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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Logic And Rationality, Rohit J. Parikh Apr 2023

Logic And Rationality, Rohit J. Parikh

Publications and Research

Logic aims at truth, or more accurately, at deriving some truths from other truths. But why are we interested in truth in the first place? Surely one reason is that relying on truth makes it easier to make better choices.

One could think of Game theory as a tool which bridges the gap between logic and rationality.

Decision theory - or single agent game theory tells us when to make the best choice in a game of us against nature. But nature has no desire to further or frustrate our efforts. Nature is mysterious but not malign. Things change when …


Drying Our Library’S Libguides-Based Webpage By Introducing Vue.Js, Mark E. Eaton Jan 2023

Drying Our Library’S Libguides-Based Webpage By Introducing Vue.Js, Mark E. Eaton

Publications and Research

At the Kingsborough Community College library, we recently decided to bring the library’s website more in line with DRY principles (Don’t Repeat Yourself). We felt we this could improve the site by creating more concise and maintainable code. DRYer code would be easier to read, understand and edit. We adopted the Vue.js framework in order to replace repetitive, hand-coded dropdown menus with programmatically generated markup. Using Vue allowed us to greatly simplify the HTML documents, while also improving maintainability.


Book Review: A Field Guide To White Supremacy, Jessie Daniels Jan 2023

Book Review: A Field Guide To White Supremacy, Jessie Daniels

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


What’S Art Got To Do With Politics? Show Me The Evidence, Nandi Prince Jan 2023

What’S Art Got To Do With Politics? Show Me The Evidence, Nandi Prince

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Correlation Of Road Network Structure And Urban Mobility Intensity: An Exploratory Study Using Geo-Tagged Tweets, Li Geng, Ke Zhang Dec 2022

Correlation Of Road Network Structure And Urban Mobility Intensity: An Exploratory Study Using Geo-Tagged Tweets, Li Geng, Ke Zhang

Publications and Research

Urban planners have been long interested in understanding how urban structure and activities are mutually influenced. Human mobility and economic activities naturally drive the formation of road network structure and the accessibility of the latter shapes the patterns of movement flow across urban space. In this paper, we perform an exploratory study on the relationship between the street network structure and the intensity of human movement in urban areas. We focus on two cities and we utilize a dataset of geo-tagged tweets that can form a proxy to urban mobility and the corresponding street networks as obtained from OpenStreetMap. We …


Occupational Depression In Italy: Associations With Health, Economic, And Work-Life Characteristics, Renzo Bianchi, Caterina Fiorilli, Giacomo Angelini, Nicoletta Dozio, Carlo Palazzi, Gloria Palazzi, Benedetto Vitiello, Irvin Sam Schonfeld Dec 2022

Occupational Depression In Italy: Associations With Health, Economic, And Work-Life Characteristics, Renzo Bianchi, Caterina Fiorilli, Giacomo Angelini, Nicoletta Dozio, Carlo Palazzi, Gloria Palazzi, Benedetto Vitiello, Irvin Sam Schonfeld

Publications and Research

Background: The Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI) reflects a new approach to job-related distress centered on work-attributed depressive symptoms. The instrument was developed with reference to the characterization of major depression found in the DSM-5. The ODI has been validated in English, French, and Spanish. This study (a) investigated the psychometric and structural properties of the ODI’s Italian version and (b) inquired into the nomological network of occupational depression. Methods: A convenience sample of 963 employed individuals was recruited in Italy (69.9% female; mean age = 40.433). We notably relied on exploratory structural equation modeling bifactor analysis, common-practice …


Theorizing, Bounded Rationality, And Expertise: Cognitive Sociology And The Quasi-Realism Of Problem-Solving As A Course Of Activity, Michael W. Raphael Dec 2022

Theorizing, Bounded Rationality, And Expertise: Cognitive Sociology And The Quasi-Realism Of Problem-Solving As A Course Of Activity, Michael W. Raphael

Publications and Research

The question facing sociology is whether it is a field or a discipline. If it is a field, then there is no need for theorizing. However, if sociology is a discipline, then problem-solving cannot be disentangled from theorizing without a loss of intelligibility – the inability to explain the social as the concept of the discipline. Through the quasi-realism of problem-solving as a course of activity, this chapter presents cognitive sociology as a paradigm appropriate to the concept of the social understood as an ongoing course of activity. In doing so, it is shown how bounded rationality and expertise play …


Housing Discrimination In New York City’S Housing Voucher Program, Tashana Brooks Dec 2022

