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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Water Exchange Rate Across The Blood-Brain Barrier Is Associated With Csf Amyloid-Β 42 In Healthy Older Adults, Brian T. Gold, Xingfeng Shao, Tiffany L. Sudduth, Gregory A. Jicha, Donna M. Wilcock, Elayna R. Seago, Danny J. J. Wang May 2021

Water Exchange Rate Across The Blood-Brain Barrier Is Associated With Csf Amyloid-Β 42 In Healthy Older Adults, Brian T. Gold, Xingfeng Shao, Tiffany L. Sudduth, Gregory A. Jicha, Donna M. Wilcock, Elayna R. Seago, Danny J. J. Wang

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: We tested if water exchange across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), estimated with a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, is associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and neuropsychological function.

METHODS: Forty cognitively normal older adults (67–86 years old) were scanned with diffusion‐prepared, arterial spin labeling (DP‐ASL), which estimates water exchange rate across the BBB (kw). Participants also underwent CSF draw and neuropsychological testing. Multiple linear regression models were run with kw as a predictor of CSF concentrations and neuropsychological scores.

RESULTS: In multiple brain regions, BBB kw was positively associated ...


Application Of Eh-Ph Diagrams On Acid Leaching Systems For The Recovery Of Rees From Bastnaesite, Monazite And Xenotime, Peijia Lin, Xinbo Yang, Joshua M. Werner, Rick Q. Honaker Apr 2021

Application Of Eh-Ph Diagrams On Acid Leaching Systems For The Recovery Of Rees From Bastnaesite, Monazite And Xenotime, Peijia Lin, Xinbo Yang, Joshua M. Werner, Rick Q. Honaker

Mining Engineering Faculty Publications

Bastnaesite, monazite and xenotime are rare earth minerals (REMs) that are typical sources for rare earth elements (REEs). To advance the understanding of their leaching and precipitation behavior in different hydrometallurgical processes, Eh-pH diagrams were constructed and modified using the HSC 9.9 software. The aqueous stability of rare earth elements in H2O and acid leaching systems, i.e., the REE-Ligands-H2O systems, were depicted and studied based on the Eh-pH diagrams. This study considers the most relevant lixiviants, their resulting equilibrium states and the importance in the hydrometallurgical recovery of rare earth elements (REMs). A literature ...


Polymers And Solvents Used In Membrane Fabrication: A Review Focusing On Sustainable Membrane Development, Xiaobo Dong, David Lu, Tequila A. L. Harris, Isabel C. Escobar Apr 2021

Polymers And Solvents Used In Membrane Fabrication: A Review Focusing On Sustainable Membrane Development, Xiaobo Dong, David Lu, Tequila A. L. Harris, Isabel C. Escobar

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

(1) Different methods have been applied to fabricate polymeric membranes with non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) being one of the mostly widely used. In NIPS, a solvent or solvent blend is required to dissolve a polymer or polymer blend. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethylacetamide (DMAc), dimethylformamide (DMF) and other petroleum-derived solvents are commonly used to dissolve some petroleum-based polymers. However, these components may have negative impacts on the environment and human health. Therefore, using greener and less toxic components is of great interest for increasing membrane fabrication sustainability. The chemical structure of membranes is not affected by the use of different solvents ...


Detecting Recent Crop Phenology Dynamics In Corn And Soybean Cropping Systems Of Kentucky, Yanjun Yang, Bo Tao, Liang Liang, Yawen Huang, Christopher J. Matocha, Chad D. Lee, Michael Sama, Bassil El Masri, Wei Ren Apr 2021

Detecting Recent Crop Phenology Dynamics In Corn And Soybean Cropping Systems Of Kentucky, Yanjun Yang, Bo Tao, Liang Liang, Yawen Huang, Christopher J. Matocha, Chad D. Lee, Michael Sama, Bassil El Masri, Wei Ren

Geography Faculty Publications

Accurate phenological information is essential for monitoring crop development, predicting crop yield, and enhancing resilience to cope with climate change. This study employed a curve-change-based dynamic threshold approach on NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index) time series to detect the planting and harvesting dates for corn and soybean in Kentucky, a typical climatic transition zone, from 2000 to 2018. We compared satellite-based estimates with ground observations and performed trend analyses of crop phenological stages over the study period to analyze their relationships with climate change and crop yields. Our results showed that corn and soybean planting dates were delayed by 0 ...


