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Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Reciprocal Frames: The Flat Beam Grillage, Cesar Noe Jimenez Ramirez, Nicholas Sowatzke Dec 2022

Reciprocal Frames: The Flat Beam Grillage, Cesar Noe Jimenez Ramirez, Nicholas Sowatzke

Architectural Engineering

This report follows the pursuit of attaining information and researching academic resources regarding the elusive reciprocal frame structures throughout history, in particular the flat beam grillage. In the following pages, the reader should expect to learn about reciprocal frames in a historical context throughout the globe, as well as, gain insight on how to potentially analyze these frames when they span two-dimensionally. As seen in Figure 1 (Pugnale 2011) and Figure 2 (Godthelp 2019), reciprocal frame structures consist of multiple groups of three or more members that are mutually supported. Along the perimeter of the structure, the members are supported …


Leveraging Lessons Learned From A Virtual Hands-On Outreach Program To Cultivate Diversity In The Next Generation Of Structural Engineers, Anahid Behrouzi, Nicole Buck, Sarah Navias Sep 2022

Leveraging Lessons Learned From A Virtual Hands-On Outreach Program To Cultivate Diversity In The Next Generation Of Structural Engineers, Anahid Behrouzi, Nicole Buck, Sarah Navias

Architectural Engineering

A challenge that continues to face the structural engineering (SE) profession is the recruitment and retention of individuals from underrepresented minority (URM) groups, underscored over the years by findings reported on by the SE3 project committee. One approach to address this is by developing and conducting early outreach efforts with diverse populations of K-12 students, so they are aware of SE’s meaningful contributions to society and the intriguing technical problem- solving opportunities in this field. During these educational activities it is also important for young students to be exposed to engineering practitioner-educators who represent diverse backgrounds and whose lived experience …


Timber Buckling Restrained Brace, Faith Sharp, Armando Castaneda Jr Aug 2022

Timber Buckling Restrained Brace, Faith Sharp, Armando Castaneda Jr

Architectural Engineering

The timber buckling-restrained brace (TBRB) experiment at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly), began in 2018 with the goal of finding whether timber may provide proper restraint against buckling of a steel brace. The TBRB was motivated by the limited lateral force resisting systems (LFRS) available for low-to-mid-rise, type V construction; this system would provide strength and ductility at a scale and level of cost appropriate to timber construction.

Early research consisted of uniaxial component testing, where researchers played with the balance between the core brace design and utilization of timber casings for buckling restraint, with minimal …


Hands-On Earthquake Engineering Curriculum For The Virtual Classroom, S. Navias, N. Buck, Anahid A. Behrouzi Jun 2022

Hands-On Earthquake Engineering Curriculum For The Virtual Classroom, S. Navias, N. Buck, Anahid A. Behrouzi

Architectural Engineering

During Summer 2021, five week-long virtual earthquake engineering sessions were offered in the Cal Poly Engineering Possibilities in College (EPIC) summer program. Typically, this is a residential program comprised of faculty-led workshops in various engineering fields to provide pre-college experiences to students, particularly from underrepresented backgrounds. The challenge posed by remote learning, due to the global pandemic, was to continue providing educationally effective hands-on activities. To accomplish this, the instructor team designed, fabricated, and shipped over 120 mail-home engineering kits for students to assemble a shake table, build and retrofit a structural model, as well as collect and analyze data …


Same Polytechnic College Tanzania Build 2022, Paulina Robles, Anna Yamauchi, Surina Marwaha, Tia Kelly, Dillon Schneider, Audrey Hoang, Connor Gilligan, Jennifer Viveros, Jenna Beutelschies, Robert Hardwick Jun 2022

Same Polytechnic College Tanzania Build 2022, Paulina Robles, Anna Yamauchi, Surina Marwaha, Tia Kelly, Dillon Schneider, Audrey Hoang, Connor Gilligan, Jennifer Viveros, Jenna Beutelschies, Robert Hardwick

Architectural Engineering

In collaboration with The Mbesese Initiative for Sustainable Design, the Cal Poly senior project team has designed, engineered, and prepared construction documents for a new vocational training college in Same, Tanzania, a rural area in the Mt. Kilimanjaro region. Upon its completion, the college will offer quality and practical educational opportunities for up to 1,200 students; in the interim, individual structures will be occupied immediately, adding value to the community throughout the construction process. The campus will house continuing educational programs, sports and agriculture fields, as well as hotels and other community-facing structures.