Housing Discrimination In New York City’S Housing Voucher Program, Tashana Brooks

Publications and Research

The Fair Housing Act (FHA), enacted as Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibits discrimination from selling or renting a dwelling to any person because of race, color, disability, religion, sex, family status, and national origin. The federal government provides rental subsidies for many low-income renters through government programs. Rental assistance such as Section 8 vouchers administered by Housing and Urban Development is considered a lawful source of income for paying rent; however, many landlords or realtors discriminate against individuals utilizing Section 8 vouchers. According to the New York City Human Rights Law, this is illegal. The …


Systematic Review Of A Ramsar Wetland And Unesco Biosphere Reserve In A Climate Change Hotspot (Ichkeul Lake, Tunisia), Sabrine Sahbani, Béchir Béjaoui, Sihem Benabdalla, Rachid Toujani, Afef Fathalli, Noureddine Zaaboub, Jalel Aouissi, Zeineb Kassouk, Nabil Hamdi, Nabiha Ben Mbarek, Hechmi Missaoui, Leila Basti, Reginald Blake, Hamidreza Norouzi Dec 2022

Systematic Review Of A Ramsar Wetland And Unesco Biosphere Reserve In A Climate Change Hotspot (Ichkeul Lake, Tunisia), Sabrine Sahbani, Béchir Béjaoui, Sihem Benabdalla, Rachid Toujani, Afef Fathalli, Noureddine Zaaboub, Jalel Aouissi, Zeineb Kassouk, Nabil Hamdi, Nabiha Ben Mbarek, Hechmi Missaoui, Leila Basti, Reginald Blake, Hamidreza Norouzi

Publications and Research

Tunisia's Ichkeul Lake is among the most productive ecosystems in the Mediterranean, with a great regional value thanks to its diversity of habitats. It is an important overwintering area for waterfowl species. It is a RAMSAR wetland, a National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage, and a Biosphere Reserve. This review paper provides a broad overview of the climatic, hydraulic, biogeochemical features, bio-resources, and bio-productivity of the Lake. The interconnectivity between the different environmental components of the lake is presented, highlighting the main characteristics of this vital ecosystem. Its ecosystem consists of a permanent lake bordered by temporary marshes. It is …


Studying Factors Of Environmental Injustice And Ways To Achieve Equity, Arham Hussain, Reginald Metellus Dec 2022

Studying Factors Of Environmental Injustice And Ways To Achieve Equity, Arham Hussain, Reginald Metellus

Publications and Research

In today's day of age, the biggest concern for current and future generations: the environment. The urban heat island (UHi) with its significant energy, health, and societal impacts is among the major environmental issues in urban regions, especially in historically underserved and socially vulnerable communities (HUSVCs). In the 1930s, the former federal agency, Homeowners' Loan Corporation (H0Lq, created ''Residential Security" maps of major cities, known today as "redlined" areas. These neighborhoods were often designated as "hazardous" due to the high percentages of people of color living there, leading to systematic disinvestment based on race. While the program ended in 1968, …


Distress In The Workplace: Characterizing The Relationship Of Burnout Measures To The Occupational Depression Inventory, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Renzo Bianchi Dec 2022

Distress In The Workplace: Characterizing The Relationship Of Burnout Measures To The Occupational Depression Inventory, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Renzo Bianchi

Publications and Research

Burnout has been found to problematically overlap with depression. However, the generalizability of this finding remains disputed. This study examined burnout–depression overlap using the recently developed Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI) and two burnout measures, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). The study involved two teacher samples employed in France (N = 1,450) and New Zealand (N = 492). We found the correlations of the ODI with (a) the MBI’s emotional exhaustion (EE) subscale and (b) the CBI to reach .80. An explanation of these high correlations based on content overlap in fatigue-related items was ruled …


Teaching Time; Disrupting Common Sense, Kevin Birth Nov 2022

Teaching Time; Disrupting Common Sense, Kevin Birth

Publications and Research

In my course “Time” I set out to disrupt the connection between cognitive tools used to represent time (clocks and calendars) and experiences of time. This article documents some of the topics and pedagogical methods I use: using unusual due dates for assignments, making the clock look strange, disrupting the idea of “now,” showing how clocks cultivate gullibility, exploring the different hour systems of the past, criticizing clock-based logics used in primatological research, explaining the theory of special relativity, and exploring the political and economic consequences of sleep loss.