Suppressing Bias Stress Degradation In High Performance Solution Processed Organic Transistors Operating In Air, Hamna F. Iqbal, Qianxiang Ai, Karl J. Thorley, Hu Chen, Iain Mcculloch, Chad Risko, John E. Anthony, Oana D. Jurchescu Apr 2021

Suppressing Bias Stress Degradation In High Performance Solution Processed Organic Transistors Operating In Air, Hamna F. Iqbal, Qianxiang Ai, Karl J. Thorley, Hu Chen, Iain Mcculloch, Chad Risko, John E. Anthony, Oana D. Jurchescu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Solution processed organic field effect transistors can become ubiquitous in flexible optoelectronics. While progress in material and device design has been astonishing, low environmental and operational stabilities remain longstanding problems obstructing their immediate deployment in real world applications. Here, we introduce a strategy to identify the most probable and severe degradation pathways in organic transistors and then implement a method to eliminate the main sources of instabilities. Real time monitoring of the energetic distribution and transformation of electronic trap states during device operation, in conjunction with simulations, revealed the nature of traps responsible for performance degradation. With this information, we ...


Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of The Effect Of Integration Of A Flooded-Bed Scrubber Into A Longwall Shearer On Airflow Along A Coal Mine Longwall Face, Sampurna Arya, Thomas Novak, Joseph Sottile Apr 2021

Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of The Effect Of Integration Of A Flooded-Bed Scrubber Into A Longwall Shearer On Airflow Along A Coal Mine Longwall Face, Sampurna Arya, Thomas Novak, Joseph Sottile

Mining Engineering Faculty Publications

Dust control is one of the most difficult challenges for underground coal mine operators, especially longwall mine operators. The most widely used dust control technologies at a longwall section are ventilation air and water sprays, whereas a continuous miner section has the added advantage of having a dust scrubber built into the continuous miner. To test the potential benefits of integrating a flooded-bed scrubber into a longwall shearer, the authors designed and built a dust scrubber system for a full-scale mock-up of a longwall shearer. The mock-up was installed in the longwall test gallery at the Pittsburgh Research Laboratory (PRL ...


Free Vibration Analysis Of Rotating Beams Based On The Modified Couple Stress Theory And Coupled Displacement Field, Alireza Babaei, Masoud Arabghahestani Apr 2021

Free Vibration Analysis Of Rotating Beams Based On The Modified Couple Stress Theory And Coupled Displacement Field, Alireza Babaei, Masoud Arabghahestani

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Research

In this paper, transverse vibration analysis of rotating micro-beam is investigated based on the modified couple stress theory. The simply-supported micro-beam is modeled utilizing Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. The system is rotating around a fixed axis perpendicular to the axial direction of the beam. For the first time, displacement filed is introduced as a coupled field to the translational field. In other words, the mentioned rotational displacement field is expressed as a proportional function of translational displacement field using first (axial), second (lateral), and third (angular or rotational) velocity factors. Utilizing Hamilton’s approach as a variational method, dynamic-vibration ...


A Demand-Supply Matching-Based Approach For Mapping Renewable Resources Towards 100% Renewable Grids In 2050, Loiy Al-Ghussain, Adnan Darwish Ahmad, Ahmad M. Abubaker, Mohammad Abujubbeh, Abdulaziz Almalaq, Mohamed A. Mohamed Apr 2021

A Demand-Supply Matching-Based Approach For Mapping Renewable Resources Towards 100% Renewable Grids In 2050, Loiy Al-Ghussain, Adnan Darwish Ahmad, Ahmad M. Abubaker, Mohammad Abujubbeh, Abdulaziz Almalaq, Mohamed A. Mohamed

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Research

Recently, many renewable energy (RE) initiatives around the world are based on general frameworks that accommodate the regional assessment taking into account the mismatch of supply and demand with pre-set goals to reduce energy costs and harmful emissions. Hence, relying entirely on individual assessment and RE deployment scenarios may not be effective. Instead, developing a multi-faceted RE assessment framework is vital to achieving these goals. In this study, a regional RE assessment approach is presented taking into account the mismatch of supply and demand with an emphasis on Photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine systems. The study incorporates mapping of renewable ...


