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Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Evaluation Of Tracing Techniques In The Rat Spinal Cord Using A Custom Matlab Application., Rachel M. Zalla May 2020

Evaluation Of Tracing Techniques In The Rat Spinal Cord Using A Custom Matlab Application., Rachel M. Zalla

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the efficiency of traditional chemical tracing compared to dual-viral tracing for labeling long ascending propriospinal neurons (LAPNs) in the uninjured rat spinal cord, and to develop a MATLAB program which will accurately quantify this labeling.

To evaluate chemical tracing, Fluoro-Ruby (FR) was injected at the level of the axon terminals, and the number of ipsilateral labeled cell bodies at lumbar level was quantified. Similarly, two dual-viral systems were evaluated, by either injecting retro-AAV-Cre or HiRet-Lenti-Cre unilaterally in combination with a Cre-dependent adeno-associated virus. The HiRet-Lenti and FR groups labeled significantly greater ...


Prediction Of Forelimb Muscle Activities And Movement Phases Using Corticospinal Signals In The Rat, Sinan Gok May 2018

Prediction Of Forelimb Muscle Activities And Movement Phases Using Corticospinal Signals In The Rat, Sinan Gok

Dissertations

The targeted population for this project is primarily patients with high level spinal cord injury (SCI) and individuals with motor neuron diseases (MND). In both SCI and MND cases motor control is interrupted due to lack of communication between the brain and the musculature, although both sides are otherwise functional. The approach in this project is to use neural engineering techniques to restore the motor function that was lost because of an injury or disease.

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) attempt to extract the volitional signals from the cortex when the brain's normal outputs to the musculoskeletal system are impaired. However ...


Characterization Of Histological Changes In The Microvasculature Of Rat Skeletal Muscle After Spinal Cord Injury, Sally Lin Oct 2016

Characterization Of Histological Changes In The Microvasculature Of Rat Skeletal Muscle After Spinal Cord Injury, Sally Lin

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are histological changes in the microvasculature of rat skeletal muscle following chronic spinal cord injury both above and below the level of injury. This study is important because microvascular structure likely impacts muscle performance and cardiovascular health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only study to investigate microvascular structure within rat skeletal muscle after spinal cord injury. We hypothesized structural remodeling would occur in both the myofibers and microvasculature, which would then manifest in differences in myofiber cross sectional area and microvascular diameter, wall thickness, wall to ...


An In Vivo Study Of The Effects Of Perinatal Caffeine Exposure On Synaptic Efficacy In The Hippocampus Of Freely Moving Adult Rats, Jee Eun Park Apr 2016

An In Vivo Study Of The Effects Of Perinatal Caffeine Exposure On Synaptic Efficacy In The Hippocampus Of Freely Moving Adult Rats, Jee Eun Park

Senior Theses and Projects

The synapse from the perforant path to the dentate gyrus has been widely used successfully to demonstrate long-term potentiation, a cellular model underlying learning and memory. Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive stimulants in the world. Caffeine consumption increases in alertness, improvements in motor skills, and neurological functions, and these effects have promoted its use throughout history. Although the many short term cognitive benefits of caffeine intake are well understood, the long term effects of caffeine exposure have been widely disputed. Despite this, it is estimated that over 80% of women continue to consume caffeine throughout pregnancy ...


Refining A Post-Stroke Pharmacological And Physical Treatment To Reduce Infarct Volume Or Improve Functional Recovery, Using Gene Expression Changes In The Peri-Infarct Region To Examine Potential Mechanisms In Male And Female Rats, Moner A. Ragas Jan 2016

Refining A Post-Stroke Pharmacological And Physical Treatment To Reduce Infarct Volume Or Improve Functional Recovery, Using Gene Expression Changes In The Peri-Infarct Region To Examine Potential Mechanisms In Male And Female Rats, Moner A. Ragas

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Stroke, a life-threatening medical condition, is the fifth-leading cause of death in the United States with an estimated annual cost of treatments above $70 billion. A combination of innovative approaches was used in our lab to optimize the pre-clinical stroke research design by choosing the most appropriate animal model and methodologies to increase the translational capability of the stroke research. The first study, modeled after ongoing clinical trials using fluoxetine, refined the appropriate timing of fluoxetine and ascorbic acid delivery if a rat was on simvastatin for 7 days pre-stroke and throughout the remainder of the study. Administration of fluoxetine ...


Diffusion Imaging In The Rat Cervical Spinal Cord, Elizabeth Zakszewski, Brian D. Schmit, Shekar N. Kurpad, Matthew D. Budde Apr 2015

Diffusion Imaging In The Rat Cervical Spinal Cord, Elizabeth Zakszewski, Brian D. Schmit, Shekar N. Kurpad, Matthew D. Budde

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the state of the art approach for assessing the status of the spinal cord noninvasively, and can be used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in cases of disease or injury. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), is sensitive to the thermal motion of water molecules and allows for inferences of tissue microstructure. This report describes a protocol to acquire and analyze DWI of the rat cervical spinal cord on a small-bore animal system. It demonstrates an imaging setup for the live anesthetized animal and recommends a DWI acquisition protocol for high-quality imaging, which includes stabilization of ...