Computational Thinking And Coding For Young Children: A Hybrid Approach To Link Unplugged And Plugged Activities, Daisuke Akiba Nov 2022

Computational Thinking And Coding For Young Children: A Hybrid Approach To Link Unplugged And Plugged Activities, Daisuke Akiba

Publications and Research

In our increasingly technology-dependent society, the importance of promoting digital literacy (e.g., computational thinking, coding, and programming) has become a critical focus in the field of childhood education. While young children these days are routinely and extensively exposed to digital devices and tools, the efficacy of the methods for fostering digital skills in the early childhood classroom has not always been closely considered. This is particularly true in settings where early childhood educators are not digital experts. Currently, most of the efforts in standard early childhood settings, taught by teachers who are not digital experts, appear to revolve around “unplugged” …


George Floyd In Papua: Image-Events And The Art Of Resonance, Karen Strassler Nov 2022

George Floyd In Papua: Image-Events And The Art Of Resonance, Karen Strassler

Publications and Research

This article offers an introduction to the “image-event” as both concept and method through a focus on the circulation of images around the killing of George Floyd. It examines how these images reverberated and resonated in West Papua, a restive region of Indonesia that has been the site of a long-standing separatist movement. It critically examines a celebratory media discourse that sees the US-based Black Lives Matter movement as expanding outward to spark similar movements elsewhere, a logic that reiterates long-standing colonialist narratives that figure places like Papua as backwaters belatedly receiving and imitatively taking up ideas that flow from …


Logic, Co-Ordination And The Envelope Of Our Beliefs, Rohit J. Parikh Nov 2022

Logic, Co-Ordination And The Envelope Of Our Beliefs, Rohit J. Parikh

Publications and Research

Each of us has a story which we can think of as a set of beliefs, hopefully consistent. We make our decisions in view of our beliefs which may be probabilistic, in the general case, but simple yes or no as in this paper. Our beliefs are our envelope just as the shell of a tortoise is its envelope.

Decision theory - or single agent game theory tells us when to make the best choice in a game of us against nature. But nature has no desire to further or frustrate our efforts. Nature is mysterious but not malign.

Things …


Incidence And Factors Related To Nonmotorized Scooter Injuries In New York State And New York City, 2005–2020, Peter Tuckel Oct 2022

Incidence And Factors Related To Nonmotorized Scooter Injuries In New York State And New York City, 2005–2020, Peter Tuckel

Publications and Research

Background: This study provides an analysis of contemporary trends and demographics of patients treated for injuries from nonmotorized scooters in emergency departments in New York state excluding New York City (NYS) and New York City (NYC).

Methods: The study tracks the incidence of nonmotorized scooter injuries in NYS and NYC from 2005 to 2020 and furnishes a detailed profile of the injured patients using patient-level records from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS). A negative binomial regression analysis is performed on the SPARCS data to measure the simultaneous effects of demographic variables on scooter injuries for NYS and …


Algorithmic Rationality, Rohit J. Parikh Oct 2022

Algorithmic Rationality, Rohit J. Parikh

Publications and Research

The notion of rationality is much discussed by both Economists and Philosophers. Perhaps you are rational if you accept certain axioms of rationality. If you prefer A to B and B to C then you must prefer A to C. Or you can define rationality in terms of the net results of your behavior. We examine a notion of algorithmic rationality. Even animals upwards from the humble tick carry out algorithms. Are they rational? And can we use this theory to define the IQ of animals?


Contrafreeloading In Kea (Nestor Notabilis) In Comparison To Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus), Gabriella E. Smith, Amalia P. M. Bastos, Martin Chodorow, Alex H. Taylor, Irene M. Pepperberg Oct 2022

Contrafreeloading In Kea (Nestor Notabilis) In Comparison To Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus), Gabriella E. Smith, Amalia P. M. Bastos, Martin Chodorow, Alex H. Taylor, Irene M. Pepperberg

Publications and Research

Contrafreeloading—working to access food that could be freely obtained—is rarely exhibited and poorly understood. Based on data from Grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ), researchers proposed a correlation between contrafreeloading and play: that contrafreeloading is more likely when subjects view the task as play. We tested that hypothesis by subjecting a relatively more playful parrot species, the kea ( Nestor notabilis ), to the same experimental tasks. Experiment 1 presented eight kea with container pairs holding more- or less-preferred free or enclosed food items, and examined three types of contrafreeloading: calculated (working to access preferred food over less-preferred, freely available …


