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Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Investigation Of Fundamental Principles Of Rigid Body Impact Mechanics, Khalid Alluhydan Jul 2019

Investigation Of Fundamental Principles Of Rigid Body Impact Mechanics, Khalid Alluhydan

Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations

In impact mechanics, the collision between two or more bodies is a common, yet a very challenging problem. Producing analytical solutions that can predict the post-collision motion of the colliding bodies require consistent modeling of the dynamics of the colliding bodies. This dissertation presents a new method for solving the two and multibody impact problems that can be used to predict the post-collision motion of the colliding bodies. Also, we solve the rigid body collision problem of planar kinematic chains with multiple contacts with external surfaces.

In the first part of this dissertation, we study planar collisions of Balls and ...


Structural Health Monitoring Of Composite Parts: A Review, Jacob Pessin Jun 2019

Structural Health Monitoring Of Composite Parts: A Review, Jacob Pessin

Honors Theses

Structural health monitoring has the potential to allow composite structures to be more reliable and safer, then by using more traditional damage assessment techniques. Structural health monitoring (SHM) utilizes individual sensor units that are placed throughout the load bearing sections of a structure and gather data that is used for stress analysis and damage detection. Statistical time based algorithms are used to analyze collected data and determine both damage size and probable location from within the structure. While traditional calculations and life span analysis can be done for structures made of isotropic materials such as steel or other metals, composites ...


Thermal And Orbital Analysis Of Darkness Cubesat, Katie Dickey May 2019

Thermal And Orbital Analysis Of Darkness Cubesat, Katie Dickey

Honors Program Projects

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is sending a 3U CubeSat into LEO to search for a 3.5 keV photon corresponding to the decay of a theorized dark matter particle called the sterile neutrino. The CubeSat will encounter environmental variations while in orbit that can be computed through an orbital analysis using System’s Tool Kit. In order to minimize thermal noise readout, improve optical resolution, and increase bandwidth, the sensors must be kept below 170K while taking data. This temperature is difficult to achieve due to radiation from the Sun and the Earth’s albedo radiation. Through the thermal analysis ...


Bouncing Dynamics Of A Class Of Mem/Nem Switching Systems, Mohamed Bognash Jan 2019

Bouncing Dynamics Of A Class Of Mem/Nem Switching Systems, Mohamed Bognash

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of the present research is to understand the bouncing dynamic behavior of NEM/MEM switches in order to improve the switch performance and reliability. It is well known that the bouncing can dramatically degrade the switch performance and life; hence, in the present study, bouncing dynamics of a cantilever-based NME/MEM switch has been studied in detail. To this end, a model of a MEM switch that incorporates electrostatic force, squeeze film air damping force as well as asperity-based contact force has been proposed for an electrostatically actuated switch. An actuation force due to piezoelectric effects is further ...


Creating A Computational Tool To Simulate Vibration Control For Piezoelectric Devices, Ahmet Ozkan Ozer, Emma J. Moore Nov 2018

Creating A Computational Tool To Simulate Vibration Control For Piezoelectric Devices, Ahmet Ozkan Ozer, Emma J. Moore

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Piezoelectric materials have the unique ability to convert electrical energy to mechanical vibrations and vice versa. This project takes a stab to develop a reliable computational tool to simulate the vibration control of a novel “partial differential equation” model for a piezoelectric device, which is designed by integrating electric conducting piezoelectric layers constraining a viscoelastic layer to provide an active and lightweight intelligent structure. Controlling unwanted vibrations on piezoelectric devices (or harvesting energy from ambient vibrations) through piezoelectric layers has been the major focus in cutting-edge engineering applications such as ultrasonic welders and inchworms. The corresponding mathematical models for piezoelectric ...


Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Of Metal Additive Manufacturing., Venkata Karthik Nadimpalli May 2018

Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Of Metal Additive Manufacturing., Venkata Karthik Nadimpalli

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) is increasingly being used to make functional components. One of the barriers for AM components to become mainstream is the difficulty to certify them. AM components can have widely different properties based on process parameters. Improving an AM processes requires an understanding of process-structure-property correlations, which can be gathered in-situ and post-process through nondestructive and destructive methods. In this study, two metal AM processes were studied, the first is Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) and the second is Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF). The typical problems with UAM components are inter-layer and inter-track defects. To improve the ...


