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Architectural Engineering

2014

Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Evaluating Existing And Proposing New Seismic Design Provisions For Rigid Wall - Flexible Diaphragm Buildings, John Lawson, Dominic Kelly, Maria Koliou, Andre Filiatrault Sep 2014

Evaluating Existing And Proposing New Seismic Design Provisions For Rigid Wall - Flexible Diaphragm Buildings, John Lawson, Dominic Kelly, Maria Koliou, Andre Filiatrault

Architectural Engineering

Buildings with heavy concrete on masonry walls supported by flexible wood or steel deck roof diaphragms are ubiquitour across the United States and the rest of North America. The current seismic design approach is based on the equivalent lateral force (ELF) method whose underlying assumptions significantly differ from the actual dynamic response of these buildings. The seismic behavior of rigid wall-flexible rood diaphragm (RWFD) Buildings is dominated by the diaphragm's response instead of the wall' in-plane response. Furthermore, the diaphragm's ductility and overstrength capacity is unique to its own construction. Yet the current design methodology employed by practitioners directly ties …


Distribution Of Chord Forces In Large Panelized Wood Roof Diaphragms, Weichang Pang, Chun Ni, John Lawson, Sami Pant Aug 2014

Distribution Of Chord Forces In Large Panelized Wood Roof Diaphragms, Weichang Pang, Chun Ni, John Lawson, Sami Pant

Architectural Engineering

Flexible wood roof diaphragms are very common in the United States, both for residential buildings and large-scale commercial buildings. Due to its simplicity, the traditional diaphragm design method is commonly used in diaphragm design, in particular for the design of diaphragms with relatively small dimensions. The traditional diaphragm design method assumes the axial chord forces developed in framing members under in-plane loading are carried only by the perimeter elements. This method has always been thought to be a conservative design method, especially when applied to large diaphragms. In recent years, the engineering community began to question the applicability of the …


Numerical Framework For Seismic Collapse Assessment Of Rigid Wall-Flexible Diaphragm Structures, M. Koliou, A. Filiatrault, D.J. Kelly, John W. Lawson Jul 2014

Numerical Framework For Seismic Collapse Assessment Of Rigid Wall-Flexible Diaphragm Structures, M. Koliou, A. Filiatrault, D.J. Kelly, John W. Lawson

Architectural Engineering

This study focuses on the development of a two dimensional (2D) simplified numerical framework of rigid wall-flexible diaphragm (RWFD) structures that can be used to validate seismic design approaches. This type of low-rise industrial buildings, which is widely used in North America, incorporates rigid in-plane concrete or masonry walls and flexible in-plane wood, steel or “hybrid” roof diaphragms. The numerical modeling is detailed enough to capture the nonlinear seismic response of RWFD buildings, but simplified enough to efficiently conduct a large number of nonlinear time-history dynamic analyses. The 2D numerical modeling framework is based on a three step sub-structuring approach …


Examining The Applicability Of Design Methods For Large Panelized All-Wood Roof Diaphragms Under Seismic Loading, W. Pang, S. Pant, C. Ni, John W. Lawson Jul 2014

Examining The Applicability Of Design Methods For Large Panelized All-Wood Roof Diaphragms Under Seismic Loading, W. Pang, S. Pant, C. Ni, John W. Lawson

Architectural Engineering

The use of flexible roof diaphragms is very common in the United States, both for residential buildings and large-scale commercial buildings. Due to its simplicity, the traditional diaphragm design method is commonly used in diaphragm design, in particular for the design of diaphragms with relatively small dimensions. The traditional diaphragm design method assumes the axial chord forces developed in framing members under in-plane loading are carried only by the perimeter elements. The traditional diaphragm design method has always been thought to be a conservative design method, especially when applied to large diaphragms. In recent years, the engineering community began to …


Development Of Seismic Design Methodologies For Rigid Wall-Flexible Diaphragm Structures, John W. Lawson, D. J. Kelly, M. Koliou, A. Filiatrault Jul 2014

Development Of Seismic Design Methodologies For Rigid Wall-Flexible Diaphragm Structures, John W. Lawson, D. J. Kelly, M. Koliou, A. Filiatrault

Architectural Engineering

Evidence indicates that the dynamic behavior of Rigid Wall – Flexible Diaphragm (RWFD) structures is dominated by the diaphragm’s response instead of the walls’ response, and this is a significant departure from the underlying assumptions of the widely used equivalent lateral force method in current building codes. RWFD buildings are common in North America and other parts of the world, and incorporate rigid in-plane concrete or masonry walls and flexible in-plane wood or steel roof diaphragms. With the use of a numerical computer modeling framework developed specifically for this type of building, this study sets out to investigate the seismic …


No Admixture, Sustainable, Self-Consolidating Grout, Craig Baltimore, James P. Mwangi, Eric W. Bateman Jul 2014

