009

User Study Of Information Extracted From Engineering Representations, Rachel Hannah

All Theses

It is important for designers to understand the usefulness of different engineering representations in order to save time and money throughout a project. Designers often rely on past experience to decide which model to construct; yet students without this experience have no help. Interestingly there are noticeable gaps in the research literature with respect to how and when to select representations and modeling approaches for engineering designs. This thesis examines the differences between three types of engineering representations, specifically sketches, drawing packages, and physical prototypes. The amount of information designers can extract from these representations and also the correctness and ...


The Effect Of A Surfactant Monolayer On Gas Exchange Across An Air-Water Interface During Mixed Convection, Richard Lee Dec 2009

The Effect Of A Surfactant Monolayer On Gas Exchange Across An Air-Water Interface During Mixed Convection, Richard Lee

All Theses

A set of laboratory experiments are presented that reveal the effect of a surfactant monolayer on the transport of oxygen across an air-water interface during mixed convection conditions. The experiments were conducted in a wind/water tunnel with water tanks of differing depth. Forced convection was imposed via the air flow, while natural convection was imposed by heating the water bulk above the air temperature. For the range of wind speeds being considered, mixed convection conditions resulted. Experiments were also conducted with only forced convection present. The data acquired during these experiments were used to develop a parameterization between the ...


Survey Of Concurrent Engineering Environments And The Application Of Best Practices Towards The Development Of A Multiple Industry, Multiple Domain Environment, Jonathan Osborn Aug 2009

Survey Of Concurrent Engineering Environments And The Application Of Best Practices Towards The Development Of A Multiple Industry, Multiple Domain Environment, Jonathan Osborn

All Theses

This thesis investigates the best practices of fifteen existing Concurrent Engineering Environments (CEE). A CEE is defined as any environment, from physical to virtual, designed to facilitate concurrent engineering with multiple domain experts real time. All existing environments surveyed have been focused on the aerospace industry showing significant reductions in design time and cost. I have identified hardware, software, and peopleware as three major classifications as well as sixteen subcategories with which to compare the different CEEs. The success in reducing time and cost of designs seen in the aerospace industry with the introduction of CEEs can and should be ...


Dynamic Finite Element Simulation Of Ultrasonic Consolidation, Daniel Mccullough Aug 2009

Dynamic Finite Element Simulation Of Ultrasonic Consolidation, Daniel Mccullough

All Theses

Ultrasonic Consolidation (UC) is a promising solid state rapid manufacturing process that provides the ability to create functional, multilayered, and often geometrically complex parts. This thesis seeks to address one of the primary obstacles faced when using the process, namely the apparent build height limit encountered when using UC to construct high aspect ratio specimens. A fully transient, three dimensional Finite Element model is created to study the dynamic behavior of an ultrasonically consolidated part during the UC process. The model is used to find the cause of bond failure at the build height limit and a potential way to ...


Characterization And Enhancement Of Sensing Properties Of Piezoelectric Materials With Applications To Vibration Suppression, Siddharth Aphale Aug 2009

Characterization And Enhancement Of Sensing Properties Of Piezoelectric Materials With Applications To Vibration Suppression, Siddharth Aphale

All Theses

This thesis undertakes the study of piezoelectric properties of polymer-based fabric and film sensors. An enhancement in piezoelectric properties of such sensors, as noted through earlier work, is observed with increasing weight ratios of nanomaterials dispersed in the polymer matrix. A comprehensive mathematical model using cantilever beams is developed to analyze this enhancement both qualitatively and quantitatively. An experimental setup is also developed to implement the proposed real time signal processing necessary to collect required data towards the characterization. In order to distinguish piezoelectric materials from other materials, study of the frequency response of developed fabric sensors to periodic chirp ...