Lamb Waves With Conical Dispersion At Zero Wavenumber, David M. Stobbe Jan 2018

Lamb Waves With Conical Dispersion At Zero Wavenumber, David M. Stobbe

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Lamb waves are guided elastic waves in plates. These waves are dispersive, with the frequency and wavenumber related by the well-known Rayleigh-Lamb equation. Generally, at zero wavenumber the dispersion curves are parabolic and the waves are non-propagating thickness resonances. For distinct values of Poisson’s ratio, however, degeneracy can occur between thickness resonance modes. At these coincidence frequencies the dispersion curves become linear and in a three-dimensional representation the dispersion surface is shaped like a cone. This behavior is referred to as conical dispersion. Waves excited at coincidence frequencies maintain the infinite phase velocity associated with thickness resonances but transport ...


Experimental Building Demonstration Model With Viscous Fluid Dampers, Blake Thomas Reeve, Brianna Jean Kufa, Aden Malek Stepanians, Sophie Carmion Ratkovich Jun 2016

Experimental Building Demonstration Model With Viscous Fluid Dampers, Blake Thomas Reeve, Brianna Jean Kufa, Aden Malek Stepanians, Sophie Carmion Ratkovich

Architectural Engineering

The Architectural Engineering major places a heavy emphasis on structural dynamics and the role of wind and seismic loading in building analysis and design. Buildings of high importance that are critical to community function, such as hospitals, often utilize supplemental damping devices like supplemental viscous fluid dampers or base isolators to reduce the overall demands on the structural system. The design and analysis of these dampers are typically not taught at the undergraduate level, and is frequently performed by mechanical engineers, in lieu of structural engineers.

To better understand and research building behavior with supplemental damping devices, our multi-disciplinary team ...


The University Of Akron Human Powered Vehicle Team, Maria E. Rizzo, Andrew J. Derhammer, Christopher M. Trowbridge, Timothy M. Nutt, Joseph R. Boyd, Jeremy W. Marcum, Jonathan E. Adams, Donald G. Haiss, Julia Wood, Brian D. Goshia, Scott T. Fagan, Joshua D. Everhard, Rebecca L. Slivka Jan 2016

The University Of Akron Human Powered Vehicle Team, Maria E. Rizzo, Andrew J. Derhammer, Christopher M. Trowbridge, Timothy M. Nutt, Joseph R. Boyd, Jeremy W. Marcum, Jonathan E. Adams, Donald G. Haiss, Julia Wood, Brian D. Goshia, Scott T. Fagan, Joshua D. Everhard, Rebecca L. Slivka

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The University of Akron Human Powered Vehicle Team’s 2016 vehicle, Klokan, was designed, manufactured and tested with safety, reliability, performance and ease of use in mind. The vehicle is a fully faired tadpole trike with a lightweight aluminum frame constructed from 6061-T6 tubing having a total weight of 8.9 lbs. To complement the lightweight frame, the fairing is constructed from polycarbonate, PETG and carbon fiber strips which combine into a lightweight, easy to manufacture weather barrier and aerodynamic structure. Klokan was designed to be a safe and efficient mode of everyday transportation which ensures that riders are sufficiently ...


Methodology For Analyzing Epoxy-Cnt Phononic Crystals For Wave Attenuation And Guiding, Madhu Kolati Jan 2016

Methodology For Analyzing Epoxy-Cnt Phononic Crystals For Wave Attenuation And Guiding, Madhu Kolati

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Phononic crystals (PhnCs) control, direct and manipulate sound waves to achieve wave guiding and attenuation. This dissertation presents methodology for analyzing nanotube materials based phononic crystals to achieve control over sound, vibration and stress mitigation. Much of the analytical work presented is in identifying frequency band gaps in which sound or vibration cannot propagate through these PhnCs. Wave attenuation and mitigation analysis is demonstrated using finite element simulation. Engineering principles from current research areas of solid mechanics, solid-state physics, elasto-dynamics, mechanical vibrations and acoustics are employed for the methodology. A considerable effort is put to show that these PhnCs can ...


