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Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Modelling The Addition Of Limestone In Cement Using Hydcem, Niall Holmes, Denis Kelliher, Mark Tyrer Sep 2019

Modelling The Addition Of Limestone In Cement Using Hydcem, Niall Holmes, Denis Kelliher, Mark Tyrer

Conference papers

Hydration models can aid in the prediction, understanding and description of hydration behaviour over time as the move towards more sustainable cements continues.

HYDCEM is a new model to predict the phase assemblage, degree of hydration and heat release over time for cements undergoing hydration for any w/c ratio and curing temperatures up to 450C. HYDCEM, written in MATLAB, complements more sophisticated thermodynamic models by predicting these properties over time using user-friendly inputs within one code. A number of functions and methods based on up to date cement hydration behaviour from the literature are hard-wired into the code along ...


Principal Component Neural Networks For Modeling, Prediction, And Optimization Of Hot Mix Asphalt Dynamics Modulus, Parnian Ghasemi, Mohamad Aslani, Derrick K. Rollins, R. Christopher Williams Aug 2019

Principal Component Neural Networks For Modeling, Prediction, And Optimization Of Hot Mix Asphalt Dynamics Modulus, Parnian Ghasemi, Mohamad Aslani, Derrick K. Rollins, R. Christopher Williams

Derrick K Rollins, Sr.

The dynamic modulus of hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a fundamental material property that defines the stress-strain relationship based on viscoelastic principles and is a function of HMA properties, loading rate, and temperature. Because of the large number of efficacious predictors (factors) and their nonlinear interrelationships, developing predictive models for dynamic modulus can be a challenging task. In this research, results obtained from a series of laboratory tests including mixture dynamic modulus, aggregate gradation, dynamic shear rheometer (on asphalt binder), and mixture volumetric are used to create a database. The created database is used to develop a model for estimating ...


Principal Component Neural Networks For Modeling, Prediction, And Optimization Of Hot Mix Asphalt Dynamics Modulus, Parnian Ghasemi, Mohamad Aslani, Derrick K. Rollins, R. Christopher Williams Aug 2019

Principal Component Neural Networks For Modeling, Prediction, And Optimization Of Hot Mix Asphalt Dynamics Modulus, Parnian Ghasemi, Mohamad Aslani, Derrick K. Rollins, R. Christopher Williams

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The dynamic modulus of hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a fundamental material property that defines the stress-strain relationship based on viscoelastic principles and is a function of HMA properties, loading rate, and temperature. Because of the large number of efficacious predictors (factors) and their nonlinear interrelationships, developing predictive models for dynamic modulus can be a challenging task. In this research, results obtained from a series of laboratory tests including mixture dynamic modulus, aggregate gradation, dynamic shear rheometer (on asphalt binder), and mixture volumetric are used to create a database. The created database is used to develop a model for estimating ...


General Nonlinear-Material Elasticity In Classical One-Dimensional Solid Mechanics, Ronald Joseph Giardina Jr Aug 2019

General Nonlinear-Material Elasticity In Classical One-Dimensional Solid Mechanics, Ronald Joseph Giardina Jr

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

We will create a class of generalized ellipses and explore their ability to define a distance on a space and generate continuous, periodic functions. Connections between these continuous, periodic functions and the generalizations of trigonometric functions known in the literature shall be established along with connections between these generalized ellipses and some spectrahedral projections onto the plane, more specifically the well-known multifocal ellipses. The superellipse, or Lam\'{e} curve, will be a special case of the generalized ellipse. Applications of these generalized ellipses shall be explored with regards to some one-dimensional systems of classical mechanics. We will adopt the Ramberg-Osgood ...


Structural Health Monitoring Of Composite Parts: A Review, Jacob Pessin Jun 2019

Structural Health Monitoring Of Composite Parts: A Review, Jacob Pessin

Honors Theses

Structural health monitoring has the potential to allow composite structures to be more reliable and safer, then by using more traditional damage assessment techniques. Structural health monitoring (SHM) utilizes individual sensor units that are placed throughout the load bearing sections of a structure and gather data that is used for stress analysis and damage detection. Statistical time based algorithms are used to analyze collected data and determine both damage size and probable location from within the structure. While traditional calculations and life span analysis can be done for structures made of isotropic materials such as steel or other metals, composites ...


