# Architecture Commons™

Articles 1 - 30 of 313

## Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Mechanism Of Seismic Liquefaction For Heterogeneous Soil, Radu Popescu, Pradipta Chakrabortty Jan 2024

#### Mechanism Of Seismic Liquefaction For Heterogeneous Soil, Radu Popescu, Pradipta Chakrabortty

##### Architectural Engineering

In addition to inducing uncertainty in the predicted response, natural spatial variability of soil properties affects the mechanical response of geotechnical structures. When a failure surface is involved in the response, this surface can deviate from its theoretical location to pass through weaker zones of material. For the case of seismically induced soil liquefaction, it has been found that a larger amount of excess pore water pressure is generated in a soil exhibiting small-scale variability of its properties than in the corresponding uniform soil having geomechanical properties equal to the average properties of the heterogeneous soil. An explanation for this …

Python Manual: A Learning Guide For Structural Engineering Students, Aaron Dewey, Kennedy Gomez, Meileen Yee Dec 2023

#### Python Manual: A Learning Guide For Structural Engineering Students, Aaron Dewey, Kennedy Gomez, Meileen Yee

##### Architectural Engineering

This Python programming manual is a resource to assist architectural, civil, or structural engineering students as they learn to create scripts to solve various structural analysis and dynamics problems. Beyond providing guidance on Python libraries that enable numerical and symbolic mathematics (NumPy, SciPy, SymPy), the manual also focuses on the creation of tabular and plot outputs useful to communicate results through technical reports (Pandas, Matplotlib).

The content of this document was developed based on detailed review of curriculum for three architectural engineering computing courses typically offered to upper class students at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo as well as surveys …

Evaluation Of Structural Retrofit Of A Hillside Home, Cameron C. R. Cunningham Dec 2023

#### Evaluation Of Structural Retrofit Of A Hillside Home, Cameron C. R. Cunningham

##### Architectural Engineering

On November 24, 2021 after months of initial planning, the project owner received approval from the San Luis Obispo Planning and Building Department for initial work on a residential remodeling submission. This approval including a grading permit and other initial site work to begin renovation of the owner’s hillside residential property.

Wood Diaphragm Deflections. Part I: Generalizing Standard Equations Using Mechanicsbased Derivations For Panel Construction, John W. Lawson, Scott Breneman, Marco Lo Ricco Sep 2023

#### Wood Diaphragm Deflections. Part I: Generalizing Standard Equations Using Mechanicsbased Derivations For Panel Construction, John W. Lawson, Scott Breneman, Marco Lo Ricco

##### Architectural Engineering

Horizontal wood diaphragm systems, whether decked with conventional or mass timber panels, transfer wind and seismic loads to vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system (LFRS), in flexible, rigid, or semi-rigid fashion. Characterizing and calculating the resulting diaphragm deflections determines the distribution of forces to critically loaded components and a significant portion of lateral building translations and rotations. Deflection equations for sheathed wood structural panel (WSP) diaphragms are well established in U.S. design standards in a 4-term expression that models flexural, shear, and fastener-slip deformations and its full derivation using principles of mechanics is provided herein. Derivations of similar equations …

#### Wood Diaphragm Deflections. Part Ii: Implementing A Unified Approach For Current Clt And Wsp Practice, John Lawson

##### Architectural Engineering

Horizontal wood diaphragm systems, whether decked with conventional or mass timber panels, transfer wind and seismic loads to vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system (LFRS), in flexible, rigid, or semi-rigid fashion. Characterizing and calculating the resulting diaphragm deflections determines the distribution of forces to critically loaded components and a significant portion of lateral building translations and rotations. Deflection equations for sheathed wood structural panel (WSP) diaphragms are well established in U.S. design standards in a 4-term expression that models flexural, shear, and fastener-slip deformations, but similar equations for cross-laminated timber (CLT) diaphragms have yet to unfold, despite growing industry …

The Leaf For Leaning Pine Arboretum, Maria Boyle, Shelby Holmquist, Andrew Duong Jun 2023

