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Methicillin Resistance In Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius, Chad Christopher Black 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Methicillin Resistance In Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius, Chad Christopher Black

Doctoral Dissertations

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius affecting dogs is analogous to S. aureus on humans, acting as both normal flora and opportunistic pathogen. Methicillin resistance in S. pseudintermedius is recent, with the first documented occurrence of an isolate bearing the methicillin resistance gene, mecA, in 1999. This gene encodes penicillin binding protein 2a, which renders all beta-lactam drugs ineffective and functions as a “gateway” antibiotic resistance determinant. In the presence of ineffective antibiotics, opportunities for mutational events and acquisition of mobile genetic elements increase as microbial densities increase, often leading to multi-drug resistance. Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) infections have become increasingly common. For …


Animal-Human Relationships In Child Protective Services: Getting A Baseline, Lisa Anne Zilney, Christina Risley-Curtiss, Rebecca Hornung 2010 Montclair State University

Animal-Human Relationships In Child Protective Services: Getting A Baseline, Lisa Anne Zilney, Christina Risley-Curtiss, Rebecca Hornung

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The inclusion of certain aspects of animal-human relationships (AHR), such as animal abuse and animal-assisted interventions, can enhance child welfare practice and there are resources available to promote such inclusion. However, there is little knowledge of whether this is being accomplished. This study sought to fill this gap by conducting a national survey of state public child welfare agencies to examine AHR in child protective services practice, their assessment tools, and cross-reporting policies.


Identification Of An L-Rhamnose Synthetic Pathway In Two Nucleocytoplasmic Large Dna Viruses, Madhu Parakkottil Chothi, Garry A. Duncan, Andrea Armirotti, Chantal Abergel, James R. Gurnon, James L. Van Etten, Cinzia Bernardi, Gianluca Damonte, Michela Tonetti 2010 University of Genova

Identification Of An L-Rhamnose Synthetic Pathway In Two Nucleocytoplasmic Large Dna Viruses, Madhu Parakkottil Chothi, Garry A. Duncan, Andrea Armirotti, Chantal Abergel, James R. Gurnon, James L. Van Etten, Cinzia Bernardi, Gianluca Damonte, Michela Tonetti

James Van Etten Publications

Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) are characterized by large genomes that often encode proteins not commonly found in viruses. Two species in this group are Acanthocystis turfacea chlorella virus 1 (ATCV-1) (family Phycodnaviridae, genus Chlorovirus) and Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (family Mimiviridae), commonly known as mimivirus. ATCV-1 and other chlorovirus members encode enzymes involved in the synthesis and glycosylation of their structural proteins. In this study, we identified and characterized three enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the sugar L-rhamnose: two UDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratases (UGDs) encoded by ATCV-1 and mimivirus and a bifunctional UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose epimerase/reductase (UGER) from mimivirus. Phylogenetic …


A Functional Calcium-Transporting Atpase Encoded By Chlorella Viruses, Maria Cristina Bonza, Holger Martin, Ming Kang, Gentry L. Lewis, Timo Greiner, Sonia Giacometti, James L. Van Etten, Maria Ida de Michelis, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni 2010 Università degli Studi di Milano

A Functional Calcium-Transporting Atpase Encoded By Chlorella Viruses, Maria Cristina Bonza, Holger Martin, Ming Kang, Gentry L. Lewis, Timo Greiner, Sonia Giacometti, James L. Van Etten, Maria Ida De Michelis, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni

James Van Etten Publications

Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca2+ pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been detected in all cellular organisms. Here, we report the identification of two putative Ca2+ pumps, M535L and C785L, encoded by chlorella viruses MT325 and AR158, respectively, and the functional characterization of M535L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical feature of this class, a calmodulin-binding domain. A Ca2+ pump gene is present in 45 of 47 viruses tested and is transcribed during virus infection. Complementation analysis of …


Conservation Value Of Residential Open Space: Designation And Management Language Of Florida’S Land Development Regulations, Dara M. Wald 2010 University of Florida

Conservation Value Of Residential Open Space: Designation And Management Language Of Florida’S Land Development Regulations, Dara M. Wald

Dara Wald

The conservation value of open space depends upon the quantity and quality of the area protected, as well as how it is designed and managed. This study reports the results of a content analysis of Florida county Land Development Regulations. Codes were reviewed to determine the amount of open space required, how open space is protected during construction, the delegation of responsibilities, and the designation of funds for management. Definitions of open space varied dramatically across the state. Most county codes provided inadequate descriptions of management recommendations, which could lead to a decline in the conservation value of the protected …