Application Of Computational Tools To Spaghetti-Based Truss Bridge Design, Jin Xu, Jiliang Li, Nuri Zeytinoglu, Jinyuan Zhai Mar 2019

Application Of Computational Tools To Spaghetti-Based Truss Bridge Design, Jin Xu, Jiliang Li, Nuri Zeytinoglu, Jinyuan Zhai

ASEE IL-IN Section Conference

Application of Computational Tools to Spaghetti-Based Truss Design

Statics and Strength of Materials are two foundational courses for Mechanical/Civil Engineering. In order to assist students in better understanding and applying concepts to a meaningful design task, SolidWorks and theoretical calculation were used for a spaghetti-bridge design contest with the constraints of given maximum weight and allowable support-material weight. As the first step of this iterative designing process, both extrude feature and structural member were introduced to model planar bridge trusses. Then SolidWorks’ Statics module was used to run FEA analysis of the structural performance in efforts to optimize the ...


Design And Development Of Cellulose Based Composites For The Built Environment, Melvin Glenn Veigas Jan 2019

Design And Development Of Cellulose Based Composites For The Built Environment, Melvin Glenn Veigas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cellulose is a versatile material with numerous contemporary applications in textiles, food, and biomaterials. Contemporary research is focused on modifying the structural and thermal properties of cellulose to create novel composites with cellulose nano-crystals, lignocellulosic pulp, and foamed cellulose to name a few. Significant advances have been made in improving the properties of cellulose. Adding aligned cellulose nano-fibers to concrete to improve its mechanical properties or combining with polymers for better durability can lead to new applications specifically in design and construction. These new forms of cellulose through optimization and combination with other materials provide opportunities for reducing material usage ...


Northeastern Species In Hybrid Cross Laminated Timber, Hamid Kaboli Jan 2019

Northeastern Species In Hybrid Cross Laminated Timber, Hamid Kaboli

Doctoral Dissertations

Known in the building industry throughout the world, Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is a massive timber building material with outstanding structural, fire, and seismic properties. CLT is a cost-competitive, sustainable construction material is a good candidate as a substitute material for concrete, masonry, and steel, in mid-rise and high-rise buildings. CLT is perpendicular layers of dimensional lumbers usually laminated together and forming a massive structural panel. This dissertation explores the viability of utilizing Massachusetts grown Eastern Hemlock and Eastern White Pine in CLT panels as pure or in conjunction with other high-value wood products. 59% of Massachusetts’ lands are covered ...


Finite Element Simulation Of Bonded And Mechanically Anchored Shear Interfaces Of Externally Applied Frp Sheets To Concrete And Wood-Concrete Composites, Alaa Al-Sammari Jan 2019

Finite Element Simulation Of Bonded And Mechanically Anchored Shear Interfaces Of Externally Applied Frp Sheets To Concrete And Wood-Concrete Composites, Alaa Al-Sammari

Doctoral Dissertations

Composite construction is prevalent in advanced structural systems where components of different materials are combined in the same structure to improve the performance of strong and economic structural sections. Maintaining continuity between the different structural components to produce monolithic structural behavior is challenging because of differences in the mechanical properties of these materials in terms of stiffness, strength, and ductility. The different components of the composite section are typically joined using adhesives and/or mechanical anchors to produce partial or full composite action. This dissertation discusses two types of shear interfaces intended to result in structural composite behavior. The first ...


