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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Social Justice Mitigation In Transportation Projects: Why And How Lexington Fayette Urban County Government Can Support The Lexington Community Land Trust’S Path To Self-Sustainability, Pamela Clay-Young, Steven Douglas Kreis Apr 2020

Social Justice Mitigation In Transportation Projects: Why And How Lexington Fayette Urban County Government Can Support The Lexington Community Land Trust’S Path To Self-Sustainability, Pamela Clay-Young, Steven Douglas Kreis

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

The city of Lexington has reached a critical shortage of affordable housing available to families earning 80% - 50% of area median income (AMI). This study focuses on how to grow the Lexington CLT into self-sustainability while also narrowing the affordable housing gaps in Fayette County. Current research offers support for the city’s affordable housing program to adopt the community land trust model (CLT). The research recommends using tools such as the Lexington CLT, the Lexington-Fayette Urban County Landbank Authority (LFUCLA), and Lexington’s Affordable Housing Trust Fund, along with new development incentives, to develop a housing strategy that is ...


Analysis And Assessment Of The Reimbursement Rates And Mechanisms For Kentucky’S Publicly Funded Ferries, P. Gayle Marks, Bryan Gibson, Andrew Martin, Steven Douglas Kreis Feb 2020

Analysis And Assessment Of The Reimbursement Rates And Mechanisms For Kentucky’S Publicly Funded Ferries, P. Gayle Marks, Bryan Gibson, Andrew Martin, Steven Douglas Kreis

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) reimburses publicly operated ferries, including when they cease operations due to severe weather or unforeseen events. Reimbursement procedures are not codified in law and are largely based on historical practice. To determine how the Cabinet should handle reimbursement, funding, oversight of ferry services moving forward, the Kentucky Transportation Center (KTC) reviewed practices adopted by 10 other states and conducted a detailed analysis of Kentucky’s current approach. Of the states KTC examined, only Tennessee reimburses ferry operations for closures (at 50 percent of the normal hourly rate for a period up to 48 hours). Half ...


Barn-Raising On The Digital Frontier: The L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative, Bradford W. Hesse, David Ahern, Michele Ellison, Eliah Aronoff-Spencer, Robin C. Vanderpool, Karen Onyeije, Michael C. Gibbons, Timothy W. Mullett, Ming-Yuan Chih, Victoria Attencio, Grant Patterson, Jessica Boten, Christopher Hartshorn, Ben Bartolome, Katie Gorscak, Melanie Mccomsey, Alexandra Hubenko, Bin Huang, Corey Baker, Don Norman Jan 2020

Barn-Raising On The Digital Frontier: The L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative, Bradford W. Hesse, David Ahern, Michele Ellison, Eliah Aronoff-Spencer, Robin C. Vanderpool, Karen Onyeije, Michael C. Gibbons, Timothy W. Mullett, Ming-Yuan Chih, Victoria Attencio, Grant Patterson, Jessica Boten, Christopher Hartshorn, Ben Bartolome, Katie Gorscak, Melanie Mccomsey, Alexandra Hubenko, Bin Huang, Corey Baker, Don Norman

Journal of Appalachian Health

A meta-analysis of oncology papers from around the world revealed that cancer patients who lived more than 50 miles away from hospital centers routinely presented with more advanced stages of disease at diagnosis, exhibited lower adherence to prescribed treatments, presented with poorer diagnoses, and reported a lower quality of life than patients who lived nearer to care facilities. Connected health approaches—or the use of broadband and telecommunications technologies to evaluate, diagnose, and monitor patients beyond the clinic—are becoming an indispensable tool in medicine to overcome the obstacle of distance.


Coarse-Grained Dynamically Accurate Simulations Of Ionic Liquids At Vacuum-Interface, Tyler D. Stoffel Jan 2020

Coarse-Grained Dynamically Accurate Simulations Of Ionic Liquids At Vacuum-Interface, Tyler D. Stoffel

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Ionic liquids, possessing improved properties in many areas of technical application, are excellent candidates as components in development of next-generation technology, including ultra-high energy batteries. If they are thus applied, however, extensive interfacial analysis of any selected ionic configuration will likely be required. Molecular dynamics (MD) provides an advantageous route by which this may be accomplished, but can fall short in observing some phenomena only present at larger time/length scales than it can simulate. Often times this is approached by coarse-graining (CG), with which scope of simulation can be significantly increased. However, coarse-grained MD systems are generally known to ...