Intersection Redesign For Network Resilience And Safety, Antonio Pratelli, Pietro Leandri, Rosaria Aiello, Reginald R. Souleyrette Apr 2021

Intersection Redesign For Network Resilience And Safety, Antonio Pratelli, Pietro Leandri, Rosaria Aiello, Reginald R. Souleyrette

Civil Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper describes a procedure for improving the resilience of roadway networks. A methodology is outlined that develops a time-dependent and performance-based resilience index. This methodology was applied to an Italian road, with the aim of optimizing intersections that are critical due to inadequate baseline capacity. The methodology uses a calibrated microscopic traffic model (using Aimsun™) whereby average delay at intersection approaches are estimated by an analytical model. From the simulation, average speed over time is obtained for each approach. These values in turn are used as inputs for calculating each intersection’s resilience index. The procedure allows the identification ...


Laboratory Determination Of Coal Dust Cleaning Efficacy Of A Fibrous Filter For Flooded-Bed Dust Scrubber, Neeraj Gupta, Ashish Ranjan Kumar, Steven Schafrik Mar 2021

Laboratory Determination Of Coal Dust Cleaning Efficacy Of A Fibrous Filter For Flooded-Bed Dust Scrubber, Neeraj Gupta, Ashish Ranjan Kumar, Steven Schafrik

Mining Engineering Faculty Publications

Fibrous-type dust filters are used in flooded-bed dust scrubbers to capture dust from underground room and pillar mining atmospheres. They have 10–30 layers of finely woven strands that trap particles through the interception and impaction process. A full-cone water spray is installed upstream of the filter, which floods the screen. A scrubber’s efficacy is usually measured and reported in terms of reduction in gravimetric dust concentration at a known location in a mine. This paper reports the particle-size-dependent dust removal efficiency of a fibrous filter obtained from an instrumented test-set up. A variable frequency drive and an inline ...


On The Impact Of Gravity Compensation On Reinforcement Learning In Goal-Reaching Tasks For Robotic Manipulators, Jonathan Fugal, Hasan A. Poonawala, Jihye Bae Mar 2021

On The Impact Of Gravity Compensation On Reinforcement Learning In Goal-Reaching Tasks For Robotic Manipulators, Jonathan Fugal, Hasan A. Poonawala, Jihye Bae

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Advances in machine learning technologies in recent years have facilitated developments in autonomous robotic systems. Designing these autonomous systems typically requires manually specified models of the robotic system and world when using classical control-based strategies, or time consuming and computationally expensive data-driven training when using learning-based strategies. Combination of classical control and learning-based strategies may mitigate both requirements. However, the performance of the combined control system is not obvious given that there are two separate controllers. This paper focuses on one such combination, which uses gravity-compensation together with reinforcement learning (RL). We present a study of the effects of gravity ...


In-Situ Calibrated Modeling Of Residual Stresses Induced In Machining Under Various Cooling And Lubricating Environments, Julius M. Schoop Mar 2021

In-Situ Calibrated Modeling Of Residual Stresses Induced In Machining Under Various Cooling And Lubricating Environments, Julius M. Schoop

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

Although many functional characteristics, such as fatigue life and damage resistance depend on residual stresses, there are currently no industrially viable ‘Digital Process Twin’ models (DPTs) capable of efficiently and quickly predicting machining-induced stresses. By leveraging advances in ultra-high-speed in-situ experimental characterization of machining and finishing processes under plane strain (orthogonal/2D) conditions, we have developed a set of physics-based semi-analytical models to predict residual stress evolution in light of the extreme gradients of stress, strain and temperature, which are unique to these thermo-mechanical processes. Initial validation trials of this novel paradigm were carried out in Ti-6Al4V and AISI 4340 ...


Volcanic Emissions And Atmospheric Pollution: A Study Of Nanoparticles, Erika M. Trejos, Luis F. O. Silva, James C. Hower, Eriko M. M. Flores, Carlos Mario González, Jorge E. Pachón, Beatriz H. Aristizábal Mar 2021

Volcanic Emissions And Atmospheric Pollution: A Study Of Nanoparticles, Erika M. Trejos, Luis F. O. Silva, James C. Hower, Eriko M. M. Flores, Carlos Mario González, Jorge E. Pachón, Beatriz H. Aristizábal

Center for Applied Energy Research Faculty Publications

The influence of emissions of an active volcano on the composition of nanoparticles and ultrafine road dust was identified in an urban area of the Andes. Although many cities are close to active volcanoes, few studies have evaluated their influence in road dust composition. Air quality in urban areas is significantly affected by non-exhaust emissions (e.g. road dust, brake wear, tire wear), however, natural sources such as volcanoes also impact the chemical composition of the particles. In this study, elements from volcanic emissions such as Si > Al > Fe > Ca > K > Mg, and Si—Al with K were identified as ...