Predicting Dynamic Modulus Of Asphalt Mixture Using Data Obtained From Indirect Tension Mode Of Testing, Parnian Ghasemi, Shibin Lin, Derrick K. Rollins, R. Christopher Williams Jan 2019

Predicting Dynamic Modulus Of Asphalt Mixture Using Data Obtained From Indirect Tension Mode Of Testing, Parnian Ghasemi, Shibin Lin, Derrick K. Rollins, R. Christopher Williams

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Understanding stress-strain behavior of asphalt pavement under repetitive traffic loading is of critical importance to predict pavement performance and service life. For viscoelastic materials, the stress-strain relationship can be represented by the dynamic modulus. The dynamic modulus test in indirect tension mode can be used to measure the modulus of each specific layer of asphalt pavements using representative samples. Dynamic modulus is a function of material properties, loading, and environmental conditions. Developing predictive models for dynamic modulus is efficient and cost effective. This article focuses on developing an accurate Finite Element (FE) model using mixture elastic modulus and asphalt binder ...


Simplified Approach For Structural Evaluation Of Flexible Pavements At The Network Level, Mena Souliman, Stefan Romanoschi, Samer Dessouky Dec 2018

Simplified Approach For Structural Evaluation Of Flexible Pavements At The Network Level, Mena Souliman, Stefan Romanoschi, Samer Dessouky

Publications

Currently, there are few available simple procedures to identify structurally weak pavement sections utilizing Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) data at the network level (e.g., city, state or province). A simple method is required to determine the structural condition of pavement sections that can be directly implemented and automated in current pavement databases. The objective of this research study is to develop a simple analysis method to determine the structural condition of pavement sections utilizing the currently available non-destructive testing (NDT) deflection measurement devices at the network level that can be directly implemented and automated in the database of a ...


Electrically-Conductive Asphalt Mastic: Temperature Dependence And Heating Efficiency, Ali Arabzadeh, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim, Alireza Sassani, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Mani Mina Nov 2018

Electrically-Conductive Asphalt Mastic: Temperature Dependence And Heating Efficiency, Ali Arabzadeh, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim, Alireza Sassani, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Mani Mina

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Asphalt mastic, a pitch-matrix composite, consists of bitumen and mineral fillers (very fine aggregates), that fills the voids created by coarser aggregates in asphalt concrete. In this study, asphalt mastic was modified with carbon fiber (CF) and graphite powder (GP) to produce single-phase (containing only CF) and two-phase (containing both CF and GP) electrically-conductive asphalt mastic (ECAM) for anti-icing and deicing applications. Volume resistivities of ECAMs were measured at two different temperatures and the influence of temperature on electrical conductivity was evaluated, revealing that reduction in temperature enhances the ECAM's electrical conductivity. After analyzing the volume resistivity data for ...


Modeling Sulfate Attack In Modern Concrete For Building Sustainable And Resilient Infrastructure, Zachary Grasley Oct 2018

Modeling Sulfate Attack In Modern Concrete For Building Sustainable And Resilient Infrastructure, Zachary Grasley

Publications

External sulfate attack is a complex phenomenon and is manifested in the form of large expansion, cracking, and spalling depending on the exposure solution and material constituent properties. Several models were developed in the past to demonstrate sulfate attack mechanisms that account for the diffusion of sulfate ions into the porous concrete and the successive deformation triggered by the chemical reaction and precipitation of expansive agents. However, none of these models accounts for the effect of the migration of solvent water from the low solute concentration solution to high solute concentration solution driven by the osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure is ...


A Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Theory Of Strain Gradient Plasticity For Small And Finite Deformations, Yooseob Song Jun 2018

A Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Theory Of Strain Gradient Plasticity For Small And Finite Deformations, Yooseob Song

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

In this work, a thermodynamically consistent coupled thermo-mechanical gradient enhanced continuum plasticity theory is developed for small and finite deformations. The proposed model is conceptually based on the dislocations interaction mechanisms and thermal activation energy. The thermodynamic conjugate microstresses are decomposed into energetic and dissipative components. This work incorporates the thermal and mechanical responses of microsystems. It addresses phenomena such as size and boundary effects and in particular microscale heat transfer in fast-transient processes. Not only the partial heat dissipation caused by the fast transient time, but also the distribution of temperature caused by the transition from the plastic work ...