Transcriptional Regulation Of Azole Antifungal Resistance And Tolerance In Candida Glabrata, Kelly E. Caudle 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Transcriptional Regulation Of Azole Antifungal Resistance And Tolerance In Candida Glabrata, Kelly E. Caudle

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Azole antifungal resistance has emerged as a significant problem in the management of infections caused by fungi including Candida species. In recent years, Candida glabrata has become the second most common cause of mucosal and invasive fungal infections in humans second to Candida albicans. Not only are systemic C. glabrata infections characterized by high mortality rates, treatment failures to the azole class of antifungals, the most widely used antifungal for treatment of Candida infections, have been reported. Contributing to this problem, C. glabrata exhibits intrinsic reduced susceptibility to the azole antifungals, and the development of high-level azole resistance …


Metagenomes From High-Temperature Chemotrophic Systems Reveal Geochemical Controls On Microbial Community Structure And Function, William P. Inskeep, Douglas B. Rusch, Zackary J. Jay, Markus J. Herrgard, Mark A. Kozubal, Toby H. Richardson, Richard E. Macur, Natsuko Hamamura, Ryan deM. Jennings, Bruce W. Fouke, Anna-Louise Reysenbach, Frank Roberto, Mark Young, Ariel Schwartz, Eric S. Boyd, Jonathan H. Badger, Eric J. Mathur, Alice C. Ortmann, Mary Bateson, Gill Geesey 2010 Montana State University - Bozeman

Metagenomes From High-Temperature Chemotrophic Systems Reveal Geochemical Controls On Microbial Community Structure And Function, William P. Inskeep, Douglas B. Rusch, Zackary J. Jay, Markus J. Herrgard, Mark A. Kozubal, Toby H. Richardson, Richard E. Macur, Natsuko Hamamura, Ryan Dem. Jennings, Bruce W. Fouke, Anna-Louise Reysenbach, Frank Roberto, Mark Young, Ariel Schwartz, Eric S. Boyd, Jonathan H. Badger, Eric J. Mathur, Alice C. Ortmann, Mary Bateson, Gill Geesey

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The Yellowstone caldera contains the most numerous and diverse geothermal systems on Earth, yielding an extensive array of unique high-temperature environments that host a variety of deeply-rooted and understudied Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. The combination of extreme temperature and chemical conditions encountered in geothermal environments often results in considerably less microbial diversity than other terrestrial habitats and offers a tremendous opportunity for studying the structure and function of indigenous microbial communities and for establishing linkages between putative metabolisms and element cycling. Metagenome sequence (14-15,000 Sanger reads per site) was obtained for five hightemperature (>65°C) chemotrophic microbial communities sampled from …


Variability In Azygospore Production Among Entomophaga Maimaiga Isolates, Ann E. Hajek, Ruth C. Plymale 2010 Cornell University

Variability In Azygospore Production Among Entomophaga Maimaiga Isolates, Ann E. Hajek, Ruth C. Plymale

Articles

This study describes in vitro and in vivo azygospore production by nine isolates of Entomophaga maimaiga, a fungal pathogen of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. The three E. maimaiga isolates that consistently produced azygospores in vitro were also strong producers of azygospores in vivo. However, two additional isolates that were strong azygospore producers in vivo did not produce azygospores in vitro. Isolates that produced azygospores in vitro produced both conidia and azygospores more frequently in vivo than isolates not producing azygospores in vitro. In vitro azygospore production varied over time as well as by isolate. After >2 years of cold …


A Survey Of The Management And Development Of Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Calves: Birth To Three Months Of Age, Nicole L. Kowalski, Robert H.I. Dale, Christa L. H. Mazur 2010 Indianapolis Zoological Society

A Survey Of The Management And Development Of Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Calves: Birth To Three Months Of Age, Nicole L. Kowalski, Robert H.I. Dale, Christa L. H. Mazur

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

We used four surveys to collect information about the birth, physical growth, and behavioral development of 12 African elephant calves born in captivity. The management of the birth process and neonatal care involved a variety of standard procedures. All of the calves were born at night, between 7PM and 7AM. The calves showed a systematic progression in behavioral and physical development, attaining developmental milestones at least a quickly as calves in situ. This study emphasized birth-related events, changes in the ways that calves used their trunks, first instances of behaviors, and interactions of the calves with other, usually adult, elephants. …


Initial Findings On Visual Acuity Thresholds In An African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana), Melissa R. Shyan-Norwalt, Jeff Peterson, Barbara Milankow King, Timothy E. Staggs, Robert H.I. Dale 2010 Butler University

Initial Findings On Visual Acuity Thresholds In An African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana), Melissa R. Shyan-Norwalt, Jeff Peterson, Barbara Milankow King, Timothy E. Staggs, Robert H.I. Dale

