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Mental Disorders Commons

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Dimensions Of Symptom Presentation And Scholarly Representation Of Young Females With Fragile X Syndrome, Andrew N. Snell 2019 Brigham Young University

Dimensions Of Symptom Presentation And Scholarly Representation Of Young Females With Fragile X Syndrome, Andrew N. Snell

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

No abstract provided.


Thinking Outside The Checkbox: Examining The Benefits Of Depression In The Workplace, Tyler L. Jensen 2019 Brigham Young University

Thinking Outside The Checkbox: Examining The Benefits Of Depression In The Workplace, Tyler L. Jensen

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

No abstract provided.


Social Isolation Among Families Caring For Children With Disabilities, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2019 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Social Isolation Among Families Caring For Children With Disabilities, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

In this issue introduction, the editor-in-chief of Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews comments on the social isolation experienced by families that include children with significant disabilities.


In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber 2019 The University of Western Ontario

In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In recent years both philosophers and scientists have asked whether or not our current kinds of mental disorder—e.g., schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder—are natural kinds; and, moreover, whether or not the search for natural kinds of mental disorder is a realistic desideratum for psychiatry. In this dissertation I clarify the sense in which a kind can be said to be “natural” or “real” and argue that, despite a few notable exceptions, kinds of mental disorder cannot be considered natural kinds. Furthermore, I contend that psychopathological phenomena do not cluster together into kinds in the way that paradigmatic natural ...


Fmrp Control Of Ribosome Translocation Promotes Chromatin Modifications And Alternative Splicing Of Neuronal Genes Linked To Autism [Preprint], Sneha Shah, Gemma Molinaro, Botao Liu, Ruijia Wang, Kimberly M. Huber, Joel D. Richter 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Fmrp Control Of Ribosome Translocation Promotes Chromatin Modifications And Alternative Splicing Of Neuronal Genes Linked To Autism [Preprint], Sneha Shah, Gemma Molinaro, Botao Liu, Ruijia Wang, Kimberly M. Huber, Joel D. Richter

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Silencing of FMR1 and loss of its gene product FMRP results in Fragile X Syndrome. FMRP binds brain mRNAs and inhibits polypeptide elongation. Using ribosome profiling of the hippocampus, we find that ribosome footprint levels in Fmr1-deficient tissue mostly reflect changes in RNA abundance. Profiling over a time course of ribosome runoff in wildtype tissue reveals a wide range of ribosome translocation rates; on many mRNAs, the ribosomes are stalled. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation of hippocampal slices after ribosome runoff reveals that FMRP co-sediments with stalled ribosomes; and its loss results in decline of ribosome stalling on specific mRNAs. One ...


Treatment Of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder In Children And Adolescents: Benefits And Challenges, Kaila Bollinger, Albert Bui, Adam Smith, Kelsey Fink, Manoranjan D'Souza 2019 Ohio Northern University

Treatment Of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder In Children And Adolescents: Benefits And Challenges, Kaila Bollinger, Albert Bui, Adam Smith, Kelsey Fink, Manoranjan D'Souza

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder affecting approximately 11 percent of the country's children and adolescents, between the ages four to seventeen years. Stimulant medications such as methylphenidate and amphetamines are the first-line of treatment for ADHD. The increasing use of these stimulant medications has resulted in increased media attention and raised questions about their efficacy and safety. This review focuses on the history of stimulant use in ADHD, the disease's pathophysiology, the long-term benefits of pharmacotherapy, and the possible subsequent adverse effects associated with prolonged stimulant use in children and adolescents suffering from ADHD. Furthermore ...