Artificial Intelligence And The Situational Rationality Of Diagnosis: Human Problem-Solving And The Artifacts Of Health And Medicine, Michael W. Raphael Oct 2022

Artificial Intelligence And The Situational Rationality Of Diagnosis: Human Problem-Solving And The Artifacts Of Health And Medicine, Michael W. Raphael

Publications and Research

What is the problem-solving capacity of artificial intelligence (AI) for health and medicine? This paper draws out the cognitive sociological context of diagnostic problem-solving for medical sociology regarding the limits of automation for decision-based medical tasks. Specifically, it presents a practical way of evaluating the artificiality of symptoms and signs in medical encounters, with an emphasis on the visualization of the problem-solving process in doctor-patient relationships. In doing so, the paper details the logical differences underlying diagnostic task performance between man and machine problem-solving: its principle of rationality, the priorities of its means of adaptation to abstraction, and the effects …


The Communicative Function Of Gender In Italian, Joseph C. M. Davis Oct 2022

The Communicative Function Of Gender In Italian, Joseph C. M. Davis

Publications and Research

An analysis of gender in modern literary Italian based on attested examples from various genres. The evidence-based hypothesis, thoroughly noncanonical, proposes a system of morphologically signaled meanings, and these are not the traditional categories "feminine" and "masculine." Even the familiar and misleading term "gender" is replaced. The analysis concerns primarily what is typically called "grammatical gender, although it stands to inform too the use of Italian in communication having to do with human cultural gender. The analysis concerns primarily what might be called "variable gender" (essentially adjectives) although it stands to inform too the problem of "invariable gender" (essentially, nouns).


Theory Of Collective Action, Rohit J. Parikh Oct 2022

Theory Of Collective Action, Rohit J. Parikh

Publications and Research

Theory predicts that when people pursue their selfish aims then it leads to suboptimal outcomes for society or to the group they belong to. The prisoner's dilemma and the tragedy of the commons are classic examples. In her presidential lecture to the American Political Science Association Elinor Ostrom examined this fact and also noted that in practice people do not always follow the suboptimal strategy. What does she suggest? This document consists of slides I created giving an account of her paper. She had not won the Nobel when she gave this talk but it was conferred on her later.


The Importance Of Low Iq To Early Diagnosis Of Autism, Kristina Denisova, Zhichun Lin Oct 2022

The Importance Of Low Iq To Early Diagnosis Of Autism, Kristina Denisova, Zhichun Lin

Publications and Research

Abstract
Some individuals can flexibly adapt to life’s changing demands while others, in particular those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), find it challenging. The origin of early individual differences in cognitive abilities, the putative tools with which to navigate novel information in life, including in infants later diagnosed with ASD remains unexplored. Moreover, the role of intelligence quotient (IQ) vis-à-vis core features of autism remains debated. We systematically investigate the contribution of early IQ in future autism outcomes in an extremely large, population-based study of 8000 newborns, infants, and toddlers from the US between 2 and 68 months with over …


The War In Ukraine And Food Security In Eastern Europe, Eszter Krasznai Kovács, Agata Bachórz, Natasha Bernstein Bunzl, Diana Mincyte, Fabio Parasecoli, Simone Piras, Mihai Varga Oct 2022

The War In Ukraine And Food Security In Eastern Europe, Eszter Krasznai Kovács, Agata Bachórz, Natasha Bernstein Bunzl, Diana Mincyte, Fabio Parasecoli, Simone Piras, Mihai Varga

Publications and Research

This dispatch outlines some of the immediate consequences and long-term challenges posed by the Ukraine war on food security and production systems in Eastern Europe. We draw particular attention to the food aid and provisioning realities around many million (and increasing) numbers of Ukrainian refugees, and the current lack of systemic, government-coordinated responses to the humanitarian crisis. Further, we outline the distinct forms of agriculture characterising Eastern Europe, notably, the short supply chains and farming networks that are socially and environmentally unique and valuable, and are a result of the persistence of smaller, family-led farms. However, these farms and farmers …


Women Of Colour And Black Women Leaders Are Underrepresented In Architectural Firms Featured In Key Trade Publications (Review), Nandi Prince Sep 2022

Women Of Colour And Black Women Leaders Are Underrepresented In Architectural Firms Featured In Key Trade Publications (Review), Nandi Prince

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Toward Informatics-Enabled Preparedness For Natural Hazards To Minimize Health Impacts Of Climate Change, Jimmy Phuong, Naomi O. Riches, Luca Calzoni, Gora Datta, Deborah Duran, Asiyah Yu Lin, Ramesh P. Singh, Anthony E. Solomonides, Noreen Y. Whysel, Ramakanth Kavuluru Sep 2022