Preliminary Investigation Of Tensile Strength And Impact Characterization Of Cementitious Composite Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes, Robabeh Jazaei May 2018

Preliminary Investigation Of Tensile Strength And Impact Characterization Of Cementitious Composite Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes, Robabeh Jazaei

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Cement has been largely used in the construction industry, specifically as a matrix for concrete. Recently, a new generation of cement-based composite that greatly increases mechanical properties is replacing conventional concrete. With periodic advances in the field, researchers considered particles with high-aspect ratios such as Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) to reinforce cement matrices. Although there is not much literature to draw upon in research, some research on improving the tensile strength of cementitious composite incorporating with CNTs does exist. However, there had been no evidence of investigation into impact strength until this study.

Most papers presented examined the effect of multi-walled ...


Variable Input Observer For State Estimation Of High-Rate Dynamics, Jonathan Hong, Liang Cao, Simon Laflamme, Jacob Dodson Feb 2018

Variable Input Observer For State Estimation Of High-Rate Dynamics, Jonathan Hong, Liang Cao, Simon Laflamme, Jacob Dodson

Simon Laflamme

High-rate systems operating in the 10 μs to 10 ms timescale are likely to experience damaging effects due to rapid environmental changes (e.g., turbulence, ballistic impact). Some of these systems could benefit from real-time state estimation to enable their full potential. Examples of such systems include blast mitigation strategies, automotive airbag technologies, and hypersonic vehicles. Particular challenges in high-rate state estimation include: 1) complex time varying nonlinearities of system (e.g. noise, uncertainty, and disturbance); 2) rapid environmental changes; 3) requirement of high convergence rate. Here, we propose using a Variable Input Observer (VIO) concept to vary the input ...


Robust Variable Input Observer For Structural Health Monitoring Of Systems Experiencing Harsh Extreme Environments, Jonathan Hong, Liang Cao, Simon Laflamme, Jacob Dodson Feb 2018

Robust Variable Input Observer For Structural Health Monitoring Of Systems Experiencing Harsh Extreme Environments, Jonathan Hong, Liang Cao, Simon Laflamme, Jacob Dodson

Simon Laflamme

Systems experiencing events in the order of 10μs-10ms timescales, for instance highrate dynamics or harsh extreme environments, may encounter rapid damaging effects. If the structural health of such systems could be accurately estimated in a timely manner, preventative measures could be employed to minimize adverse effects. Previously, a Variable Input Observer (VIO) coupled with a neuro-observer was proposed by the authors as a potential solution in monitoring their structural health. The objective of the VIO is to provide state estimation based on an optimal input space allowed to vary as a function of time. The VIO incorporates the use of ...


Microsecond State Monitoring Of Nonlinear Time-Varying Dynamic Systems, Jacob Dodson, Bryan Joyce, Simon Laflamme, Janet Wolfson Feb 2018

Microsecond State Monitoring Of Nonlinear Time-Varying Dynamic Systems, Jacob Dodson, Bryan Joyce, Simon Laflamme, Janet Wolfson

Simon Laflamme

Reliable operation of next generation high-speed complex structures (e.g. hypersonic air vehicles, space structures, and weapons) relies on the development of microsecond structural health monitoring (μSHM) systems. High amplitude impacts may damage or alter the structure, and therefore change the underlying system configuration and the dynamic response of these systems. While state-of-the-art structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can measure structures which change on the order of seconds to minutes, there are no real-time methods for detection and characterization of damage in the microsecond timescales.

This paper presents preliminary analysis addressing the need for microsecond detection of state and parameter ...


Adaptive Structural Control Using Dynamic Hyperspace, Simon Laflamme Feb 2018

Adaptive Structural Control Using Dynamic Hyperspace, Simon Laflamme

Simon Laflamme

The design of closed-loop structural control systems necessitates a certain level of robustness to cope with system uncertainties. Neurocontrollers, a type of adaptive control system, have been proposed to cope with those uncertainties. However, the performance of neural networks can be substantially influenced by the choice of the input space, or the hyperspace in which the representation lies. For instance, input selection may influence computation time, adaptation speed, effects of the curse of dimensionality, understanding of the representation, and model complexity. Input space selection is often overlooked in literature, and inputs are traditionally determined offline for an optimized performance of ...