Filtered-Dynamic-Inversion Control For Unknown Minimum-Phase Systems With Unknown Relative Degree, Sumit Suryakant Kamat Jan 2020

Filtered-Dynamic-Inversion Control For Unknown Minimum-Phase Systems With Unknown Relative Degree, Sumit Suryakant Kamat

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

We present filtered-dynamic-inversion (FDI) control for unknown linear time-invariant systems that are multi-input multi-output and minimum phase with unknown-but-bounded relative degree. This FDI controller requires limited model information, specifically, knowledge of an upper bound on the relative degree and knowledge of the first nonzero Markov parameter. The FDI controller is a single-parameter high-parameter-stabilizing controller that is robust to uncertainty in the relative degree. We characterize the stability of the closed-loop system. We present numerical examples, where the FDI controller is implemented in feedback with mathematical and physical systems. The numerical examples demonstrate that the FDI controller for unknown relative degree ...


Proof Of Concept For The Development Of A Ground Vibration Sensor System For Future Research In Blasting, John Meuth Jan 2020

Proof Of Concept For The Development Of A Ground Vibration Sensor System For Future Research In Blasting, John Meuth

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

Ground vibrations from blasting are one of the leading limitations to mining (underground and surface). There is a need for a low-cost scalable vibration monitoring system to conduct large scale ground vibration projects in the mining industry. Studies conducted on ground vibrations use any number of different sensors to obtain their data, the different sensor capabilities and methods for data processing lead to uncertainties in the research and regulations set for ground vibrations. Commercial Systems do not allow researchers to obtain raw output data, and the data processing procedures are not provided or disclosed for these systems. In order to ...


Numerical And Experimental Studies Of Blocked Force Determination On An Offset Interface For Plate And Shell Structures And Duct Acoustic Systems, Keyu Chen Jan 2020

Numerical And Experimental Studies Of Blocked Force Determination On An Offset Interface For Plate And Shell Structures And Duct Acoustic Systems, Keyu Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Blocked force determination is an alternative to the more routine method of inverse force determination using classical transfer path analysis. One advantage of determining blocked forces is that there is no need for the source to be detached or isolated from the system. Another advantage is that calculated blocked forces are appropriate when modifications are made on the receiver side of the interface. This insures that the blocked forces are suitable for utilization in analysis models where receiver system modifications are considered. Difficulties in using the approach arise when interface locations are difficult to instrument. This thesis demonstrates that blocked ...


Expanded Predictive Equation For Dc Arc-Flash Incident Energy In 125v Battery Systems, Austin Gaunce Jan 2020

Expanded Predictive Equation For Dc Arc-Flash Incident Energy In 125v Battery Systems, Austin Gaunce

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Arc-flash is a dangerous phenomenon that can occur during an arcing fault in an electrical system. People nearby may be subjected to extreme heat, light, pressure, and sound. Research regarding arc-flash has focused primarily on AC arc-flash due to the prevalence of AC electricity in the grid. However, the grid has begun to integrate more DC electrical sources as a result of decentralization efforts and environmental concerns. The increased proliferation of DC electrical sources demands research into DC arc-flash to assess the hazard as low-voltage DC sources have already become commonplace. Some DC arc-flash models have been produced to estimate ...


End-To-End Prediction Of Weld Penetration In Real Time Based On Deep Learning, Wenhua Jiao Jan 2020

End-To-End Prediction Of Weld Penetration In Real Time Based On Deep Learning, Wenhua Jiao

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Welding is an important joining technique that has been automated/robotized. In automated/robotic welding applications, however, the parameters are preset and are not adaptively adjusted to overcome unpredicted disturbances, which cause these applications to not be able to meet the standards from welding/manufacturing industry in terms of quality, efficiency, and individuality. Combining information sensing and processing with traditional welding techniques is a significant step toward revolutionizing the welding industry. In practical welding, the weld penetration as measured by the back-side bead width is a critical factor when determining the integrity of the weld produced. However, the back-side bead ...