Toward Informatics-Enabled Preparedness For Natural Hazards To Minimize Health Impacts Of Climate Change, Jimmy Phuong, Naomi O. Riches, Luca Calzoni, Gora Datta, Deborah Duran, Asiyah Yu Lin, Ramesh P. Singh, Anthony E. Solomonides, Noreen Y. Whysel, Ramakanth Kavuluru

Publications and Research

Natural hazards (NHs) associated with climate change have been increasing in frequency and intensity. These acute events impact humans both directly and through their effects on social and environmental determinants of health. Rather than relying on a fully reactive incident response disposition, it is crucial to ramp up preparedness initiatives for worsening case scenarios. In this perspective, we review the landscape of NH effects for human health and explore the potential of health informatics to address associated challenges, specifically from a preparedness angle. We outline important components in a health informatics agenda for hazard preparedness involving hazard-disease associations, social determinants …


Burned-Out With Burnout? Insights From Historical Analysis, Renzo Bianchi, Katarzyna Wac, James Francis Sowden, Irvin Sam Schonfeld Sep 2022

Burned-Out With Burnout? Insights From Historical Analysis, Renzo Bianchi, Katarzyna Wac, James Francis Sowden, Irvin Sam Schonfeld

Publications and Research

Fierce debates surround the conceptualization and measurement of job-related distress in occupational health science. The use of burnout as an index of job-related distress, though commonplace, has increasingly been called into question. In this paper, we first highlight foundational problems that undermine the burnout construct and its legacy measure, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Next, we report on advances in research on job-related distress that depart from the use of the burnout construct. Tracing the genesis of the burnout construct, we observe that (a) burnout’s definition was preestablished rather than derived from a rigorous research process and (b) the MBI …


The State Of The Unions 2022: A Profile Of Organized Labor In New York City, New York State, And The United States, Ruth Milkman, Joseph Van Der Naald Sep 2022

The State Of The Unions 2022: A Profile Of Organized Labor In New York City, New York State, And The United States, Ruth Milkman, Joseph Van Der Naald

Publications and Research

New York City leads the recent uptick in private-sector union organizing at companies like Starbucks and Amazon. A new report released by the CUNY School of Labor and Urban Studies, State of the Unions 2022: A Profile of Organized Labor in New York City, New York State, and the United States, analyzes new union membership and union election wins across the nation’s major cities. The report also details the geographic, demographic, and occupational makeup of union membership in New York City, New York State, and the nation.


Library Tautology: A Reenactment Of The One-Shot, Nora Almeida Sep 2022

Library Tautology: A Reenactment Of The One-Shot, Nora Almeida

Publications and Research

If there’s one thing you learn today, let it be this: keywords. Not specific keywords but the idea of them. If you whisper the correct keywords into the algorithm, you will achieve relevance. If you don’t achieve relevance on the first try (which is super common), imagine you’re an academic with a specialization in a super-niche disciplinary area who wrote a research article. Then imagine keywords you (they) would use and try those.


Automation, Abstraction And Building It Ourselves, Mark E. Eaton Aug 2022

Automation, Abstraction And Building It Ourselves, Mark E. Eaton

Publications and Research

This paper argues that indexers should work collaboratively to build software tools that support our profession. As technology automates the procedural aspects of our work, we need to respond by building tools that support the conceptual labor of indexing.


Approach With Initiative Or Hold On Passively? The Impact Of Customer-Perceived Dependence On Customer Forgiveness In Service Failure, Xin Chen, Shuojia Guo, Jie Xiong, Shuyi Hao Aug 2022

Approach With Initiative Or Hold On Passively? The Impact Of Customer-Perceived Dependence On Customer Forgiveness In Service Failure, Xin Chen, Shuojia Guo, Jie Xiong, Shuyi Hao

Publications and Research

Service failure is almost inevitable with the intensifying competition in the service market and expectation of heterogeneous customers. The customer–firm relationship can significantly influence customers’ subsequent attitudes and behaviors to the service provider when they encounter service failure. This study proposes a theoretical model to examine how customer-perceived dependence affects their forgiveness toward a service failure in attribution logic. According to an experiment with 138 and a survey with 428 commercial bank customers, we used a multivariate approach to validate our model. The results show that relationship-valued dependence (RVD) leads to external attribution, which is positively related to customer forgiveness. …