Development Of A Rigid Ring Tire Model And Comparison Among Various Tire Models For Ride Comfort Simulations, Norm Frey Aug 2009

Development Of A Rigid Ring Tire Model And Comparison Among Various Tire Models For Ride Comfort Simulations, Norm Frey

All Theses

One vehicle subassembly that is of great importance to automobile manufacturers for tuning final vehicle performance is the pneumatic tire. Pneumatic tires present themselves as unique tuning tools as they 1) are the sole link between the roadway surface and the integrated vehicle suspension, chassis and steering systems, and 2) provide a wide range of tunability over many vehicle performances, including handling (steering feel as well as chassis dynamics), traction (braking, driving, and cornering), and ride comfort (roadway isolation). Therefore the vehicle manufacturing industry continues to research and refine various aspects of tire modeling to improve up-front integrated tire/vehicle ...


Use Of Orthogonal Arrays For Efficient Evaluation Of Geometric Designs For Reducing Vibration Of A Non-Pneumatic Wheel During High-Speed Rolling, William Rutherford Aug 2009

Use Of Orthogonal Arrays For Efficient Evaluation Of Geometric Designs For Reducing Vibration Of A Non-Pneumatic Wheel During High-Speed Rolling, William Rutherford

All Theses

During high speed rolling of a non-pneumatic wheel, vibration may be produced by the interaction of collapsible spokes with a shear deformable ring as they enter the contact region, buckle and then snap back into a state of tension. In the present work, a 2D planar finite element model with geometric nonlinearity and explicit time-stepping is used to simulate rolling of the non-pneumatic wheel. Vibration characteristics are measured from the FFT frequency spectrum of the time-signals of perpendicular distance of marker nodes from the virtual plane of the spoke, thickness change in the ring between spokes, and ground reaction forces ...


Predictive Energy Management In Smart Vehicles: Exploiting Traffic And Traffic Signal Preview For Fuel Saving, Behrang Asadi Aug 2009

Predictive Energy Management In Smart Vehicles: Exploiting Traffic And Traffic Signal Preview For Fuel Saving, Behrang Asadi

All Theses

This master thesis proposes methods for improving fuel economy and emissions of vehicles via use of future information of state of traffic lights, traffic flow, and deterministic traffic flow models.
The first part of this thesis proposes use of upcoming traffic signal information
within the vehicle's adaptive cruise control system to reduce idle time at stop lights and lower fuel use. To achieve this goal an optimization-based control algorithm is formulated for each equipped vehicle that uses short range radar and traffic signal information predictively to schedule an optimum velocity trajectory for the vehicle. The objectives are timely arrival ...


On The Modeling Of Energy Harvesters And Analysis Of Their Response Under Time-Varying Frequency Excitations, Thiago Seuaciuc-Osorio Aug 2009

On The Modeling Of Energy Harvesters And Analysis Of Their Response Under Time-Varying Frequency Excitations, Thiago Seuaciuc-Osorio

All Theses

Energy harvesting is a process by which otherwise wasted ambient energy can be captured and transformed into a useful form. Historical examples of this concept include windmills, sailing ships, and waterwheels. Modern technologies and current energy needs have brought this same concept to a smaller scale wherein small wireless devices with minute energy consumption can be operated autonomously. Today, many critical electronic devices, such as health-monitoring sensors, pace makers, spinal stimulators, electric pain relievers, etc. require minimal amounts of power to function, which permits utilizing energy from their environment to power them. By exploiting the ability of active materials and ...


Development Of A Nonlinear Ride Quality Model To Aid In Tweelå© Parameter Selection, Marc Paradiso May 2009

Development Of A Nonlinear Ride Quality Model To Aid In Tweelå© Parameter Selection, Marc Paradiso

All Theses

The ride comfort of a vehicle is very important to both automotive and tire manufacturers. Unfortunately the ride comfort provided by the tire has an inverse relationship with the handling ability of the vehicle. Michelin has sought to decouple ride comfort and handling capability by developing a non-pneumatic tire they have dubbed the TWEEL©. To better understand what effects fitting a TWEEL with specific characteristics would have on the ride comfort of a vehicle a computer simulation was developed to study the effects of TWEEL stiffness and deflection on ride comfort.
The vehicle model used in the simulation is a ...