Antidepressant Therapy: A Review Of Current Treatment Options And A Glance At The Future, Brittany Dye, Stacy Henthorne, Molly Kulp, Tristan Maiers, Zachary Crawford, Erin Petersen 2019 Ohio Northern University

Antidepressant Therapy: A Review Of Current Treatment Options And A Glance At The Future, Brittany Dye, Stacy Henthorne, Molly Kulp, Tristan Maiers, Zachary Crawford, Erin Petersen

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Depression and anxiety disorders are two of the most common mental illnesses experienced by people within the United States, affecting 6.7 percent of the adult population per year. This article will focus on one specific type of depression, major depressive disorder (MDD), characterized by two or more weeks of depressed mood and/or decreased interest in normally enjoyed activities. Depression complicates treatment of other disease state(s), making successful treatment of depression essential in the management of a patient's overall health. This review will evaluate the pathophysiology, antidepressant treatment, and new approaches to treatment, specifically vortioxetine, for MDD.


Reduced Brain Activity In The Right Putamen As An Early Predictor For Treatment Response In Drug-Naive, First-Episode Schizophrenia, Renrong Wu, Yangpan Ou, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Huabing Li, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo, Xiaoduo Fan 2019 The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University

Reduced Brain Activity In The Right Putamen As An Early Predictor For Treatment Response In Drug-Naive, First-Episode Schizophrenia, Renrong Wu, Yangpan Ou, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Huabing Li, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo, Xiaoduo Fan

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Antipsychotic medications can have a significant effect on brain function after only several days of treatment. It is unclear whether such an acute effect can serve as an early predictor for treatment response in schizophrenia. Thirty-two patients with drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia and 32 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were treated with olanzapine and were scanned at baseline and 1 week of treatment. Healthy controls were scanned once at baseline. Symptom severity was assessed within the patient group using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at three time points (baseline, 1 week of treatment, and 8 ...


Somatic Symptom And Related Disorders: A Case Of Illness Anxiety Disorder In A Young Relatively Treatment Naive African American Male, Linda Zhang, Richard P. Leggett, Harrison Ross Galicki, William B. DeHart 2019 HCA Healthcare

Somatic Symptom And Related Disorders: A Case Of Illness Anxiety Disorder In A Young Relatively Treatment Naive African American Male, Linda Zhang, Richard P. Leggett, Harrison Ross Galicki, William B. Dehart

Psychiatry

Somatic symptom and related disorders (including illness anxiety disorder and somatic symptom disorder) is a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) replacing somatoform and related disorders in the DSM-4 Text Revision. This classification eliminated the requirement that somatic symptoms must be nonorganic in nature, in an effort to reliably detect more cases of significant health anxiety than previously with DSM-4 criteria. Illness anxiety disorder is a primary anxiety disorder characterized by persistent preoccupation or excessive concern about having or developing an undiagnosed disease despite medical evaluation and reassurance. It is considered a ...


Texas, The Death Penalty, And Intellectual Disability, Megan Green 2019 St. Mary's University School of Law

Texas, The Death Penalty, And Intellectual Disability, Megan Green

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract forthcoming


A Telephone-Based Dementia Care Management Intervention-Finding The Time To Listen, Jennifer Tjia 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Telephone-Based Dementia Care Management Intervention-Finding The Time To Listen, Jennifer Tjia

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

In this invited commentary, UMass Medical School geriatrics expert Jennifer Tjia, MD, MSCE, interspersed personal reflection with scholarly analysis in a JAMA Internal Medicine editorial on a study that found telephone support for caretakers of family members with dementia can improve quality of life for patients and caregivers.


An Animal-Assisted Intervention Study In The Nursing Home: Lessons Learned, Lonneke G. J. A. Schuurmans, Inge Noback, Jos M. G. A. Schols, Marie-Jose Enders-Slegers 2019 Open University, The Netherlands

An Animal-Assisted Intervention Study In The Nursing Home: Lessons Learned, Lonneke G. J. A. Schuurmans, Inge Noback, Jos M. G. A. Schols, Marie-Jose Enders-Slegers

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

AAI studies in the nursing home pose a specific set of challenges. In this article the practical and ethical issues encountered during a Dutch psychogeriatric nursing home AAI study are addressed with the aim of sharing our experiences for future researchers as well as AAI practitioners in general.