Sage Garden Pavilion Shade Structure, Anthony Razouk Karroum, Manuel Bermudez, Matthew Kilbride, Sarah Holt, Marisa Martineau Jun 2022

Sage Garden Pavilion Shade Structure, Anthony Razouk Karroum, Manuel Bermudez, Matthew Kilbride, Sarah Holt, Marisa Martineau

Architectural Engineering

Form finding, testing, and construction of funicular double-layered shells in an interdisciplinary format with a focus on designing a shade structure for the San Luis Obispo Botanical Garden Children’s Pavilion. In the process, challenges such as connection design, materiality, storage, and more are explored and refined in relation to shell structures.


Center For Centering: Analysis Of A Modular Timber Dome, Lucas J. Brown Jun 2022

Center For Centering: Analysis Of A Modular Timber Dome, Lucas J. Brown

Architectural Engineering

Analysis of a modular timber dome with focus on inductive, sensory, social, and environmental aspects.


Structural Design Of A New Reaction Frame For High Bay Laboratory, Cassidy A. Sutton, Adelaide Albro Jun 2022

Structural Design Of A New Reaction Frame For High Bay Laboratory, Cassidy A. Sutton, Adelaide Albro

Architectural Engineering

The Cal Poly High Bay Testing Lab recently acquired hydraulic actuators for structural testing. The actuators are used for performing force and displacement tests on structural specimens designed and built by students and faculty. The existing frame that the old actuators mount to did not have enough capacity to accommodate the amount of force that the new actuators are capable of. New reaction frames were needed to be designed and constructed so the new actuators could be used to their full potential. The following report explores two different options for possible reaction frames in the lab. Both options have a …


Team Torroja, Justine Teoh, Lindsey Brophy, Brandon Watrin Mar 2022

Team Torroja, Justine Teoh, Lindsey Brophy, Brandon Watrin

Architectural Engineering

For this project, we were tasked with designing a sun shelter by SLO Botanical Gardens for their Children's Garden. It was requested that the form by derived from structural shells. The structure is to serve as a multi-purpose space to host a variety of activities on the 30 foot by 60 foot site.


Funicular Shell Exploration: Form Finding And Fabrication, Alexis Truong, Adria Burton, Ethan Mach Mar 2022

Funicular Shell Exploration: Form Finding And Fabrication, Alexis Truong, Adria Burton, Ethan Mach

Architectural Engineering

Analysis and evaluation of interdisciplinary challenges associated with integrating the design and construction processes to deliver innovative thin shell structures.


Guastavino: Learn By Doweling, Audrey Luu, Gabrielle Favro, Robert Pulido, Cameron Grant Mar 2022

Guastavino: Learn By Doweling, Audrey Luu, Gabrielle Favro, Robert Pulido, Cameron Grant

Architectural Engineering

We embarked on a journey into the world of shells this quarter! We began the process with form finding using rhino and grasshopper. Then made a study model using laser cutters to brainstorm ways to construct the real-life model. As a class, we completed two shell structures.


Population Growth Vs. Landfill Capacity Vs. Recycling Mandates In California Counties, Thomas Soares Mar 2022

Population Growth Vs. Landfill Capacity Vs. Recycling Mandates In California Counties, Thomas Soares

Architectural Engineering

As population growth increases in Monterey, Fresno, Kern, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and Ventura counties, so does waste production. More waste is a cause for concern because landfills have limited capacities. In order to combat the increase in waste, cities, counties, and the state are creating recycling mandates to ensure waste is being handled appropriately. More specifically, the trash generated by residents and construction and demolition (C&D) materials are being recycled and reused instead of thrown into landfills. This report indicates that increases in recycling mandates in California cannot withstand the increase in waste generation from population growth. Another …


Development Of The Human Scale Twelve-Node Model, Tebrez W. Khan Mar 2022

Development Of The Human Scale Twelve-Node Model, Tebrez W. Khan

Architectural Engineering

The attempted creation of a full-scale twelve-node model made of PVC pipe and golf balls. Intended use of the structure was for students to tactically learn from the model.