Development Of Non-Invasive In Vivo Ultrasound Imaging Techniques For Elastase-Induced Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Alexa A. Yrineo, Elizabeth A. Nunamaker, Hilary D. Schroeder, Amy E. Bogucki, Craig J. Goergen Oct 2013

Development Of Non-Invasive In Vivo Ultrasound Imaging Techniques For Elastase-Induced Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Alexa A. Yrineo, Elizabeth A. Nunamaker, Hilary D. Schroeder, Amy E. Bogucki, Craig J. Goergen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are pathological dilations of the aorta which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms that cause this inflammatory disease are not fully understood and thus, are currently under investigation. In the hopes of preventing disease progression, rodent models that mimic the human condition have been developed to provide insight into the pathogenesis of AAAs. In this study, porcine pancreatic elastase (0.44 U; Sigma-Aldrich) was infused into the infrarenal aortas of male, Sprague Dawley rats to induce aneurysms. To perform the surgery, temporary ligatures were placed around proximal and distal sections of the ...


Ex Vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of Spinal Cord Injury In Rats Of Varying Degrees Of Severity, Michael Jirjis, Shekar N. Kurpad, Brian D. Schmit Sep 2013

Ex Vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of Spinal Cord Injury In Rats Of Varying Degrees Of Severity, Michael Jirjis, Shekar N. Kurpad, Brian D. Schmit

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

The aim of this study was to characterize magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in proximal regions of the spinal cord following a thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 40) were administered a control, mild, moderate, or severe contusion injury at the T8 vertebral level. Six direction diffusion weighted images (DWIs) were collected ex vivo along the length of the spinal cord, with an echo/repetition time of 31.6 ms/14 sec and b = 500 sec/mm2. Diffusion metrics were correlated to hindlimb motor function. Significant differences were found for whole cord region of interest (ROI ...


Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of The Central Nervous System Following An Injury To The Spinal Cord And Cell Transplant, Michael Jirjis Jan 2013

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of The Central Nervous System Following An Injury To The Spinal Cord And Cell Transplant, Michael Jirjis

Dissertations (1934 -)

The purpose of this dissertation research was to characterize the use of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in understanding the changes that occur throughout the spinal cord and brain following a spinal cord injury (SCI) and following stem cell transplant. The diffusion of water inside the nervous system is dramatically altered around the lesion site following a traumatic SCI. However, following damage to the spinal cord, little is known about the diffusion characteristics away from an injury and even less is understood about DTI's sensitivity to structural changes that occur following regenerative ...


Bone Quality In Animal Models Of Osteoporosis, Marc Grynpas, Debbie Chachra, Kathleen Lundon Mar 2012

Bone Quality In Animal Models Of Osteoporosis, Marc Grynpas, Debbie Chachra, Kathleen Lundon

Debbie Chachra

The use of animal models is a very powerful tool for the preclinical assessment of potential therapies for osteoporosis. However, the effective use of animal models has two prerequisites. The first is the use of appropriate techniques to assess the overall effects of therapy on bone. As spontaneous fractures do not occur in any species other than humans, the efficacy of a therapy cannot be assessed by its impact on fracture incidence. Instead, a suite of parameters (collectively referred to as ‘bone quality’), including bone architecture, mineralization and mechanical properties, is examined. While techniques such as histomorphometry and dual-energy x-ray ...


Alignment And Composition Of Laminin-Polycaprolactone Nanofiber Blends Enhance Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Rebekah A. Neal, Sunil S. Tholpady, Patricia L. Foley, Nathan Swami, Roy C. Ogle, Edward A. Botchwey Jan 2012

Alignment And Composition Of Laminin-Polycaprolactone Nanofiber Blends Enhance Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Rebekah A. Neal, Sunil S. Tholpady, Patricia L. Foley, Nathan Swami, Roy C. Ogle, Edward A. Botchwey

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Peripheral nerve transection occurs commonly in traumatic injury, causing deficits distal to the injury site. Conduits for repair currently on the market are hollow tubes; however, they often fail due to slow regeneration over long gaps. To facilitate increased regeneration speed and functional recovery, the ideal conduit should provide biochemically relevant signals and physical guidance cues, thus playing an active role in regeneration. To that end, laminin and lamininpolycaprolactone (PCL) blend nanofibers were fabricated to mimic peripheral nerve basement membrane. In vitro assays established 10% (wt) laminin content is sufficient to retain neurite-promoting effects of laminin. In addition, modified collector ...