In our study we compared three groups of clients with dementia who participated in group sessions of either visiting dog teams, visiting FurReal Friend robot animals, or visiting students (control group) and monitored the effect on social interaction and neuropsychiatric symptoms through video analysis and questionnaires. We encountered the following four categories ...


Oligogenic Effects Of 16p11.2 Copy-Number Variation On Craniofacial Development, Yuqi Qiu, Curtis K. Deutsch, Jonathan Sebat 2019 University of California - San Diego

Oligogenic Effects Of 16p11.2 Copy-Number Variation On Craniofacial Development, Yuqi Qiu, Curtis K. Deutsch, Jonathan Sebat

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

A copy-number variant (CNV) of 16p11.2 encompassing 30 genes is associated with developmental and psychiatric disorders, head size, and body mass. The genetic mechanisms that underlie these associations are not understood. To determine the influence of 16p11.2 genes on development, we investigated the effects of CNV on craniofacial structure in humans and model organisms. We show that deletion and duplication of 16p11.2 have "mirror" effects on specific craniofacial features that are conserved between human and rodent models of the CNV. By testing dosage effects of individual genes on the shape of the mandible in zebrafish, we identify ...


Anxiety Induced Pulmonary Edema: A Rare Occurrence, Anum Akhlaq MD, Neda Shahoori, Alexandra Mary Kelada, Aftab Ahmad 2019 HCA Healthcare

Anxiety Induced Pulmonary Edema: A Rare Occurrence, Anum Akhlaq Md, Neda Shahoori, Alexandra Mary Kelada, Aftab Ahmad

Internal Medicine

No abstract provided.


Trial Of Sage-217 In Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Handan Gunduz-Bruce, Christopher Silber, Inder Kaul, Anthony J. Rothschild, Robert Riesenberg, Abdul J. Sankoh, Haihong Li, Robert Lasser, Charles F. Zorumski, David R. Rubinow, Steven M. Paul, Jeffrey Jonas, James J. Doherty, Stephen J. Kanes 2019 Sage Therapeutics

Trial Of Sage-217 In Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Handan Gunduz-Bruce, Christopher Silber, Inder Kaul, Anthony J. Rothschild, Robert Riesenberg, Abdul J. Sankoh, Haihong Li, Robert Lasser, Charles F. Zorumski, David R. Rubinow, Steven M. Paul, Jeffrey Jonas, James J. Doherty, Stephen J. Kanes

Psychiatry Publications

BACKGROUND: Altered neurotransmission of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. Whether SAGE-217, an oral, positive allosteric modulator of GABA type A receptors, is effective and safe for the treatment of major depressive disorder is unknown.

METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients with major depression and randomly assigned them in a 1:1 ratio to receive 30 mg of SAGE-217 or placebo once daily. The primary end point was the change from baseline to day 15 in the score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D; scores range from 0 to ...


Systemic Inflammation Impairs Microglial Abeta Clearance Through Nlrp3 Inflammasome, Dario Tejera, Dilek Mercan, Juan M. Sanchez-Caro, Mor Hanan, David Greenberg, Hermona Soreq, Eicke Latz, Douglas T. Golenbock, Michael T. Heneka 2019 University Hospitals Bonn

Systemic Inflammation Impairs Microglial Abeta Clearance Through Nlrp3 Inflammasome, Dario Tejera, Dilek Mercan, Juan M. Sanchez-Caro, Mor Hanan, David Greenberg, Hermona Soreq, Eicke Latz, Douglas T. Golenbock, Michael T. Heneka

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent type of dementia and is caused by the deposition of extracellular amyloid-beta and abnormal tau phosphorylation. Neuroinflammation has emerged as an additional pathological component. Microglia, representing the brain's major innate immune cells, play an important role during Alzheimer's. Once activated, microglia show changes in their morphology, characterized by a retraction of cell processes. Systemic inflammation is known to increase the risk for cognitive decline in human neurogenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Here, we assess for the first time microglial changes upon a peripheral immune challenge in the context of aging and ...