Arce 415 Portfolio, Jay Skaff, Audrey Williams, Sarah Tom Mar 2022

Arce 415 Portfolio, Jay Skaff, Audrey Williams, Sarah Tom

Architectural Engineering

The purpose of this studio is to design a sun shelter for children at the SLO Botanical Gardens. It will be used for outdoor presentations and learning experiences. When coming up with the initial design of the shell structure for the SLO Botanical Gardens, the team needed to consider the material being used, the constructability of the structure, the people who would be using the structure, and the overall lifespan of the shell.


Evaluating The Effect Of Adding Sugarcane Bagasse To The Fire Clay Brick's Properties, Rania Rushdy Moussa, Amany Micheal Dr. Feb 2022

Evaluating The Effect Of Adding Sugarcane Bagasse To The Fire Clay Brick's Properties, Rania Rushdy Moussa, Amany Micheal Dr.

Architectural Engineering

Due to the increase in population density, the waste and its by-products produced by industry, housing, and agriculture have increased. Waste accumulation causes several environmental problems and contaminates natural resources such as air, soil, and water. Moreover, it threatens human public health and increases the number of epidemics and medical pandemics. The percentage of organic waste increases daily. Almost 60% of the waste collected from the housing sector is organic waste, in addition to the agricultural wastes that are also considered organic waste. In developing countries, there are no clear waste management systems. The waste is poorly managed, it is …


An Investigation Into The Causes Of Pedestrians' Walking Difficulties In Cairo Streets, Joy Magdy, Rania Rushdy Moussa, Usama Konbr Feb 2022

An Investigation Into The Causes Of Pedestrians' Walking Difficulties In Cairo Streets, Joy Magdy, Rania Rushdy Moussa, Usama Konbr

Architectural Engineering

This paper intends to focus on Cairo streets from the pedestrian-use perspective. It aims to explore and examine the factors that make Cairo streets better places for walking. Moreover, it intends to contribute to the limited qualitative research on walkable streets and pedestrians' walking experience, specifically in Cairo. In addition, it provides a conceptual framework for understanding the walkability of streets and the experience of pedestrians, built on both empirical field study and prevailing theoretical models reviewed in the literature. To closely examine the factors that determine Cairo streets to be walkable and therefore pedestrian-friendly, the research investigates the status …


Early Supplier Involvement Framework For Reducing Construction Waste During The Design Process, Ayman Ahmed Ezzat Othman, Yomna Abdelghany El-Saeidy Jan 2022

Early Supplier Involvement Framework For Reducing Construction Waste During The Design Process, Ayman Ahmed Ezzat Othman, Yomna Abdelghany El-Saeidy

Architectural Engineering

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to facilitate early supplier involvement (ESI) as an approach for reducing construction waste (CW) generated during the design process. Design/methodology/approach – A research methodology consists of literature review, case studies and survey questionnaire was designed to achieve the abovementioned aim. First, the literature review was used to investigate CW, CW generated during the design process, the design process and ESI. Second, two construction projects were analysed to investigate the role of ESI towards reducing CW generated during the design waste. Third, a survey questionnaire was carried out with …


Makom Hillel: Slo Hillel Outdoor Event Space, Eli J. Greenberg Dec 2021

Makom Hillel: Slo Hillel Outdoor Event Space, Eli J. Greenberg

Architectural Engineering

This report details the design development for Makom Hillel, an outdoor event space dedicated to San Luis Obispo’s Hillel chapter. Hillel is an international organization working to connect Jewish students and community members with each other and their religion. The platform was designed as a service-learning senior project for the ARCE Department at Cal Poly SLO. The gravity and lateral systems were designed using the 2018 NDS, ASCE 7-16, and Simpson Strong Tie’s 2021 Wood Construction Connectors catalog. This project was conducted during Spring and Fall 2021 and supervised by Professor Brent Nuttall.