Experimental Characterization Of Sulfate Damage Of Concrete Based On The Harmonic Wave Modulation Technique, Tinyuan Yin, Wanlin Meng, Neda Talebzadeh, Jun Chen Jan 2016

Experimental Characterization Of Sulfate Damage Of Concrete Based On The Harmonic Wave Modulation Technique, Tinyuan Yin, Wanlin Meng, Neda Talebzadeh, Jun Chen

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The objective of this paper is to characterize cracking progression of concrete samples subjected to sulfate attack cycles by employment of a nonlinear wave modulation technique. The sidebands in frequency domain (f1±f2) are produced due to the modulation of two ultrasonic waves (high frequency f1 and low frequency f2) and the relative amplitude of sidebands is defined as the nonlinear parameter considered as a caliber for structural damage. Different from previous work where the low frequency signal was generated by the instrumented hammer, the low frequency signal in this research is a harmonic wave produced by an electromagnetic exciter ...


Non-Contact Evaluation Of Residual Stress In Metals With Laser-Generated Surface Acoustic Waves And A Point-Like Fiber-Optic Sagnac Detector, Łukasz Ambrozinski, Ivan Pelivanov, Michael B. Prime, Matthew O’Donnell Jan 2016

Non-Contact Evaluation Of Residual Stress In Metals With Laser-Generated Surface Acoustic Waves And A Point-Like Fiber-Optic Sagnac Detector, Łukasz Ambrozinski, Ivan Pelivanov, Michael B. Prime, Matthew O’Donnell

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Stress can remain in a material after the original load is removed. It can be purposely introduced to improve the properties of structural components, but can also be undesired, shortening a component’s lifetime, changing its original geometry or even leading to failure.

There is a large spectrum of problems where residual stress must be evaluated. An acousto-elastic approach is non-destructive and uses stress-dependent alterations in ultrasound (US) speed of bulk or surface modes [1]. However, these alterations are incredibly small (10-3 ÷ 10-5) and, thus, accurate measurement of both the US wave speed and propagation distance is required. Thickness measurement ...


Subsurface Inclusion Quantification Using Multi-Frequency Ultrasonic Surface Waves, Musa Norouzian, Joseph A. Turner, Allen J. Fuller, Brent M. Wilson Jan 2016

Subsurface Inclusion Quantification Using Multi-Frequency Ultrasonic Surface Waves, Musa Norouzian, Joseph A. Turner, Allen J. Fuller, Brent M. Wilson

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) is one of the major sources of subsurface-initiated spalling in bearing components. These types of spalls initiate in regions where microcracks are formed due to a localized increase in stress from inclusions near the surface. Ultrasonic bulk inspection is a powerful method to detect defects in a large volume of steel. However, inclusions near the surface of a sample can elude detection because reflections from the inclusion can be masked by reflections from the sample surface. This limitation can be eliminated if ultrasonic surface wave methods are used for inspection. Surface waves have material displacements localized ...


Localization And Characterization Of Fatigue Cracks Around Fastener Holes Using Spherically Focused Ultrasonic Probes, Deborah Hopkins, Marvin Datuin, John Aldrin, Mark Warchol, Lyudmila Warchol, David Forsyth, Charlie Buynak, Eric Lindgren Jan 2016

Localization And Characterization Of Fatigue Cracks Around Fastener Holes Using Spherically Focused Ultrasonic Probes, Deborah Hopkins, Marvin Datuin, John Aldrin, Mark Warchol, Lyudmila Warchol, David Forsyth, Charlie Buynak, Eric Lindgren

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Results are presented from laboratory experiments and simulations designed to determine the ability to localize and characterize fatigue cracks around fastener holes using spherically fo-cused ultrasonic (UT) probes for shear-wave inspections. In designing and evaluating inspection protocols, the number of cases that can be studied through laboratory experiments is severely limited by cost and time constraints. Simulations therefore stand to play a significant role in the design and optimization of inspection strategies for those conditions that can be accurately mod-eled. Moving from benchmark studies for relatively simple geometries toward more realistic conditions creates significant challenges. For shear-wave inspections of fastener ...


Focused Ultrasonic Beam Behavior At A Stress-Free Boundary And Applicability For Measuring Nonlinearity Parameter In A Reflection Mode, Hyunjo Jeong, Shuzeng Zhang, Jongboem Kim, Xiongbing Li Jan 2016

Focused Ultrasonic Beam Behavior At A Stress-Free Boundary And Applicability For Measuring Nonlinearity Parameter In A Reflection Mode, Hyunjo Jeong, Shuzeng Zhang, Jongboem Kim, Xiongbing Li

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Measurements of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter β are frequently made for early detection of damage in various materials. The practical implementation of the measurement technique has been limited to the through-transmission setup for determining the nonlinearity parameter of the second harmonic wave. For the purpose of practical applications, a pulse-echo measurement technique is more desirable which enables the single-side access of test components. The issue with using the second harmonic wave reflected from the stress-free interface is that such a boundary destructively alters the nonlinear generation process and consequently makes it difficult to obtain the reliable results of β.