The Development Of Face Morphing Task To Assess Self Other Differentiation, Esen Karan 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Development Of Face Morphing Task To Assess Self Other Differentiation, Esen Karan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Self-Other Differentiation (SOD) refers to a developmental process of acquiring a consolidated, integrated, and individuated sense of self. SOD develops at a) perceptual (e.g., facial perception) and b) representational (e.g., traits, mental states, and beliefs) levels. Impairments in representational SOD (R-SOD) are associated with many forms of psychopathology, particularly borderline personality disorder (BPD) and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). Few studies to date have examined the perceptual aspects of SOD (P-SOD), which are hypothesized to develop from infancy onwards in tandem and in interaction with R-SOD. Given that the human face is one of the key characteristics that humans ...


Does Ethnic Identity, In-Group Preference, And Acculturation Protect Latinas With A History Of Interpersonal Trauma From Developing Symptoms Of Ptsd?, Evelyn M. Ramirez 2019 City University of New York (CUNY)

Does Ethnic Identity, In-Group Preference, And Acculturation Protect Latinas With A History Of Interpersonal Trauma From Developing Symptoms Of Ptsd?, Evelyn M. Ramirez

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Previous research suggests ethnic identity, a sense of belonging to a particular cultural group, may be protective against symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the role of ethnic identity, in-group preference (i.e., an individual’s preference for interactions with members of their own ethnic group) and acculturation (i.e., the level of comfort with the mainstream culture) have not been investigated as protective factors for Latinas with a history of interpersonal and sexual trauma. In this study, ethnic identity, in-group preference and acculturation were assessed via self-report on the Scale of Ethnic Experience in two samples of undergraduate ...


Effect Of Continuing Olanzapine Vs Placebo On Relapse Among Patients With Psychotic Depression In Remission: The Stop-Pd Ii Randomized Clinical Trial, Alastair J. Flint, Barnett S. Meyers, Anthony J. Rothschild, Ellen M. Whyte, George S. Alexopoulos, Matthew V. Rudorfer, Patricia Marino, Samprit Banerjee, Cristina D. Pollari, Yiyuan Wu, Aristotle N. Voineskos, Benoit H. Mulsant 2019 University of Toronto

Effect Of Continuing Olanzapine Vs Placebo On Relapse Among Patients With Psychotic Depression In Remission: The Stop-Pd Ii Randomized Clinical Trial, Alastair J. Flint, Barnett S. Meyers, Anthony J. Rothschild, Ellen M. Whyte, George S. Alexopoulos, Matthew V. Rudorfer, Patricia Marino, Samprit Banerjee, Cristina D. Pollari, Yiyuan Wu, Aristotle N. Voineskos, Benoit H. Mulsant

Psychiatry Publications

Importance: Psychotic depression is a severely disabling and potentially lethal disorder. Little is known about the efficacy and tolerability of continuing antipsychotic medication for patients with psychotic depression in remission.

Objective: To determine the clinical effects of continuing antipsychotic medication once an episode of psychotic depression has responded to combination treatment with an antidepressant and antipsychotic agent.

Design, Setting, and Participants: Thirty-six week randomized clinical trial conducted at 4 academic medical centers. Patients aged 18 years or older had an episode of psychotic depression acutely treated with sertraline plus olanzapine for up to 12 weeks and met criteria for remission ...


Recent Trends, Current Research In Cyberpsychology: A Literature Review, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh 2019 Library Assistant, Central Library, Central University of South Bihar (CUSB), Gaya (Bihar)

Recent Trends, Current Research In Cyberpsychology: A Literature Review, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Cyberpsychology refers to the study of the mind and behavior in the context of interactions with technology. It is an emerging branch, which has focused on the psychological aspects connected to the increasing presence and usages of technology in modern lives. This paper traces recent advancement and trends of Cyberpsychology is an emerging domain of knowledge and goes on the give a literature review of the same. An analysis of the recent research and literature covering 300 most relevant research papers from the period of 2012 to 15, August 2019 was conducted to determine and shape the research pattern based ...


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