#### The Leaf For Leaning Pine Arboretum, Maria Boyle, Shelby Holmquist, Andrew Duong

##### Architectural Engineering

The goal of this ARCE 415 senior project course was to create a shade structure that could be incorporated into The Leaning Pine Arboretum, located on campus at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo. From start to finish, these three ARCE students took on the role of form-finders to form-testers to form-makers. We are putting the "architectural" back in architectural engineering as we reclaim the historical tradition of the engineer as the form finder. In many of our design labs we focused primarily on sizing members and analysis, just using a structure that the architect already had established. In this one-of-a-kind …

Xenabloom, Sophia Maglabe, Ryer Lauth, Elizabeth Shaw, Sheyna Rongong Jun 2023

#### Xenabloom, Sophia Maglabe, Ryer Lauth, Elizabeth Shaw, Sheyna Rongong

##### Architectural Engineering

Proposal for an architectural and structural design of a shade structure at the Leaning Pine Arboretum, employing the Xenaform typology of Poly Shells, LLC.

Physical And Digital Models For Timber Design And Analysis Courses, Paulina Robles, Gabrielle Rose Favro, Anahid Behrouzi, Abby Lentz Jun 2023

#### Physical And Digital Models For Timber Design And Analysis Courses, Paulina Robles, Gabrielle Rose Favro, Anahid Behrouzi, Abby Lentz

##### Architectural Engineering

Among structural engineering education research, there is a limited number of studies on interactive learning tools and activities specifically for the timber design classroom to assist students in visualizing material behavior, vertical and lateral load paths, and construction sequence. Timber design courses within the undergraduate program in the Architectural Engineering department at California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly), place an emphasis on seismic and wind design. Therefore, the proposed learning tools and activities are intended to pair with an introduction to concepts in the American Wood Council’s National Design Specifications (NDS) and Special Design Provisions for …

Mbesese Build 2023, Ben Stewart, Matthew Chung, Ian Mcconnell Jun 2023

#### Mbesese Build 2023, Ben Stewart, Matthew Chung, Ian Mcconnell

##### Architectural Engineering

In collaboration with the Mbesese Initiative for Sustainable Developments, the senior project group from California Polytechnic State University of San Luis Obispo, researched, designed, and created construction documents for the Same Polytechnic College project in the town of Same, Tanzania. This project aims to combat poverty in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania by providing education and infrastructure development. In 2023, the senior project group focused on completing a communal and educational space and addressing clean water scarcity through a rainwater collection system on the site of the future college.

Investigation Of Natural Pozzolans: Analyzing The Practicality Of Natural Pozzolans As A Partial Substitute For Cement In Grout Production, Jadyn I. Breien, Andrew J. Baro, Logan T. Marino Jun 2023

#### Investigation Of Natural Pozzolans: Analyzing The Practicality Of Natural Pozzolans As A Partial Substitute For Cement In Grout Production, Jadyn I. Breien, Andrew J. Baro, Logan T. Marino

##### Architectural Engineering

This senior project aims to investigate whether natural pozzolans are more sustainable than fly ash and a sufficient substitute for cement in the production of grout. By following the intent of the ASTM (American Society of Testing and Materials) standards, a conclusion will be made to determine if natural pozzolans can contribute comparable strength in compression. The objective is to prove that natural pozzolans should be utilized in the production of grout rather than alternatives such as fly ash because it can provide similar strength while being more economical and more sustainable.

Arce 415 Portfolio: The Green Bird Of Paradise, Kristofer R. Rickansrud, Ryan Chan, Brendan Peers, Joel Santoyo Jun 2023

#### Arce 415 Portfolio: The Green Bird Of Paradise, Kristofer R. Rickansrud, Ryan Chan, Brendan Peers, Joel Santoyo

##### Architectural Engineering

A design project creating a Polyshell sunshade structure for the Leaning Pine Arboretum.