In ...


Residual Stress Nondestructive Testing Technology Using Nonlinear Ultrasonic, Chunguang Xu, Junfeng Wang, Jianfeng Song Jan 2016

Residual Stress Nondestructive Testing Technology Using Nonlinear Ultrasonic, Chunguang Xu, Junfeng Wang, Jianfeng Song

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The nonlinear ultrasonic theory is that ultrasonic waves interact with micro defects and the higher harmonic waves appear when the ultrasonic waves propagate in materials. The acoustic nonlinear parameters are sensitive to micro defects in the nonlinear materials. They are used to characterize the nonlinear characteristics of materials. The nonlinear ultrasonic theories and the characterization of stress in metal by the nonlinear ultrasonic are studied. The nonlinear ultrasonic testing system is built to detect the received signals which propagate in materials with stress. The variation trends of the nonlinear parameters is studied in tensile testing. This paper studies the relationship ...


Development Of A Two-Fluid Drag Law For Clustered Particles Using Direct Numerical Simulation And Validation Through Experiments, Ahmadreza Abbasi Baharanchi Nov 2015

Development Of A Two-Fluid Drag Law For Clustered Particles Using Direct Numerical Simulation And Validation Through Experiments, Ahmadreza Abbasi Baharanchi

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focused on development and utilization of numerical and experimental approaches to improve the CFD modeling of fluidization flow of cohesive micron size particles. The specific objectives of this research were: (1) Developing a cluster prediction mechanism applicable to Two-Fluid Modeling (TFM) of gas-solid systems (2) Developing more accurate drag models for Two-Fluid Modeling (TFM) of gas-solid fluidization flow with the presence of cohesive interparticle forces (3) using the developed model to explore the improvement of accuracy of TFM in simulation of fluidization flow of cohesive powders (4) Understanding the causes and influential factor which led to improvements and ...


Umass Amherst Green Building Guidelines 2013, Ludmilla Pavlova-Gillham, Ted Mendoza, Ezra Small, Patricia O'Flaherty, Nariman Mostafavi, Mohamed Farzinmoghadam, Somayeh Tabatabaee Pozveh Oct 2015

Umass Amherst Green Building Guidelines 2013, Ludmilla Pavlova-Gillham, Ted Mendoza, Ezra Small, Patricia O'Flaherty, Nariman Mostafavi, Mohamed Farzinmoghadam, Somayeh Tabatabaee Pozveh

Ludmilla D Pavlova

Facilities & Campus Services, Sustainable UMass and Campus Planning support sustainability and energy conservation initiatives by providing in-house resources to campus staff as well as designers and contractors working with the University. The UMass Amherst Green Building Guidelines provide a framework for approaching new construction and major renovation projects at UMass Amherst that are undergoing LEED certification by focusing the conversation on green building aspects that are most important to the campus. They are intended to be the beginning of a dynamic conversation between designers, environmental consultants and constructors, university stakeholders, and users of new high performance buildings.


Analytical And Numerical Analysis Of Low Velocity Impact On Metallic Sandwich Panel With Polyurethane Foam Core, Mohsen Mahdian, Hossein Ebrahimi Aug 2015

Analytical And Numerical Analysis Of Low Velocity Impact On Metallic Sandwich Panel With Polyurethane Foam Core, Mohsen Mahdian, Hossein Ebrahimi

Hossein Ebrahimi

No abstract provided.


Optical Detection Of Acoustic Emission Signals, C Harvey Palmer, Robert E. Green Jr Jun 2015

Optical Detection Of Acoustic Emission Signals, C Harvey Palmer, Robert E. Green Jr

Robert A. Green

Piezoelectric transducers, long used in the generation and detection of ultrasonic waves, have more recently been the detector of choice for acoustic emission signals. Optical probing methods, however, have several important advantages for acoustic emission studies: (1) they have an inherent broad frequency response, free from mechanical resonances, (2) they do not interfere with the acoustic waves. (3) since the focused optical beam diameters are typically only a few hundredths of a millimeter, optical methods can probe very close to a crack or a twin, (4) they can probe internally in transparent media, and (5) they can be used over ...