Parametric Study Of New Diaphragm Design Methods, Emily Rose Taylor Dec 2021

Parametric Study Of New Diaphragm Design Methods, Emily Rose Taylor

Architectural Engineering

Large retail buildings and warehouses are typically a one-story concrete or masonry walled structure with a panelized wood roof. These buildings fall under the category of “RWFD”, or “Rigid Wall Flexible Diaphragm”. There are two preexisting methods that can be utilized in designing flexible diaphragms, but there is a third being introduced in the new ASCE 7-22 code. Given this code is unreleased, there really is no guidance to the user as far as which method is the most time efficient or cost effective. The purpose of this project is to analyze the same building using each design method in …


Piles Redesigned: A Comparison Of Concrete And Timber, Riley N. Mullen Dec 2021

Piles Redesigned: A Comparison Of Concrete And Timber, Riley N. Mullen

Architectural Engineering

This project redesigned a foundation with timber piles and assesses the environmental impacts.


Chinese Timber Woven Arch Bridges, Owen M. Anderson, Kaleigh G. Kant Dec 2021

Chinese Timber Woven Arch Bridges, Owen M. Anderson, Kaleigh G. Kant

Architectural Engineering

This is a report on the study and analysis conducted on Chinese timber woven bridges. It explores historical and cultural values behind them as well as their structural behavior. Finally, the bridge design is described in a series of equations that would make for simple design and construction.


Growing Grounds Farm & Nursery - Serenity Shade Structure, Jack C. Radovan Dec 2021

Growing Grounds Farm & Nursery - Serenity Shade Structure, Jack C. Radovan

Architectural Engineering

This project includes the design and construction of a shade structure over the serenity seating area at Growing Grounds Farm & Nursery. Growing Grounds is a part of TransitionsMental Health Association. It is a nonprofit wholesale nursery that provides horticulture, socialization opportunities, paid employment and soft job skills training for adults with severe and persistent mental illness. The shade structure will serve as place where staff and volunteers can gather and sit.


Investigation Into Excessive Deflections In A Concrete Flat Slab, Matthew Frydman Dec 2021

Investigation Into Excessive Deflections In A Concrete Flat Slab, Matthew Frydman

Architectural Engineering

This senior project was inspired by a project experience during a summer internship in Denver, Colorado at Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. After a pipe froze and burst in the 13,000 sq. ft. basement of a two story building built in the 1990’s, an investigation was needed to determine the structural impacts of the event. A site visit was performed to collect data, and it quickly became clear that slab deflections and strength were top priorities. The slab was able to deflect in the basement due to a cardboard void form that was used to accommodate expansive soils. This project …


Considerations Of Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion In Advanced Structural Engineering Courses, Claire Leader, Faith Sharp, Anahid Behrouzi Sep 2021

Considerations Of Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion In Advanced Structural Engineering Courses, Claire Leader, Faith Sharp, Anahid Behrouzi

Architectural Engineering

This paper presents various techniques investigated by the authors to bring discussion of societal impact into two advanced structural engineering courses taught at Cal Poly – San Luis Obispo within the Architectural Engineering (ARCE) department during the 2020-21 academic year. The first was an undergraduate reinforced concrete design lecture/lab class where the instructor was able to convey the stories of the individuals and events that influence the ACI 318 code and ASTM standards used for concrete design. The second was a graduate nonlinear structural behavior lecture class that involves a weekly seminar by guest speakers who presented case studies with …


Equilibrium Without Statics: The Modern Muller Breslau Method, Claire Tyler Ballard Sep 2021

Equilibrium Without Statics: The Modern Muller Breslau Method, Claire Tyler Ballard

Architectural Engineering

This senior project report discusses the applications of the Modern Muller-Breslau Method. To complete this project, the student learned this method and created unique example problems. The report explores these unique example problems with explanations of the processes to solve each problem. The examples shown consist of determinant beams, frames, trusses, and 3-hinged arches. In addition, a more complex structural analysis topic, plastic analysis, will be explained. Lastly, the report concludes with an insight into a student’s experience with the method.