Polymöbi: Single-Surface Timber Polyshell Shade Structure, Ryan Khieu, Tom Sesin, Gabriel Garfias, Evan Brooks Jun 2023

#### Polymöbi: Single-Surface Timber Polyshell Shade Structure, Ryan Khieu, Tom Sesin, Gabriel Garfias, Evan Brooks

##### Architectural Engineering

Overall design process of incorporating Polyshells into a sunshade structure, while addressing client needs, materiality, constructability, and life safety.

Concrete Masonry Program (Cmd21) Usability, Allie G. Decker Jun 2023

#### Concrete Masonry Program (Cmd21) Usability, Allie G. Decker

##### Architectural Engineering

The Concrete Masonry Design Program, CMD21, can be utilized in the design of beams, columns, and walls, but this project focuses on the use of the program to analyze shear walls loaded in-plane. This report critiques and describes the learning process behind the CMD21 program.

Crescent: Proposed Arboretum Shade Structure, Hayle Jones, Ian Kelly, Emilie Phuong, Brooke Heitman Jun 2023

#### Crescent: Proposed Arboretum Shade Structure, Hayle Jones, Ian Kelly, Emilie Phuong, Brooke Heitman

##### Architectural Engineering

This is a sunshade structure that uses shells as the facade to create the enclosing of this structure.

The Center For Centering Dome, Olek Piechaczek, Ryan M. Scharf Jun 2023

#### The Center For Centering Dome, Olek Piechaczek, Ryan M. Scharf

##### Architectural Engineering

The Center for Centering seeks to create a large-scale healing center, conducive to individual centering of the mind and body. This mobile installation provides a relaxing, enclosed space while still maintaining a connection to the outdoors. The clients liked the idea of having a pop-up installation that could be easily set up as a touring display. With a deadline for installation looming in June 2022, a team of students had five months to design and manufacture the structure.

In winter 2022, the students developed custom geometry to minimize the number of individual parts and built a ¼ scale model of …

Slo Botanical Garden Deck, Noah E. Demer May 2023

#### Slo Botanical Garden Deck, Noah E. Demer

##### Architectural Engineering

This project consists of the design and construction of an outdoor-use deck. This deck is to be located in the NE corner of the Sage Meadow at the San Luis Obispo Botanical Garden at 3450 Dairy Creek Rd, San Luis Obispo, CA 93405. This deck’s intended use is as a gathering area for people to congregate. Originally, the ideal deck area was proposed as 700+ square feet, but with further site and project limitations the final design was ~480 square feet. This deck has not been constructed.

Precious Plastics - Plastic Brick Machine Fabrication, Timothy Ukaobasi Kanu, Evi Paraskevi Troulis Mar 2023

#### Precious Plastics - Plastic Brick Machine Fabrication, Timothy Ukaobasi Kanu, Evi Paraskevi Troulis

##### Architectural Engineering

The goal of this research is to determine the structural parameters of the recycled plastic polypropylene when molded into bricks resembling CMU blocks. To accomplish this, three mechanisms had to be assembled: the shredder, the injector, and the 1x1 mold. A tensile and compression test were to be performed on the plastic brick, and the values would be used to compare the tensile and compressive strength of PP plastic bricks, as well as their modulus of elasticity and stress vs. Strain performance. These values would be analyzed to determine whether it would be feasible to build an entire plastic wall. …

Reciprocal Frames: The Flat Beam Grillage, Cesar Noe Jimenez Ramirez, Nicholas Sowatzke Dec 2022

#### Reciprocal Frames: The Flat Beam Grillage, Cesar Noe Jimenez Ramirez, Nicholas Sowatzke

##### Architectural Engineering

This report follows the pursuit of attaining information and researching academic resources regarding the elusive reciprocal frame structures throughout history, in particular the flat beam grillage. In the following pages, the reader should expect to learn about reciprocal frames in a historical context throughout the globe, as well as, gain insight on how to potentially analyze these frames when they span two-dimensionally. As seen in Figure 1 (Pugnale 2011) and Figure 2 (Godthelp 2019), reciprocal frame structures consist of multiple groups of three or more members that are mutually supported. Along the perimeter of the structure, the members are supported …