Fluid Separation And Network Deformation In Wetting Of Soft And Swollen Surfaces, Zhuoyun Cai, Artem Skabeev, Svetlana Morozova, Jonathan T. Pham Feb 2021

Fluid Separation And Network Deformation In Wetting Of Soft And Swollen Surfaces, Zhuoyun Cai, Artem Skabeev, Svetlana Morozova, Jonathan T. Pham

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

When a water drop is placed onto a soft polymer network, a wetting ridge develops at the drop periphery. The height of this wetting ridge is typically governed by the drop surface tension balanced by elastic restoring forces of the polymer network. However, the situation is more complex when the network is swollen with fluid, because the fluid may separate from the network at the contact line. Here we study the fluid separation and network deformation at the contact line of a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) network, swollen with silicone oil. By controlling both the degrees of crosslinking and swelling, we ...


Transforming Corn Stover To Useful Transport Fuel Blends In Resource-Limited Settings, Nicholas Munu, Noble Banadda, Nicholas Kiggundu, Ahamada Zziwa, Isa Kabenge, Jeffrey Seay, Robert Kambugu, Joshua Wanyama, Albrecht Schmidt Feb 2021

Transforming Corn Stover To Useful Transport Fuel Blends In Resource-Limited Settings, Nicholas Munu, Noble Banadda, Nicholas Kiggundu, Ahamada Zziwa, Isa Kabenge, Jeffrey Seay, Robert Kambugu, Joshua Wanyama, Albrecht Schmidt

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Development of local technologies is crucial to the sustainable energy agenda in resource-limited countries and the world. Strengthening local green technologies and promoting local utilization will reduce carbon emissions that could be generated during transportation and delivery of green products from one country to another. In this paper we developed bio-oil/diesel blends using a low-tech pyrolysis system designed for smallholder farmers in developing countries and tested their appropriateness for diesel engines using standard ASTM methods. Corn stover retrieved from smallholder farmers in Gayaza, Uganda were pyrolyzed in a batch rocket stove reactor at 350 °C and liquid bio-oil harvested ...


Open-Field Scale-Model Experiments Of Fire Whirls Over L-Shaped Line Fires, Yuto Iga, Kazunori Kuwana, Kozo Sekimoto, Yuji Nakamura Feb 2021

Open-Field Scale-Model Experiments Of Fire Whirls Over L-Shaped Line Fires, Yuto Iga, Kazunori Kuwana, Kozo Sekimoto, Yuji Nakamura

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

This paper presents the results of open-field scale-model experiments of fire-whirl formation over line fires. L-shaped line fires were burned in crosswinds, and the processes of fire-whirl formation were observed. The flame height was measured using an image-processing technique, while two-dimensional velocity components were measured at two different locations using ultrasonic anemometers. Two tests were selected for comparison: test A, in which intense fire whirls repeatedly formed, and test B, in which no whirls were observed. In test A, the wind flow was bent by the fire plume, creating swirling flows near the burning area, thereby forming fire whirls. On ...


Effect Of Reduced Plume Entrainment On The Burning Rate Of Porous Fuel Beds, Sara Mcallister Feb 2021

Effect Of Reduced Plume Entrainment On The Burning Rate Of Porous Fuel Beds, Sara Mcallister

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

Large outdoor fires often exhibit unexpected fire behavior, particularly compared with much smaller fires. Understanding the difference between large- and small-scale fires is of importance for both fire behavior predictions and safety. Large fires are often characterized by very tall plumes that can extend to the stratosphere. Particularly as the actively burning area increases, plumes in large-scale fires likely entrain relatively little and may act in a similar fashion to a chimney. To explore the possible changes in burning rate due to the chimney effect, experiments were conducted with wood cribs burned with a chimney of variable height. The burning ...