Phase Dynamics Of Locset Control Methodology, Brendan Neschke May 2015

Phase Dynamics Of Locset Control Methodology, Brendan Neschke

Masters Theses

Single-mode fiber amplifiers produce diffraction-limited beams very efficiently. Maximum beam intensity requires that an array of these amplifiers have their beams coherently combined at the target. Optical path differences and noise adversely affect beam quality. An existing closed loop phase control methodology, called the locking of optical coherence by single-detector electronic-frequency tagging (LOCSET), corrects phase errors in real time by electronically detecting path length differences and sending signals to lithium niobate phase adjusters. Broadening the line-width using “jitter” of the input signal can increase the output power of an individual amplifier by suppressing nonlinearity. The system dynamics of LOCSET are ...


Applying Spiking Neural Network Simulation To Neuromodulatory Autonomous Robot Control, Cameron Muhammad Jan 2014

Applying Spiking Neural Network Simulation To Neuromodulatory Autonomous Robot Control, Cameron Muhammad

Phi Kappa Phi Research Symposium

In this paper, simulation of the brain based on an artificial spiking neuron model is used to create a self-learning algorithm. The spiking neuron simulation is used to demonstrate a neuromodulation program in which the reward seeking properties of dopamine, the risk-adverse effects of serotonin, and the attention-focusing effects of the cholinergic and noradrenergic systems are applied to a mobile robotic platform as it moves autonomously throughout an environment. External stimuli is recorded by the program as spiking “events” that result in corresponding amounts of dopamine and serotonin influenced spiking patterns. These spiking patterns affect how the robot adapts to ...


Inherent Acoustic Nonlinearity In Fiber Reinforced Composites, Sunil Kishore Chakrapani Jan 2014

Inherent Acoustic Nonlinearity In Fiber Reinforced Composites, Sunil Kishore Chakrapani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nonlinear elastic wave methods such as nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) and nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy have been previously used to detect damages in several materials. It was observed that applying these techniques to composite materials becomes difficult due to the significant inherent baseline nonlinearity, i.e. nonlinearity in the undamaged state. Understanding the non-classical nonlinear nature of the composites plays a vital role in implementing nonlinear acoustic techniques for material characterization as well as qualitative nondestructive testing of composites. There are several factors which can influence the baseline nonlinear response in fiber reinforced composites, but this work is limited ...


Code Optimization For Phase Field Method, Sergio Andres Monsalve, Marisol Koslowski Oct 2013

Code Optimization For Phase Field Method, Sergio Andres Monsalve, Marisol Koslowski

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The Phase field model method for studying grain dislocation at atomic level after applying an external force to the materials being tested, enables simulate the behavior of different materials after applying stress. With the appropriate numerical method the simulation could change drastically the complexity of the algorithm. Finding the most accurate and stable numerical method for the phase field model give us a considerable improving in the performance of the code used to simulate the phase field dynamic dislocation in larger and more complex simulations can be performed. We made an statistic comparison between the different methods, comparing stability and ...


Umass Amherst Green Building Guidelines 2013, Ludmilla Pavlova-Gillham, Ted Mendoza, Ezra Small, Patricia O'Flaherty, Nariman Mostafavi, Mohamed Farzinmoghadam, Somayeh Tabatabaee Pozveh Jan 2013

Umass Amherst Green Building Guidelines 2013, Ludmilla Pavlova-Gillham, Ted Mendoza, Ezra Small, Patricia O'Flaherty, Nariman Mostafavi, Mohamed Farzinmoghadam, Somayeh Tabatabaee Pozveh

Campus Planning Reports and Plans

Facilities & Campus Services, Sustainable UMass and Campus Planning support sustainability and energy conservation initiatives by providing in-house resources to campus staff as well as designers and contractors working with the University. The UMass Amherst Green Building Guidelines provide a framework for approaching new construction and major renovation projects at UMass Amherst that are undergoing LEED certification by focusing the conversation on green building aspects that are most important to the campus. They are intended to be the beginning of a dynamic conversation between designers, environmental consultants and constructors, university stakeholders, and users of new high performance buildings.