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

There are only a few published examinations of elephant visual acuity. All involved Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and found visual acuity to be between 8′ and 11′ of arc for a stimulus near the tip of the trunk, equivalent to a 0.50 cm gap, at a distance of about 2 m from the eyes. We predicted that African elephants (Loxodonta africana) would have similarly high visual acuity, necessary to facilitate eye-trunk coordination for feeding, drinking and social interactions. When tested on a discrimination task using Landolt-C stimuli, one African elephant cow demonstrated a visual acuity of …


Microarray Analysis Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1 Transcription, Giane M. Yanai-Balser, Garry A. Duncan, James D. Eudy, Dong Wang, Xiao Li, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan, James L. Van Etten 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Microarray Analysis Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1 Transcription, Giane M. Yanai-Balser, Garry A. Duncan, James D. Eudy, Dong Wang, Xiao Li, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1), a member of the family Phycodnaviridae, is a large doublestranded DNA, plaque-forming virus that infects the unicellular green alga Chlorella sp. strain NC64A. The 330-kb PBCV-1 genome is predicted to encode 365 proteins and 11 tRNAs. To monitor global transcription during PBCV-1 replication, a microarray containing 50-mer probes to the PBCV-1 365 protein-encoding genes (CDSs) was constructed. Competitive hybridization experiments were conducted by using cDNAs from poly(A)- containing RNAs obtained from cells at seven time points after virus infection. The results led to the following conclusions: (i) the PBCV-1 replication cycle is temporally …


Crystal Structure Of A Virus-Encoded Putative Glycosyltransferase, Yi Xiang, Ulrich Baxa, Ying Zhang, Alasdair C. Steven, Gentry L. Lewis, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann 2010 Purdue University

Crystal Structure Of A Virus-Encoded Putative Glycosyltransferase, Yi Xiang, Ulrich Baxa, Ying Zhang, Alasdair C. Steven, Gentry L. Lewis, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann

James Van Etten Publications

The chloroviruses (family Phycodnaviridae), unlike most viruses, encode some, if not most, of the enzymes involved in the glycosylation of their structural proteins. Annotation of the gene product B736L from chlorovirus NY-2A suggests that it is a glycosyltransferase. The structure of the recombinantly expressed B736L protein was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.3-Å resolution, and the protein was shown to have two nucleotide-binding folds like other glycosyltransferase type B enzymes. This is the second structure of a chlorovirus-encoded glycosyltransferase and the first structure of a chlorovirus type B enzyme to be determined. B736L is a retaining enzyme and belongs …


Goplana Dioscoreae-Alatae Nom. Nov And Other Uredinales On Dioscoreaceae: Nomenclature And Taxonomy, Jose R. Hernandez, Erica T. Cline 2010 USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

Goplana Dioscoreae-Alatae Nom. Nov And Other Uredinales On Dioscoreaceae: Nomenclature And Taxonomy, Jose R. Hernandez, Erica T. Cline

SIAS Faculty Publications

Among the sixteen species of rust fungi described on Dioscoreaceae, three require replacement names. This paper re-describes and proposes Goplana dioscoreae-alatae as a replacement name for Goplana dioscoreae Cummins, nom. illegit. We also propose Uredo dioscoreae-doryphorae as a replacement name for Uredo spinulosa Y. Ono, nom. illegit.; and Aecidium tumbayensis as a replacement name for Aecidium dioscoreae J.C. Lindq., nom. illegit. We discuss nomenclatural controversies surrounding these taxa.


Isolation And Cultivation Of Equine Corneal Keratocytes, Fibroblasts And Myofibroblasts, Dylan G. Buss, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Ajay Sharma, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 University of Missouri, Columbia

Isolation And Cultivation Of Equine Corneal Keratocytes, Fibroblasts And Myofibroblasts, Dylan G. Buss, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Ajay Sharma, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective—To establish an in vitro model for the investigation of equine corneal wound healing. To accomplish this goal, a protocol to isolate and culture equine corneal keratocytes, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts was developed.

Animal material—Equine corneal buttons were aseptically harvested from healthy research horses undergoing humane euthanasia for reasons unrelated to this study. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was performed prior to euthanasia by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist to ensure that all samples were harvested from horses free of anterior segment disease.

Procedure—Equine corneal stroma was isolated using mechanical techniques and stromal subsections were then cultured. Customized media at different culture conditions was used …


Localization Of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme In Rabbit Cornea And Its Role In Controlling Corneal Angiogenesis In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Daniel I. Bettis, John W. Cowden, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 Chapman University

Localization Of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme In Rabbit Cornea And Its Role In Controlling Corneal Angiogenesis In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Daniel I. Bettis, John W. Cowden, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: The renin angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to modulate vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis. In this study we investigated (i) the existence of the RAS components angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II receptors (AT1 and AT2) in the rabbit cornea using in vitro and ex vivo models and (ii) the effect of enalapril, an ACE inhibitor, to inhibit angiogenesis in rabbit cornea in vivo.

