Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Machine Learning

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 757

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Framework For Video Analytics, Tian Zhou Mar 2024

An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Framework For Video Analytics, Tian Zhou

Doctoral Dissertations

With the proliferation of video content from surveillance cameras, social media, and live streaming services, the need for efficient video analytics has grown immensely. In recent years, machine learning based computer vision algorithms have shown great success in various video analytic tasks. Specifically, neural network models have dominated in visual tasks such as image and video classification, object recognition, object detection, and object tracking. However, compared with classic computer vision algorithms, machine learning based methods are usually much more compute-intensive. Powerful servers are required by many state-of-the-art machine learning models. With the development of cloud computing infrastructures, people are able …


Policy Gradient Methods: Analysis, Misconceptions, And Improvements, Christopher P. Nota Mar 2024

Policy Gradient Methods: Analysis, Misconceptions, And Improvements, Christopher P. Nota

Doctoral Dissertations

Policy gradient methods are a class of reinforcement learning algorithms that optimize a parametric policy by maximizing an objective function that directly measures the performance of the policy. Despite being used in many high-profile applications of reinforcement learning, the conventional use of policy gradient methods in practice deviates from existing theory. This thesis presents a comprehensive mathematical analysis of policy gradient methods, uncovering misconceptions and suggesting novel solutions to improve their performance. We first demonstrate that the update rule used by most policy gradient methods does not correspond to the gradient of any objective function due to the way the …


Development Of A Decision Support System Webtool For Historic And Future Low Flow Estimation In The Northeast United States With Applications Of Machine Learning For Advancing Physical And Statistical Methodologies, Andrew F. Delsanto Mar 2024

Development Of A Decision Support System Webtool For Historic And Future Low Flow Estimation In The Northeast United States With Applications Of Machine Learning For Advancing Physical And Statistical Methodologies, Andrew F. Delsanto

Doctoral Dissertations

Droughts are a global challenge and anthropogenic climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of extreme low flow events. A major challenge for resource managers is how best to incorporate future climate change projections into low flow event estimations, especially in ungaged basins. Using both physically based hydrology models and statistical models, this dissertation contributes novel methodologies to three key challenges associated with 7-day, 10-year low flow (7Q10) estimation in the northeast United States. Chapter 2 builds upon statistically based 7Q10 estimation in ungaged basins by comparing multiple machine learning algorithms to classical statistical methodologies. This chapter’s …


Assessing Gait Metrics For Early Parkinson's Disease Prediction: A Preliminary Analysis Of Underfit Models, Daniel Salinas, Gerardo Medellin, Katherine Bolado, Tomas Gomez, Kelsey Potter-Baker, Nawaz Khan Abdul Hack, Ramu Vadukapuram Mar 2024

Assessing Gait Metrics For Early Parkinson's Disease Prediction: A Preliminary Analysis Of Underfit Models, Daniel Salinas, Gerardo Medellin, Katherine Bolado, Tomas Gomez, Kelsey Potter-Baker, Nawaz Khan Abdul Hack, Ramu Vadukapuram

Research Symposium

Background: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is characterized by both motor and non-motor symptoms, and its diagnosis primarily relies on clinical presentation. There is a growing need for diagnostic tools to identify the early signs of PD, particularly the initial motor impairments often manifested as gait abnormalities. Here we seek to present preliminary findings to address this need. Our study focuses on using Machine Learning techniques (ML) to predict the PD clinical stage most efficiently and accurately. Specifically, we have sought to evaluate how spatiotemporal characteristics and other locomotor performance variables obtained on a walkway system can be utilized to identify the …


Using Natural Language Processing To Identify Mental Health Indicators In Aviation Voluntary Safety Reports, Michael Sawyer, Katherine Berry, Amelia Kinsella, R Jordan Hinson, Edward Bynum Feb 2024

Using Natural Language Processing To Identify Mental Health Indicators In Aviation Voluntary Safety Reports, Michael Sawyer, Katherine Berry, Amelia Kinsella, R Jordan Hinson, Edward Bynum

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Voluntary Safety Reporting Programs (VSRPs) are a critical tool in the aviation industry for monitoring safety issues observed by the frontline workforce. While VSRPs primarily focus on operational safety, report narratives often describe factors such as fatigue, workload, culture, staffing, and health, directly or indirectly impacting mental health. These reports can provide individual and organizational insights into aviation personnel's physical and psychological well-being. This poster introduces the AVIation Analytic Neural network for Safety events (AVIAN-S) model as a potential tool to extract and monitor these insights. AVIAN-S is a novel machine-learning model that leverages natural language processing (NLP) to analyze …


Mri Image Regression Cnn For Bone Marrow Lesion Volume Prediction, Kevin Yanagisawa Feb 2024

Mri Image Regression Cnn For Bone Marrow Lesion Volume Prediction, Kevin Yanagisawa

Theses and Dissertations

Bone marrow lesions (BMLs), occurs from fluid build up in the soft tissues inside your bone. This can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and is characterized by excess water signals in the bone marrow space. This disease is commonly caused by osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative join disease where tissues within the joint breakdown over time [1]. These BMLs are an emerging target for OA, as they are commonly related to pain and worsening of the diseased area until surgical intervention is required [2]–[4]. In order to assess the BMLs, MRIs were utilized as input into a regression …