Enhancing Users Involvement In Architectural Design Using Mobile Augmented Reality, Bassam Shouman, Ayman Ahmed Ezzat Othman, Mohamed Marzouk Jul 2021

Enhancing Users Involvement In Architectural Design Using Mobile Augmented Reality, Bassam Shouman, Ayman Ahmed Ezzat Othman, Mohamed Marzouk

Architectural Engineering

Purpose

Mobile augmented reality (MAR) is one of the advanced three-dimensional (3D) representation tools that has been recently utilized in the construction industry. This paper aims to assess a user’s involvement levels through MAR application that has been experimented against traditional involvement techniques through an existing facility, plan re-designing scenario.

Design/methodology/approach

Through reviewing related literature studies in the MAR field, an application has been developed that can superimpose real design alternatives on paper-based markers, allowing for flexible wall positioning, interior and exterior wall material application. As such, an enhanced user involvement experience is created. To measure user involvement levels, the …


Student-Led Summer Diversity Workshops For Built-Environment Majors, Dolores Herrera, Claire Marie Leader, Soham Patel, Anahid Behrouzi Jul 2021

Student-Led Summer Diversity Workshops For Built-Environment Majors, Dolores Herrera, Claire Marie Leader, Soham Patel, Anahid Behrouzi

Architectural Engineering

In response to the instances of racial injustice in Spring 2020, members of the College of Architecture & Environmental Design (CAED) Student Diversity, Equity & Inclusion (SDEI) committee at the authors’ institution developed online summer workshops focused on topics of anti-racism titled the Unlearning Series. This series began with the mission of questioning practices and education in the built environment that are integrated in formal instruction. The goal is to utilize an alternative method of education where participants (students, faculty, staff, and administrators) recognize how their discipline shapes and supports systems of oppression, while giving them tools to combat it. …


Large-Scale Timber Shear Wall Experimentation In An Undergraduate Design Course, Taylor Christian Cardinale, Michael James Deigert, Anahid Behrouzi, John W. Lawson Jul 2021

Large-Scale Timber Shear Wall Experimentation In An Undergraduate Design Course, Taylor Christian Cardinale, Michael James Deigert, Anahid Behrouzi, John W. Lawson

Architectural Engineering

Despite the widespread use of light-frame timber construction in residential building, wood design courses are typically offered to graduate students and focus on member-level calculations for gravity and lateral systems per the National Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction. In years prior, the 10-week advanced undergraduate class described in this paper exposed students through a system-level perspective through a group design project of a multistory, mixed-use wood building located in a seismic region. A significant course modification in Fall 2020 involved the two class sections constructing and testing large-scale wood shear walls representing a one-story segment of a wall present …


Schematic Structural Design For Center For Centering (C4c), Jonathan Oberempt, Faith Sharp, Samuel Buckman Jun 2021

Schematic Structural Design For Center For Centering (C4c), Jonathan Oberempt, Faith Sharp, Samuel Buckman

Architectural Engineering

The Center for Centering (C4C) is a meditative center for individuals to reflect and discover their own creativity. Based on a spoke and wheel concept, the center integrates social, sensory, environmental, and inductive spaces, allowing for individuals to discover themselves in different settings, while appearing as a striking sculpture conceived in a spiral gesture integrated in the local landscape.

The location for this structure is in Santa Cruz, CA, on Swanton Ranch. The building is built on mostly flat terrain surrounded by sparse trees and an overlooking view of the ocean.

The initial concept for the Center for Centering is …


Take Heart School, Quentin John Porter Jun 2021

Take Heart School, Quentin John Porter

Architectural Engineering

Journeyman International, also known as JI, is a non-profit organization that groups together design and construction students with organizations looking to build humanitarian projects around the world. This pairing is beneficial for both the organization because they get free design and construction expertise, as well as for the students who get real-world experience. The Take Heart School is a planned school and grounds for the region of Migori Kenya. Take Heart Africa is a fair trade store with all profits going to help the impoverished communities of Kenya. The three-acre site will have a school with eight classrooms, offices, a …