Scale Model Test To Estimate Thermal Damage By Fire In Aircraft Cargo, Jian Gao, Tsuneyoshi Matsuoka, Yuji Nakamura Feb 2021

Scale Model Test To Estimate Thermal Damage By Fire In Aircraft Cargo, Jian Gao, Tsuneyoshi Matsuoka, Yuji Nakamura

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires fire detectors to alarm within one minute of the start of a fire in cargo compartments of airplanes. To determine whether such alarm timing works, investigations of the thermal damage to ceilings and other structures during the early stage of a fire were accomplished to demonstrate compliance with these FAA regulations. The objective was to test the feasibility of predicting convective heat transfer in early stage of a cargo compartment fire by conducting reduced scale (lab scale) experiments. First, the scaling laws was derived and validated. Then, full-scale and half-scale experiments were performed with ...


Extinguishment Of Diffusion Flames Formed Over A Porous Plate Burner Using Rubber Balloons Filled With Inert Gases, Hiroyuki Torikai, Shinya Kudo Feb 2021

Extinguishment Of Diffusion Flames Formed Over A Porous Plate Burner Using Rubber Balloons Filled With Inert Gases, Hiroyuki Torikai, Shinya Kudo

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

We have proposed an inert gas, rubber-balloon extinguishing method which might increase the effectiveness of extinguishing flames and decreasing the amounts of agents needed for fire suppression. Hence, extinguishing experiments have been performed to further clarify possible extinguishing characteristics, mechanisms and scaling effects of this method. Carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon and helium gases were used as the extinguishing agents. Methane-air and propane-air diffusion flames were formed on two different diameter, round porous plate burner and used as the targets for extinguishment. The extinguishing probabilities were measured, and the extinguishing processes were observed with a high-speed camera. As a result, an ...


Biodegradable Cellulose Film Prepared From Banana Pseudo-Stem Using An Ionic Liquid For Mango Preservation, Binling Ai, Lili Zheng, Wenqi Li, Xiaoyan Zheng, Yang Yang, Dao Xiao, Jian Shi, Zhanwu Sheng Feb 2021

Biodegradable Cellulose Film Prepared From Banana Pseudo-Stem Using An Ionic Liquid For Mango Preservation, Binling Ai, Lili Zheng, Wenqi Li, Xiaoyan Zheng, Yang Yang, Dao Xiao, Jian Shi, Zhanwu Sheng

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

The excessive use and disposal of plastic packaging materials have drawn increasing concerns from the society because of the detrimental effect on environment and ecosystems. As the most widely used fruit packing material, polyethylene (PE) film is not suitable for long-term preservation of some tropical fruits, such as mangos, due to its inferior gas permeability. Cellulose based film can be made from renewable resources and is biodegradable and environmental-friendly, which makes it a promising alternative to PE as a packaging material. In this study, cellulose film synthesized from delignified banana stem fibers via an ionic liquid 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIm][Cl ...


Effects Of Dimensionless Numbers On Decomposition Of Methane Hydrate, Shoma Shimizu, Genichiro Kushida Feb 2021

Effects Of Dimensionless Numbers On Decomposition Of Methane Hydrate, Shoma Shimizu, Genichiro Kushida

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

It is necessary to elucidate the decomposition and combustion of methane hydrate for fire safety during transportation and storage to utilize it for commercial practice. The amount of methane evolved during the decomposition of methane hydrates is affected by the conditions such as the initial temperature, initial density and ambient temperature. In the present study, the internal temperature of methane hydrate and the amount of methane evolved during its decomposition were investigated by a dimensionless numerical analysis using a transient one-dimensional conduction model from a symmetrical methane hydrate ball heated by ambient air. The numerically calculated central temperature and the ...


A Study On Fire Hazards Of Oil Tanks In Urban Areas With Scale Model Experiments, Ho Yin Ng, Yu Wan, Wan Ki Chow Feb 2021

A Study On Fire Hazards Of Oil Tanks In Urban Areas With Scale Model Experiments, Ho Yin Ng, Yu Wan, Wan Ki Chow

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

Large fuel tanks are located in an urban area of Tsing Yi in Hong Kong, giving potentially high risks to people living nearby if a fire was to occur. Scale modeling experiments were carried out to investigate the potential of fire hazards. Propanol pool fires with five different scales of oil tanks were studied first. Appropriate tank sizes were then put in a 1/2500 architectural scale model on the Tsing Yi Island to study a fuel tank fire. Results show that the heat and smoke from a fire would affect occupants staying in areas near to the fuel tanks ...