Elastogenic Characterization Of Rat Bm-Msc-Derived Smcs Towards Use In Soft Tissue Engineering, Sahithya Wintrich Jan 2012

Elastogenic Characterization Of Rat Bm-Msc-Derived Smcs Towards Use In Soft Tissue Engineering, Sahithya Wintrich

ETD Archive

No abstract provided.


Quantification Of Collagen Organization Using Fractal Dimensions And Fourier Transforms, Kayt E. Frisch, Sarah E. Duenwald-Kuehl, Hirohito Kobayashi, Connie S. Chamberlain, Roderic S. Lakes, Ray Vanderby Jr. Jan 2012

Quantification Of Collagen Organization Using Fractal Dimensions And Fourier Transforms, Kayt E. Frisch, Sarah E. Duenwald-Kuehl, Hirohito Kobayashi, Connie S. Chamberlain, Roderic S. Lakes, Ray Vanderby Jr.

Faculty Publications - Biomedical, Mechanical, and Civil Engineering

Collagen fibers and fibrils that comprise tendons and ligaments are disrupted or damaged during injury. Fibrillogenesis during healing produces a matrix that is initially quite disorganized, but remodels over time to resemble, but not replicate, the original roughly parallel microstructure. Quantification of these changes is traditionally a laborious and subjective task. In this work we applied two automated techniques, fast Fourier transformation (FFT) and fractal dimension analysis (FA) to quantify the organization of collagen fibers or fibrils. Using multi-photon images of collagen fibers obtained from rat ligament we showed that for healing ligaments, FA differentiates more clearly between the different ...


The Influence Of Macrophage Depletion On Ligament Healing, Connie S. Chamberlain, Ellen M. Leiferman, Kayt E. Frisch, Sijian Wang, Xipei Yang, Nico Van Rooijen, Geoff S. Baer, Stacey L. Brickson, Ray Vanderby Jan 2011

The Influence Of Macrophage Depletion On Ligament Healing, Connie S. Chamberlain, Ellen M. Leiferman, Kayt E. Frisch, Sijian Wang, Xipei Yang, Nico Van Rooijen, Geoff S. Baer, Stacey L. Brickson, Ray Vanderby

Faculty Publications - Biomedical, Mechanical, and Civil Engineering

Despite a complex cascade of cellular events to reconstruct damaged extracellular matrix (ECM), ligament healing results in a mechanically inferior, scar-like tissue. During normal healing, the number of macrophages significantly increases within the wound site. Then, granulation tissue expands into any residual, normal ligamentous tissue (creeping substitution), resulting in a larger region of healing, greater mechanical compromise, and an inefficient repair process. To study the effects of macrophages on the repair process, bilateral, surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments (MCLs) was done on rats. Treatment animals received liposome-encapsulated clodronate, 2 days before rupture to ablate phagocytosing macrophages. Ligaments were ...


Imaging Radiation Pneumonitis In A Rat Model Of A Radiological Terrorism Incident, Robert C. Molthen, Qingping Wu, Gary S. Krenz, Meetha Medhora, Elizabeth R. Jacobs, John E. Moulder Feb 2009

Imaging Radiation Pneumonitis In A Rat Model Of A Radiological Terrorism Incident, Robert C. Molthen, Qingping Wu, Gary S. Krenz, Meetha Medhora, Elizabeth R. Jacobs, John E. Moulder

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

We have developed a rat model of single, sub-lethal thoracic irradiation. Our irradiation protocol is considered representative of exposures near the detonation site of a dirty bomb or small nuclear device. The model is being used to investigate techniques for identifying, triaging and treating possible victims. In addition to physiological markers of right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary vascular resistance, and arterial distensibility, we present two methods for quantifying microvascular density. We used methods including microfocal X-ray imaging to investigate changes in lung structure/function resulting from radiation exposure. Radiation pneumonitis is a complication in subjects receiving thoracic irradiation. A radiographic hallmark ...


Electromyographic Characterization In An Animal Model Of Dystonia, Kunal Dilip Chaniary Jan 2008

Electromyographic Characterization In An Animal Model Of Dystonia, Kunal Dilip Chaniary

Theses and Dissertations

Kernicterus causes damage to the auditory system and the basal ganglia in humans. Although the Gunn rat model of kernicterus has been extensively used to characterize the auditory features, this model has not been utilized to systematically investigate the movement disorder. In the present study, spontaneously jaundiced (jj) 16 day old Gunn rat pups were treated with sulfadimethoxine to exacerbate bilirubin neurotoxicity and compared to saline treated jjs and non-jaundiced (Nj) littermates. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from antagonistic hip muscles in dystonic and in normal appearing rats. Raw EMG signals were decomposed using the Discrete Wavelet Transform based multi-resolution ...