Dec 2022

#### Use Of Precious Plastic Method Of Bricks For The Construction Of Tiny Homes, Haylie E. Tallon

##### Architectural Engineering

Precious Plastics, a Netherlands based company, created an open source project that can be used to create different objects from recycled plastics. The San Luis Obispo area has a large amount of recyclable plastic that is being treated as trash, adding to the pollution of the ocean and the air. This project is to determine the necessary steps to create plastic building blocks, using the Precious Plastic process, as a construction material for low-income, temporary housing. This report covers the process that was used to build two of the machines that will be used to create the bricks. This requires …

Leveraging Lessons Learned From A Virtual Hands-On Outreach Program To Cultivate Diversity In The Next Generation Of Structural Engineers, Anahid Behrouzi, Nicole Buck, Sarah Navias Sep 2022

#### Leveraging Lessons Learned From A Virtual Hands-On Outreach Program To Cultivate Diversity In The Next Generation Of Structural Engineers, Anahid Behrouzi, Nicole Buck, Sarah Navias

##### Architectural Engineering

A challenge that continues to face the structural engineering (SE) profession is the recruitment and retention of individuals from underrepresented minority (URM) groups, underscored over the years by findings reported on by the SE3 project committee. One approach to address this is by developing and conducting early outreach efforts with diverse populations of K-12 students, so they are aware of SE’s meaningful contributions to society and the intriguing technical problem- solving opportunities in this field. During these educational activities it is also important for young students to be exposed to engineering practitioner-educators who represent diverse backgrounds and whose lived experience …

Timber Buckling Restrained Brace, Faith Sharp, Armando Castaneda Jr Aug 2022

#### Timber Buckling Restrained Brace, Faith Sharp, Armando Castaneda Jr

##### Architectural Engineering

The timber buckling-restrained brace (TBRB) experiment at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly), began in 2018 with the goal of finding whether timber may provide proper restraint against buckling of a steel brace. The TBRB was motivated by the limited lateral force resisting systems (LFRS) available for low-to-mid-rise, type V construction; this system would provide strength and ductility at a scale and level of cost appropriate to timber construction.

Early research consisted of uniaxial component testing, where researchers played with the balance between the core brace design and utilization of timber casings for buckling restraint, with minimal …

Hands-On Earthquake Engineering Curriculum For The Virtual Classroom, S. Navias, N. Buck, Anahid A. Behrouzi Jun 2022

#### Hands-On Earthquake Engineering Curriculum For The Virtual Classroom, S. Navias, N. Buck, Anahid A. Behrouzi

##### Architectural Engineering

During Summer 2021, five week-long virtual earthquake engineering sessions were offered in the Cal Poly Engineering Possibilities in College (EPIC) summer program. Typically, this is a residential program comprised of faculty-led workshops in various engineering fields to provide pre-college experiences to students, particularly from underrepresented backgrounds. The challenge posed by remote learning, due to the global pandemic, was to continue providing educationally effective hands-on activities. To accomplish this, the instructor team designed, fabricated, and shipped over 120 mail-home engineering kits for students to assemble a shake table, build and retrofit a structural model, as well as collect and analyze data …

Sage Garden Pavilion Shade Structure, Anthony Razouk Karroum, Manuel Bermudez, Matthew Kilbride, Sarah Holt, Marisa Martineau Jun 2022

#### Sage Garden Pavilion Shade Structure, Anthony Razouk Karroum, Manuel Bermudez, Matthew Kilbride, Sarah Holt, Marisa Martineau

##### Architectural Engineering

Form finding, testing, and construction of funicular double-layered shells in an interdisciplinary format with a focus on designing a shade structure for the San Luis Obispo Botanical Garden Children’s Pavilion. In the process, challenges such as connection design, materiality, storage, and more are explored and refined in relation to shell structures.