Modeling Thin Fluid Film On A Rotary Bell, Mark Doerre Jan 2020

Modeling Thin Fluid Film On A Rotary Bell, Mark Doerre

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

A component of the mission in the Institute of Research for Technology Development at the University of Kentucky is advancing research and development and bringing it to the factory floor for continuous improvement. This dissertation delves into the art and science of rotational fluid mechanics in the context of rotary bell atomizers. One outcome proves that an approximation for calculating fluid film thicknesses on high-speed spinning surfaces inferred while working in cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems can be applied to an arbitrary bell profile. However, the analytical limits of this approximation were not investigated. In all cases, a restriction exists ...


Investigation Of Host Nanotube Parameters For Enhancing The Performance Of Nanostructured Cds-Cdte Solar Cells, Deepak Kumar Jan 2020

Investigation Of Host Nanotube Parameters For Enhancing The Performance Of Nanostructured Cds-Cdte Solar Cells, Deepak Kumar

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of host nanotube parameters (pore diameter and pitch for different CdS coverages) and CdTe doping density on device performance in nanowire CdS/ CdTe solar cells using SCAPS-1D. This research finds the optimum values for these parameters in order to achieve the highest efficiency. Experimentally the effect of anodization voltage and fluoride ion concentration on the pore diameter and the pitch are studied for the Titania nanotubes host. It is observed that in the range of 0.3 mL to 2 mL of ammonium fluoride content, pore diameter and the pitch of the ...


Numerical Analyses And Integration Of Split Lot Sizing Using Lean Benchmark Model For Small Lot Manufacturing In High Mix Low Volume Production, Omkar Bhosale Jan 2020

Numerical Analyses And Integration Of Split Lot Sizing Using Lean Benchmark Model For Small Lot Manufacturing In High Mix Low Volume Production, Omkar Bhosale

Theses and Dissertations--Manufacturing Systems Engineering

As the global demand for automobiles has increased rapidly over the last fifty years, customers have become more particular about the characteristics of the autos they want. This change in demand, in part has pushed manufacturing to become more flexible and created a demand for alternative, more efficient processes like the High Mix Low Volume (HMLV) production of vehicles. During HMLV, manufacturers create production lot sizes and schedule to synchronize the production processes to meet customer demand on time. The demand for the automobile parts may not be uniform or parts may not be consumed by the customer immediately, Due ...


Atv Dynamics And Pediatric Rider Safety, James T. Auxier Ii Jan 2020

Atv Dynamics And Pediatric Rider Safety, James T. Auxier Ii

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

It has been observed through numerous academic and governmental agency studies that pediatric all-terrain vehicle ridership carries significant risk of injury and death. While no doubt valuable to safety, the post-hoc approach employed in these studies does little to explain the why and how behind the risk factors. Furthermore, there has been no prolonged, widespread, organized, and concerted effort to reconstruct and catalog the details and causes of the large (20,000+) number of ATV-related injuries that occur each year as has been done for road-based motor vehicle accidents. This dissertation takes the opposite approach from a meta-analysis and instead ...


Characterization And Electrochemical Performance Of Dopamine-Sensitized Titania Thin Films, Joshua Garay Jan 2020

Characterization And Electrochemical Performance Of Dopamine-Sensitized Titania Thin Films, Joshua Garay

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Sensitization of mesoporous titania films with dopamine and polydopamine for visible light photoelectrochemical activity is investigated. Sensitization effectiveness is compared with 8 mM dopamine solutions of varying pH (acidic, basic, and neutral), as well as with a basic polydopamine solution. Vibrational changes due to dopamine attachment are determined from detached powders by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is used to quantify organics attached. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of intact films probes the chemically induced charge shift from dopamine attachment. Cyclic voltammetry identifies the irreversible dopamine oxidation and tin reduction voltages. Finally, chronoamperometric curves are used to compare ...