Quantification Of Bronchial Circulation Perfusion In Rats, Christian Wieholt, Robert C. Molthen, Steven Thomas Haworth, David L. Roerig, Christopher A. Dawson, Anne V. Clough Feb 2004

Quantification Of Bronchial Circulation Perfusion In Rats, Christian Wieholt, Robert C. Molthen, Steven Thomas Haworth, David L. Roerig, Christopher A. Dawson, Anne V. Clough

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

The bronchial circulation is thought to be the primary blood supply for pulmonary carcinomas. Thus, we have developed a method for imaging and quantifying changes in perfusion in the rat lung due to development of the bronchial circulation. A dual-modality micro-CT/SPECT system was used to detect change in perfusion in two groups of rats: controls and those with a surgically occluded left pulmonary artery. Both groups were imaged following injections on separate days i) 2mCi of Tc99m labeled macroaggregated albumin (MAA) into the left carotid artery (IA) and ii) a similar injection into the femoral vein (IV). The IA ...


Spect Imaging Of Pulmonary Blood Flow In A Rat, Christian Wieholt, Robert C. Molthen, Roger H. Johnson, Christopher A. Dawson, Anne V. Clough Feb 2003

Spect Imaging Of Pulmonary Blood Flow In A Rat, Christian Wieholt, Robert C. Molthen, Roger H. Johnson, Christopher A. Dawson, Anne V. Clough

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Small animal imaging is experiencing rapid development due to its importance in providing high-throughput phenotypic data for functional genomics studies. We have developed a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system to image the pulmonary perfusion distribution in the rat. A standard gamma camera, equipped with a pinhole collimator, was used to acquire SPECT projection images at 40 sec/view of the rat thorax following injection of Tc99m labeled albumin that accumulated in the rat's lungs. A voxel-driven, ordered-subset expectation maximization reconstruction was implemented. Following SPECT imaging, the rat was imaged using micro-CT with Feldkamp conebeam reconstruction. The two ...


Estimation Of Pulmonary Arterial Volume Changes In The Normal And Hypertensive Fawn-Hooded Rat From 3d Micro-Ct Data, Robert C. Molthen, Christian Wieholt, Steven Thomas Haworth, Christopher A. Dawson Feb 2002

Estimation Of Pulmonary Arterial Volume Changes In The Normal And Hypertensive Fawn-Hooded Rat From 3d Micro-Ct Data, Robert C. Molthen, Christian Wieholt, Steven Thomas Haworth, Christopher A. Dawson

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

In the study of pulmonary vascular remodeling, much can be learned from observing the morphological changes undergone in the pulmonary arteries of the rat lung when exposed to chronic hypoxia or other challenges which elicit a remodeling response. Remodeling effects include thickening of vessel walls, and loss of wall compliance. Morphometric data can be used to localize the hemodynamic and functional consequences. We developed a CT imaging method for measuring the pulmonary arterial tree over a range of pressures in rat lungs. X-ray micro-focal isotropic volumetric imaging of the arterial tree in the intact rat lung provides detailed information on ...


Scanning Electron Microscopy Of The Osteoclast-Bone Interface In Vivo, H. Zhou, R. Chernecky, J. E. Davies Jan 1993

Scanning Electron Microscopy Of The Osteoclast-Bone Interface In Vivo, H. Zhou, R. Chernecky, J. E. Davies

Cells and Materials

Rat femoral bones were studied by scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate the morphology of osteoclast- bone matrix interfacial relationships. Two general morphological types of actively resorbing osteoclasts were observed . One cell type was approximately ovoid with highly fimbriated borders, fully attached and closely adapted to the resorption surface. The ruffled border of such cells was composed of a number of individual filopodia which were of uniform , regular shape and approximately 2-3 μm in length and 150 nm in diameter. They were found to penetrate the bone matrix to a depth of 1 μm and interdigitated with the surrounding bone. The ...


Primary Bone Formation In Porous Hydroxyapatite Ceramic: A Light And Scanning Electron Microscopic Study, M. Okumura, H. Ohgushi, S. Tamai, E. C. Shors Jan 1991

Primary Bone Formation In Porous Hydroxyapatite Ceramic: A Light And Scanning Electron Microscopic Study, M. Okumura, H. Ohgushi, S. Tamai, E. C. Shors

Cells and Materials

Porous hydroxyapatite ceramics combined with rat marrow cells were implanted subcutaneously in the back of syngeneic Fischer rats . Fluorochrome-labeling (calcein, tetracycline) was performed post-operatively and the ceramics were harvested 4 weeks after implantation. Undecalcified thin sections of the implants were observed under light microscopy or fluoromicroscopy and the corresponding areas were also analyzed in a scanning electron microscope connected to an electron probe microanalyzer (SEM-EPMA). Many pore areas of the ceramics showed bone and osteoid formation together with active osteoblasts. The bone formation began directly on the surface of the ceramic and proceeded in a centripetal direction towards the center ...