Fingering Behavior Of Flame Spread Over Solid Combustibles, Tsuneyoshi Matsuoka, Kentaro Nakashima, Takuma Kajimoto, Akihiro Yoshimasa, Yuji Nakamura Feb 2021

Fingering Behavior Of Flame Spread Over Solid Combustibles, Tsuneyoshi Matsuoka, Kentaro Nakashima, Takuma Kajimoto, Akihiro Yoshimasa, Yuji Nakamura

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

In this study, the fingering pattern formation and the following flamelet spreading over three different kinds of thick combustibles, i.e., Poly methacrylate (PMMA), Poly ethylene (PE) and Poly carbonate (PC) were observed and the effective Lewis number correlation was validated. Experiments were performed with a narrow channel apparatus. In addition to the kinds of solid fuel materials, the channel height and the oxidizer velocity were varied as experimental parameters. An image analysis method was developed to quantify the number, diameter and spread rate of the flamelets. Replacing the fuel thickness into the thermal thickness, the effective Lewis number which ...


Development, Implementation, And Tracking Of Preventative Safety Metrics, Zamaan Al-Shabbani, Ashtarout Ammar, Hala Nassereddine, Gabriel B. Dadi Feb 2021

Development, Implementation, And Tracking Of Preventative Safety Metrics, Zamaan Al-Shabbani, Ashtarout Ammar, Hala Nassereddine, Gabriel B. Dadi

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

What gets measured, gets improved. With respect to the safety and health of Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) employees, the primary metric used has been the OSHA recordable incident rate. This incident rate measures how often a Cabinet employee sustains an injury that demands more than basic first aid. This metric is important for understanding injury frequencies, but it does not assist with management of the safety, health, and overall well-being of KYTC personnel. Based on a review of leading safety indicators adopted by various industries, this study devised a comprehensive list of safety metrics the Cabinet will benefit from tracking ...


Commercial Driver’S License Prosecution, Adjudication, And Data Transmission, Andrew Martin, Jeeyen Koo, Jennifer Walton Feb 2021

Commercial Driver’S License Prosecution, Adjudication, And Data Transmission, Andrew Martin, Jeeyen Koo, Jennifer Walton

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

The Kentucky Transportation Center research team examined law enforcement and adjudication of traffic offenses committed by commercial driver’s license holders. The objectives were to identify states that would provide the data, collect information about their court systems, analyze enforcement and/or adjudication data, and make some general observations about trends. Many state agencies were not able to provide their traffic offense data and therefore, the team focused primarily on data from Kentucky and Washington State.

The study focused on enforcement trends and adjudication of safety-related offenses. Overall, conviction rates remain higher than dismissal and amended rates. In recent years ...


Evaluation Of Orange Pavement Striping For Use In Work Zones, Erin Lammers, William Staats, Ken Agent Feb 2021

Evaluation Of Orange Pavement Striping For Use In Work Zones, Erin Lammers, William Staats, Ken Agent

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Interstate widening projects are commonplace in Kentucky, and safety is of primary concern within the project work zone. Past experience with long work zones revealed two critical safety issues: driver confusion due to unclear pavement markings and a lack of continuous work zone signage for motorists indicating they are still within a work zone. This concern is heightened in transition and taper areas. Highly visible markings in an alternative color other than standard yellow or white might better distinguish the proper travel path for motorists and prevent drivers from returning to normal driving behavior and speeds once they get through ...


Fiscal Year 2019 Fhwa-536 Report For The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Doug Kreis, Candice Wallace, Bryan Gibson, Sarah Mccormack Feb 2021

Fiscal Year 2019 Fhwa-536 Report For The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Doug Kreis, Candice Wallace, Bryan Gibson, Sarah Mccormack

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) requires state transportation agencies to submit a biennial report on local highway finances. The purpose of these reports is to provide FHWA with the data it needs to capture the financing of highway activities at the local level. Based on this information, it can identify trends in revenue, expenditures, investments, and program development, and in turn make decisions about future investments. The report, FHWA-536, asks agencies to report on four areas of local highway finance: 1) disposition of highway-user revenues; 2) revenues used for roads and streets identified by source and funding type; 3) road ...