Fabrication, Characterization And Applications Of Highly Conductive Wet-Spun Pedot:Pss Fibers, Ruben Sarabia Riquelme Jan 2020

Fabrication, Characterization And Applications Of Highly Conductive Wet-Spun Pedot:Pss Fibers, Ruben Sarabia Riquelme

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Smart electronic textiles cross conventional uses to include functionalities such as light emission, health monitoring, climate control, sensing, storage and conversion of energy, etc. New fibers and yarns that are electrically conductive and mechanically robust are needed as fundamental building blocks for these next generation textiles.

Conjugated polymers are promising candidates in the field of electronic textiles because they are made of earth-abundant, inexpensive elements, have good mechanical properties and flexibility, and can be processed using low-cost large-scale solution processing methods. Currently, the main method to fabricate electrically conductive fibers or yarns from conjugated polymers is the deposition of the ...


Effect Of Silica Nanoconfinement Of Lipid Bilayers On Its Phase Transition And On The Colloidal Stability Of Silica Nanoparticles, Aniruddha Atul Shirodkar Jan 2020

Effect Of Silica Nanoconfinement Of Lipid Bilayers On Its Phase Transition And On The Colloidal Stability Of Silica Nanoparticles, Aniruddha Atul Shirodkar

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

In this work, we incorporated 4-(N-Boc-aminometyl) phenylboronic acid (BA), at different concentrations, into 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayers confined within nanopores of two different mean pore diameters of 7.4 nm and 11.7 nm of micron sized silica particles. The confinement of DPPC into nanopores resulted in the depression in the main phase transition temperatures compared to the liposomal system. The addition of BA was found to induce disruptions in the acyl chains of the lipid molecules at all concentrations of the solute. The lipid bilayer cooperativity was found to be higher in the confined systems compared to ...


Electrophoresis In Heterogeneous Hydrogels And Applications In Surface Patterning, Ning Ge Jan 2020

Electrophoresis In Heterogeneous Hydrogels And Applications In Surface Patterning, Ning Ge

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

The creation of chemical micropatterns on surfaces makes it possible to add unique chemical functionality to surfaces, modifying properties such as wettability, or even adding the ability to selectively bind other molecules. The creation of biochemical surface patterning in particular is useful in a variety of fields including tissue engineering and highthroughput drug screening. There are many existing surface patterning techniques which focus on precise control over the patterned geometry, even down to submicron scale features, but they do not allow local control over chemical concentration. So the results are high resolution patterns with binary concentration. There are also existing ...


Ab Initio Investigation On The Surface Chemistry Of Functionalized Titania Membranes, Evan Hyde Jan 2020

Ab Initio Investigation On The Surface Chemistry Of Functionalized Titania Membranes, Evan Hyde

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Titania (titanium dioxide) is a metal oxide which has recently been investigated as a photocatalyst, most commonly for use in hydrolysis, which absorbs mostly in the UV range. However, the range of absorption can be shifted to fall within the visible light range either by doping or by functionalizing the surface with atomic or molecular adsorbates. Over the course of this research, a series of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations are performed to ascertain the effects of these different methods on the photocatalytic performance of titania. While the effects of nitrogen doping and oxygen vacancies are well known, more recent ...


Fault Identification On Electrical Transmission Lines Using Artificial Neural Networks, Christopher W. Asbery Jan 2020

Fault Identification On Electrical Transmission Lines Using Artificial Neural Networks, Christopher W. Asbery

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Transmission lines are designed to transport large amounts of electrical power from the point of generation to the point of consumption. Since transmission lines are built to span over long distances, they are frequently exposed to many different situations that can cause abnormal conditions known as electrical faults. Electrical faults, when isolated, can cripple the transmission system as power flows are directed around these faults therefore leading to other numerous potential issues such as thermal and voltage violations, customer interruptions, or cascading events. When faults occur, protection systems installed near the faulted transmission lines will isolate these faults from the ...