Spot-R By Triax, Purdue Ect Team Jan 2018

Spot-R By Triax, Purdue Ect Team

ECT Fact Sheets

Triax’s Spot-r system was developed to tackle the construction industry’s unique safety and productivity challenges, stemming from a demonstrated lack of total jobsite visibility and automatically collected, easily accessible field data. Spot-r by Triax combines a proprietary mesh network with sensor technology to record and transmit previously unattainable workforce and equipment location, activity and safety data within a defined area – all in real-time.

The Spot-r network is installed around the site and operates in a 900 MHz network, with a subset using a cellular connection to forward Spot-r sensor data to Triax’s custom, cloud dashboard. In the ...


Mdp (Machine Drive Power) Intelligent Compaction Technology, Purdue Ect Team Jan 2018

Mdp (Machine Drive Power) Intelligent Compaction Technology, Purdue Ect Team

ECT Fact Sheets

Caterpillar developed MDP (Machine Drive Power) technology to fill this gap. Rather than an accelerometer and vibratory drum, it uses the principle of rolling resistance to provide indications of soil stiffness. This allows it to perform more reliably on cohesive and granular soils with less variability than accelerometer systems. It also means that the technology can be used on both vibratory and static drum compactors, which are often used on larger sites. While the technology is quite useful on its own, it is even better as a complementary technology to the existing accelerometer-based systems. Contractors who use vibratory soil compactors ...


Purdue’S Biowall, Purdue Ect Team Jan 2018

Purdue’S Biowall, Purdue Ect Team

ECT Fact Sheets

Mechanical ventilation, energy recovery ventilation, and infiltration (air that leaks into a building) are commonly used to introduce fresh air. These are all valid approaches, but a living plant-based filter is an innovative complement to these traditional technologies. A Biowall has the potential to improve indoor air quality while reducing the quantity of air needed for ventilation, creating the potential for energy savings. Figure 1 shows a Biowall prototype being evaluated in the ReNEWW House, a research home located near the Purdue University campus (http://www.renewwhouse.com/).


Cementitious Materials Subjected To Mechanical And Environmental Stressors: A Computational Framework, Shahin Hajilar Jan 2018

Cementitious Materials Subjected To Mechanical And Environmental Stressors: A Computational Framework, Shahin Hajilar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite the significant amount of concrete produced worldwide, there are long-standing issues with the long-term performance of concrete structures and facilities subjected to the mechanical and environmental stressors. To settle these issues, it is first imperative to understand the structural hierarchies and heterogeneous characteristics of concrete. While the structure of concrete at large length scales have been widely investigated in the literature, little knowledge is available about the structure, composition, and properties of the smallest building blocks of concrete, i.e., hydrated cement paste (HCP). This is mainly due to the complexities involved in the atomic structure of HCP phases ...


Datumate, Purdue Ect Team Oct 2017

Datumate, Purdue Ect Team

ECT Fact Sheets

Datumate is digitally transforming civil engineering processes used in construction, surveying and infrastructure inspection markets with fully automated, highly precise, cost effective and safe tools. It utilizes state-of-the-art image processing and advanced drones and camera technologies dramatically reducing the amount of time surveying crews spend in the field, speeding up construction progress checks and shortening infrastructure inspection duration, while maintaining survey grade accuracy. The intuitive, simple and automated solutions increase productivity by saving field and office time in civil engineering and inspection projects of roads, intersections, stockpile volumes, topography, piping, industrial facilities, bridges, property surveys, building facades, railways, cellular infrastructure ...