Guidelines For The Eeri Seismic Design Competition, Kate Robinson Jun 2022

#### Guidelines For The Eeri Seismic Design Competition, Kate Robinson

##### Architectural Engineering

The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) has been dedicated to exposing undergraduate students to the wide range of interdisciplinary subjects related to earthquake engineering through the Seismic Design Competition. In 2022, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly) sent 14 students to Salt Lake City, Utah for the competition – to compete with 31 other teams who all tackled the competition problem statement uniquely. The 2022 team was tasked with the research, design, analysis, and construction of a new structure to be built in downtown Salt Lake City, with the goal of replicating the design sequence of real-world …

Structural Design Of A New Reaction Frame For High Bay Laboratory, Cassidy A. Sutton, Adelaide Albro Jun 2022

#### Structural Design Of A New Reaction Frame For High Bay Laboratory, Cassidy A. Sutton, Adelaide Albro

##### Architectural Engineering

The Cal Poly High Bay Testing Lab recently acquired hydraulic actuators for structural testing. The actuators are used for performing force and displacement tests on structural specimens designed and built by students and faculty. The existing frame that the old actuators mount to did not have enough capacity to accommodate the amount of force that the new actuators are capable of. New reaction frames were needed to be designed and constructed so the new actuators could be used to their full potential. The following report explores two different options for possible reaction frames in the lab. Both options have a …

Center For Centering: Analysis Of A Modular Timber Dome, Lucas J. Brown Jun 2022

#### Center For Centering: Analysis Of A Modular Timber Dome, Lucas J. Brown

##### Architectural Engineering

Analysis of a modular timber dome with focus on inductive, sensory, social, and environmental aspects.

Same Polytechnic College Tanzania Build 2022, Paulina Robles, Anna Yamauchi, Surina Marwaha, Tia Kelly, Dillon Schneider, Audrey Hoang, Connor Gilligan, Jennifer Viveros, Jenna Beutelschies, Robert Hardwick Jun 2022

#### Same Polytechnic College Tanzania Build 2022, Paulina Robles, Anna Yamauchi, Surina Marwaha, Tia Kelly, Dillon Schneider, Audrey Hoang, Connor Gilligan, Jennifer Viveros, Jenna Beutelschies, Robert Hardwick

##### Architectural Engineering

In collaboration with The Mbesese Initiative for Sustainable Design, the Cal Poly senior project team has designed, engineered, and prepared construction documents for a new vocational training college in Same, Tanzania, a rural area in the Mt. Kilimanjaro region. Upon its completion, the college will offer quality and practical educational opportunities for up to 1,200 students; in the interim, individual structures will be occupied immediately, adding value to the community throughout the construction process. The campus will house continuing educational programs, sports and agriculture fields, as well as hotels and other community-facing structures.

Mar 2022

#### Population Growth Vs. Landfill Capacity Vs. Recycling Mandates In California Counties, Thomas Soares

##### Architectural Engineering

As population growth increases in Monterey, Fresno, Kern, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and Ventura counties, so does waste production. More waste is a cause for concern because landfills have limited capacities. In order to combat the increase in waste, cities, counties, and the state are creating recycling mandates to ensure waste is being handled appropriately. More specifically, the trash generated by residents and construction and demolition (C&D) materials are being recycled and reused instead of thrown into landfills. This report indicates that increases in recycling mandates in California cannot withstand the increase in waste generation from population growth. Another …

Guastavino: Learn By Doweling, Audrey Luu, Gabrielle Favro, Robert Pulido, Cameron Grant Mar 2022

#### Guastavino: Learn By Doweling, Audrey Luu, Gabrielle Favro, Robert Pulido, Cameron Grant

##### Architectural Engineering

We embarked on a journey into the world of shells this quarter! We began the process with form finding using rhino and grasshopper. Then made a study model using laser cutters to brainstorm ways to construct the real-life model. As a class, we completed two shell structures.

Development Of The Human Scale Twelve-Node Model, Tebrez W. Khan Mar 2022

#### Development Of The Human Scale Twelve-Node Model, Tebrez W. Khan

##### Architectural Engineering

The attempted creation of a full-scale twelve-node model made of PVC pipe and golf balls. Intended use of the structure was for students to tactically learn from the model.