Predicting Fracture Extension Around A Borehole Using The Numerical Displacement Discontinuity Method, Nathaniel Schaefer Jan 2020

Predicting Fracture Extension Around A Borehole Using The Numerical Displacement Discontinuity Method, Nathaniel Schaefer

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

Prediction of blast damage radius is integral in the optimization of mining safety and production. The damage radius can be related to blasting variables such as fragmentation size as well as overbreak in hard rock. Various methods have been developed to predict and assess damage radius extension for individual holes to aid in blast design. These methods range from experimental and observational techniques to theoretical applications. Some of these methods have been used with a degree of success. However, many of them lack a comprehensive combination of experimental and theoretical contributions. Since post-blast environments are not conducive to assessing whether ...


Effects Of A Hip Orthosis On Lumbopelvic Coordination In Individuals With And Without Low Back Pain, Colin Drury Jan 2020

Effects Of A Hip Orthosis On Lumbopelvic Coordination In Individuals With And Without Low Back Pain, Colin Drury

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Individuals with low back pain (LBP) demonstrate an abnormal lumbopelvic coordination compared to back-healthy individuals. This abnormal coordination presents itself as a reduction in lumbar contribution and an increase in pelvic contribution to trunk motion. This study investigated the ability of a hip orthosis to correct such an abnormal lumbo-pelvic coordination by restricting pelvic rotation and, as a result, increasing lumbar contributions. The effects of the hip orthosis on the magnitude and timing characteristics of lumbopelvic coordination were investigated in 20 patients with LBP and 20 asymptomatic controls. The orthosis significantly increased lumbar contributions by 11%, 5.42%, 4.84 ...


The Relationship Between Roadway Homogeneity And Network Coverage For Network Screening, Riana Tanzen Jan 2020

The Relationship Between Roadway Homogeneity And Network Coverage For Network Screening, Riana Tanzen

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

In the context of transportation safety engineering, network screening is a method of identifying and prioritizing high-risk locations for potential safety investment. Since its release, the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) has facilitated the adoption of Safety Performance Functions (SPF) to predict the number of crashes for the network screening of any facility type. The predictive model becomes more reliable when developed from crash data with homogeneous roadway segments and this homogeneity can be attained by applying specific geometric attributes to the dataset. The caveat to this method is the requirement of adjustment factors (AFs) to adjust the predicted estimate for ...


Silica Nanoporous Confinement Effects On Ionic Liquid Properties For Better Design Of Small Molecule Separation, Electrochemical Devices And Drug Delivery, Yuxin He Jan 2020

Silica Nanoporous Confinement Effects On Ionic Liquid Properties For Better Design Of Small Molecule Separation, Electrochemical Devices And Drug Delivery, Yuxin He

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Silica nanoconfinement provides a high level of control of ionic liquids (ILs) in localizing catalysts, creating distinct environment for tuning reactivity and controlling the partition of solvents, reactants and products. Silica thin films with two different pore sizes (2.5 nm and 8 nm) were synthesized to study the effect of nanopore confinement on ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]). Silica thin films with accessible 8 nm pore diameters were synthesized using evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) with Pluronic P123 as templating surfactant on a chemically neutral modified substrate. The silica films with similar orthogonal aligned ...


Nanostructured Device Designs For Enhanced Performance In Cds/Cu2S Heterojunction Solar Cells, Benjamin Wells Jan 2020

Nanostructured Device Designs For Enhanced Performance In Cds/Cu2S Heterojunction Solar Cells, Benjamin Wells

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Nanostructured CdS/Cu2S devices have been simulated using SCAPS-1D to demonstrate enhanced performance over traditional planar device structures. Two designs were examined: a nanowire CdS/planar Cu2S device and a nanowire CdS/nanowire Cu2S device. The addition of nanowires to a device had been previously demonstrated to improve device performance in a nanowire CdS/planar CdTe device by decreasing the amount of light absorbed by the CdS window layer, thus allowing more light to reach the absorber layer. Additionally, the total number of interface states can be greatly reduced due to the decreased total surface area between the window and ...