Technology To Manufacture Oriented Pvc (Pvc-O) Pipes, Purdue Ect Team Aug 2017

Technology To Manufacture Oriented Pvc (Pvc-O) Pipes, Purdue Ect Team

ECT Fact Sheets

The development of Molecor´s technology, which is based on the application of a Molecular Orientation process, has delivered a significant turning point in the pipelines sector. With this technological development, the company has begun to manufacture TOM® PVC-O pipes, the most eco-friendly pipes on the market. The Molecor technology enabled eradicating many of the existing disadvantages of thermoplastic pipes.

This technology delivers a clear objective; to provide the water industry with a solution for pipes carrying pressurized water in an environmentally friendly, yet cost efficient manner. This also extends a service life compared to pipeline materials currently in use ...


Netpoint®, Purdue Ect Team May 2017

Netpoint®, Purdue Ect Team

ECT Fact Sheets

The vast majority of construction scheduling software uses a combination of spreadsheets and Gantt charts for developing and depicting Critical Path Method (CPM) schedules. While this paradigm works for the expert scheduler, it is not conducive to collaboration, and it is prohibitively difficult for non-scheduling experts to understand.

NetPoint® provides a dynamic, visual interface conducive to touch and gestural input. Activities are drawn directly on a time-scale and may be placed on the same row or arranged automatically using codes or the WBS. Such control of the presentation makes it easier to communicate the plan to any type of audience ...


Fluid Isolator, Purdue Ect Team May 2017

Fluid Isolator, Purdue Ect Team

ECT Fact Sheets

The reliability of concrete infrastructure is vital to ensuring daily life, as well as commerce, can progress without interruption. From the pavement of interstate highways to the driveways and sidewalks in a local neighborhood, concrete is expensive to install and often even more expensive, and intrusive, when it needs to be replaced. Unfortunately, to maintain functionality in winter climates concrete is heavily exposed to deicing salts. This not only affects the roads, driveways, and sidewalks where salt is applied directly, but many other areas such as parking and residential garages where vehicles (and people) will track salt along with water ...


High Early-Age Strength Concrete For Rapid Repair, Matthew O. Maler May 2017

High Early-Age Strength Concrete For Rapid Repair, Matthew O. Maler

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The aim of this research was to identify High Early-Age Strength (HES) concrete batch designs, and evaluate their suitability for use in the rapid repair of highways and bridge decks. To this end, two criteria needed to be met; a minimum compressive strength of 20.68 MPa (3000 psi) in no later than 12 hours, and a drying shrinkage of less than 0.06 % at 28 days after curing. The evaluations included both air-entrained, and non-air-entrained concretes.

The cement types chosen for this study included Type III and Type V Portland cement and “Rapid Set” − a Calcium Sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement ...


Re-Evaluation Of Acceptance Testing Criteria For Structural Masonry Using The Prism Test Method, James Bristow May 2017

Re-Evaluation Of Acceptance Testing Criteria For Structural Masonry Using The Prism Test Method, James Bristow

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The current acceptance criteria for structural masonry in accordance with International Building Code allows for the prism test method to be used. However, without a proper understanding of the effects of variable material properties such as individual masonry unit compressive strength and the various material moduli of elasticity, as well as the effect of field conditions on the unit’s performance, masonry prisms may “fail” to reach the design compressive strength (f’m).

By identifying causes of failure and evaluating the failure magnitude, it is concluded that when the masonry prism test method is utilized for acceptance testing of as-built ...


Smartvid.Io, Purdue Ect Team Apr 2017

Smartvid.Io, Purdue Ect Team

ECT Fact Sheets

The collection, organization, and retrieval of industrial media is a pervasive challenge that is especially glaring for companies in the AEC industry. Construction projects often generate large volumes of pictures & videos from the field for tracking progress and communicating between engineers, contractors, and subcontractors. It is not uncommon for field personnel to capture hundreds of photos per week on any given jobsite.

Smartvid.io is a cloud-based software solution designed for the specific needs of industrial media. The application’s internal deep-learning engines, collectively nicknamed VINNIE (for ‘Very Intelligent Neural Network for Insight and Evaluation’), use speech and image recognition ...