An Evaluation Of Function-Based Representations And Information Archival In Engineering Design, Benjamin Caldwell May 2009

An Evaluation Of Function-Based Representations And Information Archival In Engineering Design, Benjamin Caldwell

All Theses

Recent research in function-based design includes the development of a vocabulary of functions, the Functional Basis, and a repository of products and their functions. Many design tools are being developed around this vocabulary and repository to support conceptual design. The usefulness of these tools, however, is dependent on the quality of the vocabulary and the information contained in the repository. In this research, both the vocabulary and the repository are empirically evaluated to understand their strengths and limitations. A statistical analysis is performed on function models in the repository to determine the frequency of usage of Functional Basis terms. It ...


A Study In The Information Content, Consistency, And Expressive Power Of Function Structures In Mechanical Design, Chiradeep Sen May 2009

A Study In The Information Content, Consistency, And Expressive Power Of Function Structures In Mechanical Design, Chiradeep Sen

All Theses

In engineering design research, function structures are used to represent the intended functionality of technical artifacts. Function structures are graph-based representations where the nodes are functions, or actions, and the edges are flows, or objects of those actions. For the consistent description of artifact functionality, multiple controlled vocabularies have been developed in previous research. The Functional Basis is one such vocabulary that provides for a set of verbs and a set of nouns, organized in the three-level hierarchy. This vocabulary is extensively studied in design research. Two major application of this vocabulary are the Design Repository, which is a web-base ...


A Priori Analysis Of Subgrid Scalar Phenomena And Mass Diffusion Vectors In Turbulent Hydrogen-Oxygen Flames, Justin Foster May 2009

A Priori Analysis Of Subgrid Scalar Phenomena And Mass Diffusion Vectors In Turbulent Hydrogen-Oxygen Flames, Justin Foster

All Theses

Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of high pressure, turbulent H2/O2 non-premixed flames employing real gas effects, detailed chemistry, multicomponent, differential, and cross diffusion are conducted. The results of these simulations are analyzed to provide important subgrid information relevant to Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulent combustion. Subgrid filtered scalar dissipation and scalar variances, species concentrations, reaction rates, and flame temperature are presented as a function of mixture fraction. The analysis also includes a detailed comparison of the actual filtered mass flux vectors with their corresponding forms evaluated with the filtered primitive variables. The results show a reasonable correlation ...


Taxonomy Of Physical Prototypes: Structure And Validation, Ashwin Michaelraj May 2009

Taxonomy Of Physical Prototypes: Structure And Validation, Ashwin Michaelraj

All Theses

This thesis introduces a taxonomy of physical prototypes, and validates the proposed taxonomy by five different approaches. The proposed taxonomy is validated by, (i) checking the orthogonality of individual elements of the taxonomy, (ii) benchmarking the taxonomy with existing classifications of prototypes, (iii) demonstrating its utility by applying it to classify different prototypes, (iv) building a prototype database containing 35 different prototypes, and (v) consistency evaluation of the prototype database using a description logic based software called ProtŽgŽ.
The results indicate that the proposed taxonomy is capable of distinguishing prototypes with greater accuracy when compared to existing classifications. The orthogonality ...


Development Of A Falling Sphere Instrument For High-Resolution Neutral Wind Measurements In The Mesosphere And Lower Thermosphere, Arpan Shah May 2009

Development Of A Falling Sphere Instrument For High-Resolution Neutral Wind Measurements In The Mesosphere And Lower Thermosphere, Arpan Shah

All Theses

Passive falling spheres launched from small rockets have been used extensively in the past to measure the winds and densities in the mesosphere. In principle, the same technique can be extended to higher altitudes that cover the lower thermosphere, in addition to the mesosphere. The main difficulties are that accelerations decrease rapidly with height due to the decreasing atmospheric density and rigid spheres are required at higher altitudes, which implies larger mass and smaller accelerations. Accelerometers with broad dynamic range and high sensitivity are required for the measurements, but such devices are not readily available. We describe an instrumented falling ...