Soil Bulk Density Effects On Runoff Estimation, Colton Pugh Jan 2020

Soil Bulk Density Effects On Runoff Estimation, Colton Pugh

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Urbanization has long been a major factor in the hydrology of surrounding areas. Engineers are commonly tasked with mitigating the extra runoff that urbanization brings with it. The NRCS Curve Number (CN) method is a commonly-used approach to predicting the amount of runoff that will be experienced from a given area. However, this method is known to be highly simplified in model of the processes involved. This study focused on determining the relationships between soil bulk density, simulated rainfall events, hydrologic soil group (HSG) and runoff estimation (specifically via the NRCS CN method). It was determined that soil bulk density ...


Safety Concepts For Every Ride: A Statistical Ensemble Simulation To Mitigate Rotational Falls In Eventing Cross Country, Shannon Wood Jan 2020

Safety Concepts For Every Ride: A Statistical Ensemble Simulation To Mitigate Rotational Falls In Eventing Cross Country, Shannon Wood

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Rotational falls are the leading cause of death and serious injury in the equestrian sport of eventing. Previous studies to develop safety devices used physical models representing one or at most several physical situations leading to different designs and no common understanding. In this thesis, a statistical ensemble model is developed and applied to generate and evaluate 10,000 different situations that might potentially lead to rotational falls. For accurate statistical representation of the horse and rider inertia distributions, measurements of over 400 training or competing horses and riders were recorded and incorporated. Video was recorded of 218 total competitors ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Reinforcement Learning Applied To Task-Space Reaching With A Robotic Manipulator With And Without Gravity Compensation, Jonathan Fugal Jan 2020

A Comparative Analysis Of Reinforcement Learning Applied To Task-Space Reaching With A Robotic Manipulator With And Without Gravity Compensation, Jonathan Fugal

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Advances in computing power in recent years have facilitated developments in autonomous robotic systems. These robotic systems can be used in prosthetic limbs, wearhouse packaging and sorting, assembly line production, as well as many other applications. Designing these autonomous systems typically requires robotic system and world models (for classical control based strategies) or time consuming and computationally expensive training (for learning based strategies). Often these requirements are difficult to fulfill. There are ways to combine classical control and learning based strategies that can mitigate both requirements. One of these ways is to use a gravity compensated torque control with reinforcement ...


Effect Of Socioeconomic And Demographic Factors Of Driver Residence On Crash Occurrence, Shraddha Sagar Jan 2020

Effect Of Socioeconomic And Demographic Factors Of Driver Residence On Crash Occurrence, Shraddha Sagar

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

In the U.S., road traffic crashes are a leading cause of death. Crash data from the state of Kentucky shows that the per capita crash rates and crash-related fatalities were higher than the national average for over a decade. In effort to explain why the U.S. Southeast experiences higher crash rates than other regions of the country, previous research has argued the region’s unique socioeconomic provide a compelling explanation. Taking this observation as a starting point, this study examines the relationship between highway safety and socioeconomic characteristics using an extensive crash dataset from Kentucky.

The primary goal ...


Investigation Into Mine Pillar Design And Global Stability Using The Ground Reaction Curve Concept, Ravi Chandan Ray Jan 2020

Investigation Into Mine Pillar Design And Global Stability Using The Ground Reaction Curve Concept, Ravi Chandan Ray

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

Pillars form an important support structure in any underground mine. A bulk of the overburden load is borne by the mine pillars. Thus, the strength of pillars has been a subject of detailed research over more than 6 decades. This work has led to the development of largely empirical pillar design formulations that have reduced the risk of pillar failures and mine collapse. Current research, however, has drawn attention to the fact that some of the assumptions used in the development of conventional pillar design methodologies are not always valid. Conventional pillar design methodology assumes that the pillars carry the ...


Fluorinated Coal Derived Carbons And Electrodes For Use In Battery Systems And Similar, Stephen M. Lipka, Christopher R. Swartz Dec 2019

Fluorinated Coal Derived Carbons And Electrodes For Use In Battery Systems And Similar, Stephen M. Lipka, Christopher R. Swartz

Center for Applied Energy Research Faculty Patents

An electrode including fluorinated and surface defluorinated coal is described, as well as methods of producing such and employing such within an electrical system. The coal in the electrodes is fluorinated at an amount of between 0.3 and 1 .4. The resulting coal products can be further surface defluorinated and maintain functionality within an electrical system.