Methods: New Zealand White rabbits were used. Cultured corneal fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells were used for RNA isolation and cDNA preparation using standard molecular biology techniques. PCR was performed to …


Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns Of Hospital-Acquired And Community-Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Iyad Kaddora 2010 Marshall University

Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns Of Hospital-Acquired And Community-Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Iyad Kaddora

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most dangerous human pathogens. An intensive effort to control resistant staphylococci, especially methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is vital as it is the most common cause of hospitalacquired infections. During the one year study period, a total of 35 MRSA isolates were collected. Fifteen isolates were identified as hospital-acquired (HA) infections, and 20 isolates were determined to be community acquired (CA). All 15 (100%) HA-MRSA strains were resistant to clindamycin and to erythromycin. Thirteen isolates (87%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, and 12 (80%) were resistant to moxifloxacin. Of the 20 CA-MRSA isolates, …


Gene Delivery In The Equine Cornea: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy, Dylan G. Buss, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 University of Missouri, Columbia

Gene Delivery In The Equine Cornea: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy, Dylan G. Buss, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective—To determine if hybrid adeno-associated virus serotype 2/5 (AAV5) vector can effectively deliver foreign genes into the equine cornea without causing adverse side effects. The aims of this study were to: (i) evaluate efficacy of AAV5 to deliver therapeutic genes into equine corneal fibroblasts (ECFs) using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene and (ii) establish the safety of AAV5 vector for equine corneal gene therapy.

Animal Material—Primary ECF cultures were harvested from healthy donor equine corneas. Cultures were maintained at 370C in humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2.

Procedure—AAV5 vector expressing EGFP under control of hybrid cytomegalovirus (CMV) + chicken …


Vector Delivery Technique Affects Gene Transfer In The Cornea In Vivo, Rajiv R. Mohan, Ajay Sharma, Tyler C. Cebulko, Ashish Tandon 2010 University of Missouri-Columbia

Vector Delivery Technique Affects Gene Transfer In The Cornea In Vivo, Rajiv R. Mohan, Ajay Sharma, Tyler C. Cebulko, Ashish Tandon

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: This study tested whether controlled drying of the cornea increases vector absorption in mouse and rabbit corneas in vivo and human cornea ex vivo, and studied the effects of corneal drying on gene transfer, structure and inflammatory reaction in the mouse cornea in vivo.

Methods: Female C57 black mice and New Zealand White rabbits were used for in vivo studies. Donor human corneas were used for ex vivo experiments. A hair dryer was used for drying the corneas after removing corneal epithelium by gentle scraping. The corneas received no, once, twice, thrice, or five times warm air for …


Aav Serotype Influences Gene Transfer In Corneal Stroma In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Jonathan C. K. Tovey, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 Chapman University

Aav Serotype Influences Gene Transfer In Corneal Stroma In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Jonathan C. K. Tovey, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

This study evaluated the cellular tropism and relative transduction efficiency of three AAV serotypes, AAV6, AAV8 and AAV9, for corneal gene delivery using mouse cornea in vivo and donor human cornea ex vivo. The AAV6, AAV8 and AAV9 serotypes having AAV2 plasmid encoding for alkaline phosphatase (AP) gene were generated by transfecting HEK293 cell line with pHelper, pARAP4 and pRep/Cap plasmids. Viral vectors (109 vg/μl) were topically applied onto mouse cornea in vivo and human cornea ex vivo after removing the epithelium. Human corneas were processed for transgene delivery at day 5 after viral vector application. Mouse corneas were harvested …


Plasma Pharmacokinetics And Tissue Disposition Of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Suman Penugonda, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar 2010 Texas Tech University

Plasma Pharmacokinetics And Tissue Disposition Of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Suman Penugonda, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The plasma and tissue disposition of two novel dextran prodrugs of methylprednisolone (MP) containing one (DMP-1) or five (DMP-5) amino acids as linkers were studied in rats. Single 5-mg/kg doses (MP equivalent) of each prodrug or MP were administered intravenously, and blood and tissue samples were collected. Prodrug and drug concentrations were quantitated using HPLC, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Whereas conjugation of MP with dextran in both prodrugs substantially decreased the clearance of the drug by ∼200-fold, the accumulations of the drug in the liver, spleen, and kidneys were significantly increased by conjugation. However, the extent of accumulation …


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