No Admixture, Sustainable, Self-Consolidating Grout, Craig Baltimore, James P. Mwangi, Eric W. Bateman

Architectural Engineering

The consolidation of grout in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls is labor-intensive. Also, the grout’s Portland cement content has a high embodied energy demand – a non-sustainable characteristic. For the labor-intensive issue, chemical admixture self-consolidating grouts have been used in walls 12.67 ft. (3.86 m) tall, however the chemical additive can impose new limitations on the grout (non-robust characteristics). No admixture self-consolidating grout with high percentage Portland cement replacement have potential for robust and sustainable application. This paper reports on the consolidation of no admixture self-consolidating grout made by substituting high percentages of Portland cement with Type-F fly ash and/or …


Using K’Nex To Teach Large Scale Structures To Architects And Constructionstudents, Allen C. Estes, Craig Baltimore Jun 2014

Using K’Nex To Teach Large Scale Structures To Architects And Constructionstudents, Allen C. Estes, Craig Baltimore

Architectural Engineering

The College of Architecture and Environmental Design at California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly SLO) is the only college in the nation that includes architecture (ARCH), architectural engineering (ARCE) and construction management (CM) programs in the same college. Given the unique mix of disciplines and the emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration, the ARCH and CM students take a five-course structural engineering sequence from the ARCE department. A challenge of these courses is to maintain some degree of computational rigor while offering a broader perspective that will benefit the ARCH and CM students. This paper reports on one …


New Civil Engineering Program Criteria: How The Sausage Is Being Made, Allen Estes, Thomas A. Lenox Jun 2014

New Civil Engineering Program Criteria: How The Sausage Is Being Made, Allen Estes, Thomas A. Lenox

Architectural Engineering

The American Society of Civil Engineers organized the Civil Engineering Program Criteria Task Committee in October 2012 whose charge is to determine if the current ABET Civil Engineering Program Criteria (CEPC) should be changed to reflect one or more of the 24 outcomes of the second edition of the Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge published in 2008. After over a year of conference calls and face to face meetings, the committee has drafted and disseminated a proposed CEPC. This paper chronicles the development of the proposed criteria by sharing a review of the literature, the committee’s methodology and process, the …


Summary Of Large-Scale C-Shaped Reinforced Concrete Wall Tests, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Andrew Mock, Laura Lowes, Dawn Lehman, Daniel Kuchma Jan 2014

Summary Of Large-Scale C-Shaped Reinforced Concrete Wall Tests, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Andrew Mock, Laura Lowes, Dawn Lehman, Daniel Kuchma

Architectural Engineering

Flexural concrete walls (i.e., walls the yield in flexural prior to failure) are used commonly as the lateral load resisting system for mid‐ and high‐rise buildings on the West Coast. They are relatively stiff under service‐level loading, can take on various configurations to accommodate architectural constraints, and are generally assumed to exhibit ductile response under severe earthquake loading. Despite heavy reliance on concrete walls, relatively little research has been done to investigate the earthquake performance of walls with modern design details. Few data exist characterizing the performance of modern walls under variable levels of earthquake loading or the impact of …


Empirically Derived Effective Stiffness Expressions For Concrete Walls, Andrew Mock, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Laura Lowes, Dawn Lehman, Daniel Kuchma Jan 2014

Empirically Derived Effective Stiffness Expressions For Concrete Walls, Andrew Mock, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Laura Lowes, Dawn Lehman, Daniel Kuchma

Architectural Engineering

In most cases, analysis to determine component demands for seismic design of concrete buildings employs linear elastic models in which reduced, effective component stiffnesses are used. This document i) reviews the recommendations for defining the effective flexural, shear and axial stiffness of concrete walls that are included in current design codes, standards and guidelines and ii) compares these recommendations with stiffness expressions derived directly from experimental data by the authors and others. Section 2 reviews existing empirically derived and code‐, standard‐, and guideline‐based expressions for the effective stiffness of concrete walls. Section 3 presents the process used by the authors …


Summary Of Large-Scale Nonplanar Reinforced Concrete Wall Tests, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Andrew Mock, Laura Lowes, Dawn Lehman, Daniel Kuchma Jan 2014

Summary Of Large-Scale Nonplanar Reinforced Concrete Wall Tests, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Andrew Mock, Laura Lowes, Dawn Lehman, Daniel Kuchma

Architectural Engineering

Nonplanar wall configurations are prevalent in engineering practice, yet relatively little research has addressed nonplanar walls and the earthquake response of these components remains poorly understood. A recent experimental test program conducted by the authors investigated the earthquake response of modern, ACI Code compliant C‐shaped walls subjected to unidirectional and bidirectional lateral loading. To compare the results of this study with previous experimental investigations conducted by others, this document examines laboratory tests of slender nonplanar walls available in the literature. Response histories, damage patterns, drift capacity and failure mechanisms are used to characterize the behavior of each nonplanar wall test …