Implementation Of Magnetic Resonance Elastography For The Investigation Of Traumatic Brain Injuries, Thomas Boulet Dec 2012

Implementation Of Magnetic Resonance Elastography For The Investigation Of Traumatic Brain Injuries, Thomas Boulet

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a potentially transformative imaging modality allowing local and non-invasive measurement of biological tissue mechanical properties. It uses a specific phase contrast MR pulse sequence to measure induced vibratory motion in soft material, from which material properties can be estimated. Compared to other imaging techniques, MRE is able to detect tissue pathology at early stages by quantifying the changes in tissue stiffness associated with diseases. In an effort to develop the technique and improve its capabilities, two inversion algorithms were written to evaluate viscoelastic properties from the measured displacements fields. The first one was based on ...


Acoustic Emission Detection Of Metals And Alloys During Machining Operations, Jameson K. Nelson Apr 2012

Acoustic Emission Detection Of Metals And Alloys During Machining Operations, Jameson K. Nelson

Purdue Polytechnic Masters Theses

Nelson, Jameson K. M.S., Purdue University, May 2012. Acoustic Emission Detection of Metals and Alloys During Machining Operations. Major Professor: Rodney G. Handy.

Practical correlation between material deformation attributes and theoretical concepts of machining has proven difficult to attain. The purpose of this study was to further explore trends and relationships using acoustic emission detection of materials undergoing single-point lathe turning machine processes. The majority of machining experiments that incorporate acoustic emissions focuses on tool degradation for the purposes of optimizing consumables required to manufacture mechanical devices. Experiments were implemented varying recording location, mechanical barrier condition, and machine parameters ...


Vibration-Based Health Monitoring Of Multiple-Stage Gear Train And Differential Planetary Transmission Involving Teeth Damage And Backlash Nonlinearity, Andrew Patrick Sommer Sep 2011

Vibration-Based Health Monitoring Of Multiple-Stage Gear Train And Differential Planetary Transmission Involving Teeth Damage And Backlash Nonlinearity, Andrew Patrick Sommer

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The objective of this thesis is to develop vibration-based fault detection strategies for on-line condition monitoring of gear transmission systems. The study divides the thesis into three sections. First of all, the local stresses created by a root fatigue crack on a pinion spur gear are analyzed using a quasi-static finite element model and non-linear contact mechanics simulation. Backlash between gear teeth which is essential to provide better lubrication on tooth surfaces and to eliminate interference is included as a defect and a necessary part of transmission design. The second section is dedicated to fixed axis power trains. Torsional vibration ...


Dependence Of Recombination Mechanisms And Strength On Processing Conditions In Polymer Solar Cells, Kanwar S. Nalwa, Hari K. Kodali, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Sumit Chaudhary Jan 2011

Dependence Of Recombination Mechanisms And Strength On Processing Conditions In Polymer Solar Cells, Kanwar S. Nalwa, Hari K. Kodali, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Sumit Chaudhary

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Charge carrier recombination due to carrier trapping is not often considered in polymer based solar cells, except in those using non-fullerene acceptors or new donor polymers with limited short-range order. However, we show that even for the canonical poly(3-hexylthiophene): phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) system, relative strengths of bimolecular and trap-assisted recombination are strongly dependent on processing conditions. For slow-grown active-layers, bimolecular recombination is indeed the major loss mechanism under one sun illumination. However, for fast-grown active-layers, trap-assisted recombination dominates over bimolecular recombination by an order of magnitude, and recombination strength at short-circuit condition is 3-4 times higher ...


Numerical Calculation Of Diffraction Coefficients In Anisotropic Media, J. Temple, L. White Jan 1993

Numerical Calculation Of Diffraction Coefficients In Anisotropic Media, J. Temple, L. White

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Ultrasonic inspection is used to detect and size crack-like defects in pressure vessels and pipework used in the nuclear industry. Reliable inspection can only be achieved if the inspection technique is understood, is optimised and subsequently applied correctly. Austenitic steels are used because of their corrosion resistance and toughness. Welds and centrifugally cast materials tend to crystallise with grains larger than the ultrasonic wavelength required to achieve the desired resolution in the inspection and thus appear anisotropic. Since the grains in a weld grow along the, varying, directions of maximum heat flux during cooling, the welds are inhomogeneous as well ...