Data-Driven Tools Guided By First-Principles For Scale Modeling, Sadegh Poozesh Jan 2021

Data-Driven Tools Guided By First-Principles For Scale Modeling, Sadegh Poozesh

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

For decades, traditional scale-modeling techniques have been relying on first-principles models (FPMs). FPMs have been used to find non-dimensional numbers (PIs) and identify normalized underlying forces and energies behind the phenomenon in focus. The two main challenges with FPM-based PIs extraction are finding the relevant PIs and proper correlations between PIs. The emergence and surge of data-driven modeling (DDM) provide a new opportunity to leverage experimental data in model development across scales/plants. In this paper, first, the two mentioned issues in PIs development will be elaborated to reveal the gap, and second, a new insight into scale modeling and ...


Radiation‐Induced Oral Mucositis Hamster Model Using A Linear Accelerator Enhances Clinical Relevance Of Preclinical Studies For Treatment Strategy Investigation, Carolyn T. Jordan, Emily M. Bradford, Dennis C. Cheek, Mahesh R. Kudrimoti, Craig S. Miller, Molly H. Smith, J. Zach Hilt, Thomas D. Dziubla Jan 2021

Radiation‐Induced Oral Mucositis Hamster Model Using A Linear Accelerator Enhances Clinical Relevance Of Preclinical Studies For Treatment Strategy Investigation, Carolyn T. Jordan, Emily M. Bradford, Dennis C. Cheek, Mahesh R. Kudrimoti, Craig S. Miller, Molly H. Smith, J. Zach Hilt, Thomas D. Dziubla

Radiation Medicine Faculty Publications

Translational animal models for oral mucositis (OM) are necessary to simulate and assess the bioclinical effects and response in humans. These models should simulate high levels of radiation exposure that leads to oxidative stress and inflammatory‐initiated tissue changes. Hamster models have been extensively studied to observe pathological effects of radiation exposure and help in the development of effective treatments. To successfully evaluate the potential for treatment regimens with consistency and relevance, a radiation‐induced OM hamster model was developed using a clinical linear accelerator utilized by cancer patients daily. The dose exposure to the isolated, everted cheek pouch of ...


Broad Kinase Inhibition Mitigates Early Neuronal Dysfunction In Tauopathy, Shon A. Koren, Matthew J. Hamm, Ryan Cloyd, Sarah N. Fontaine, Emad Chishti, Chiara Lanzillotta, Jennifer Rodriguez-Rivera, Alexandria Ingram, Michelle Bell, Sara M. Galvis-Escobar, Nicholas Zulia, Fabio Di Domenico, Duc Duong, Nicholas T. Seyfried, David K. Powell, Moriel Vandsburger, Tal Frolinger, Anika M. S. Hartz, John Koren Iii, Jeffrey M. Axten, Nicholas J. Laping, Jose F. Abisambra Jan 2021

Broad Kinase Inhibition Mitigates Early Neuronal Dysfunction In Tauopathy, Shon A. Koren, Matthew J. Hamm, Ryan Cloyd, Sarah N. Fontaine, Emad Chishti, Chiara Lanzillotta, Jennifer Rodriguez-Rivera, Alexandria Ingram, Michelle Bell, Sara M. Galvis-Escobar, Nicholas Zulia, Fabio Di Domenico, Duc Duong, Nicholas T. Seyfried, David K. Powell, Moriel Vandsburger, Tal Frolinger, Anika M. S. Hartz, John Koren Iii, Jeffrey M. Axten, Nicholas J. Laping, Jose F. Abisambra

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Tauopathies are a group of more than twenty known disorders that involve progressive neurodegeneration, cognitive decline and pathological tau accumulation. Current therapeutic strategies provide only limited, late-stage symptomatic treatment. This is partly due to lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms linking tau and cellular dysfunction, especially during the early stages of disease progression. In this study, we treated early stage tau transgenic mice with a multi-target kinase inhibitor to identify novel substrates that contribute to cognitive impairment and exhibit therapeutic potential. Drug treatment significantly ameliorated brain atrophy and cognitive function as determined by behavioral testing and a sensitive imaging ...