Effective Drag Coefficient Prediction On Single-View 2d Images Of Snowflakes, Cameron Hudson Jan 2024

Effective Drag Coefficient Prediction On Single-View 2d Images Of Snowflakes, Cameron Hudson

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

The drag coefficient of snowflakes is an crucial particle descriptor that can quantify the relationships with the mass, shape, size, and fall speed of snowflake particles. Previous studies has relied on estimating and improving empirical correlations for the drag coefficient of particles, utilizing 3D images from the Multi-Angled Snowflake Camera Database (MASCDB) to estimate snowflake properties such as mass, geometry, shape classification, and rimming degree. However, predictions of the drag coefficient with single-view 2D images of snowflakes has proven to be a challenging problem, primarily due to the lack of data and time-consuming, expensive methods used to estimate snowflake shape …


Towards Algorithmic Justice: Human Centered Approaches To Artificial Intelligence Design To Support Fairness And Mitigate Bias In The Financial Services Sector, Jihyun Kim Jan 2024

Towards Algorithmic Justice: Human Centered Approaches To Artificial Intelligence Design To Support Fairness And Mitigate Bias In The Financial Services Sector, Jihyun Kim

CMC Senior Theses

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has positively transformed the Financial services sector but also introduced AI biases against protected groups, amplifying existing prejudices against marginalized communities. The financial decisions made by biased algorithms could cause life-changing ramifications in applications such as lending and credit scoring. Human Centered AI (HCAI) is an emerging concept where AI systems seek to augment, not replace human abilities while preserving human control to ensure transparency, equity and privacy. The evolving field of HCAI shares a common ground with and can be enhanced by the Human Centered Design principles in that they both put humans, the user, at …


Using Pose Estimation Software To Predict Actions In Sabre Fencing, Micah Edwin Peters Ii Jan 2024

Using Pose Estimation Software To Predict Actions In Sabre Fencing, Micah Edwin Peters Ii

Honors College Theses

Fencing is a combat sport that uses three different swords: epee, foil, and sabre. Due to its fast-paced nature and employment of right of way, sabre fencing is often considered the most difficult of the three to learn. Computer vision and pose estimation software can be used to lower the barrier of entry to sabre fencing by identifying the different actions in sabre fencing. This project focuses on using open-source software to design a program that can identify the sabre parries as well as the main sabre movements. This program could be used to help newer fencers and spectators better …


Smart Applications And Resource Management In Internet Of Things, Zeinab Akhavan Dec 2023

Smart Applications And Resource Management In Internet Of Things, Zeinab Akhavan

Computer Science ETDs

Internet of Things (IoT) technologies are currently the principal solutions driving smart cities. These new technologies such as Cyber Physical Systems, 5G and data analytic have emerged to address various cities' infrastructure issues ranging from transportation and energy management to healthcare systems. An IoT setting primarily consists of a wide range of users and devices as a massive network interacting with different layers of the city infrastructure resulting in generating sheer volume of data to enable smart city services. The goal of smart city services is to create value for the entire ecosystem, whether this is health, education, transportation, energy, …


Investigation Into A Practical Application Of Reinforcement Learning For The Stock Market, Philip Traxler, Sadik Aman, Will Rogers, Allyn Okun Dec 2023

Investigation Into A Practical Application Of Reinforcement Learning For The Stock Market, Philip Traxler, Sadik Aman, Will Rogers, Allyn Okun

SMU Data Science Review

A major problem of the financial industry is the ability to adapt their trading strategies at the same rate the market evolves. This paper proposes a solution using existing Reinforcement Learning libraries to help find new strategies at a practical scale. Using a wide domain of ticker symbols, an algorithm is trained in an environment that better represents reality. The supplied decision-making algorithm is tested using recorded data from the U.S stock market from 2000 through 2022. The results of this research show that existing techniques are statistically better than making decisions at random. With this result, this research shows …


A Prompt Engineering Approach To Creating Automated Commentary For Microsoft Self-Help Documentation Metric Reports Using Chatgpt, Ryan Herrin, Luke Stodgel, Brian Raffety Dec 2023

A Prompt Engineering Approach To Creating Automated Commentary For Microsoft Self-Help Documentation Metric Reports Using Chatgpt, Ryan Herrin, Luke Stodgel, Brian Raffety

SMU Data Science Review

Microsoft collects an immense amount of data from the users of their product-self-help documentation. Employees use this data to identify these self-help articles' performance trends and measure their impact on business Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Microsoft uses various tools like Power BI and Python to analyze this data. The problem is that their analysis and findings are summarized manually. Therefore, this research will improve upon their current analysis methods by applying the latest prompt engineering practices and the power of ChatGPT's large language models (LLMs). Using VBA code, Microsoft Excel, and the ChatGPT API as an Excel add-in, this research …


Study Of Augmentations On Historical Manuscripts Using Trocr, Erez Meoded Dec 2023

Study Of Augmentations On Historical Manuscripts Using Trocr, Erez Meoded

Theses and Dissertations

Historical manuscripts are an essential source of original content. For many reasons, it is hard to recognize these manuscripts as text. This thesis used a state-of-the-art Handwritten Text Recognizer, TrOCR, to recognize a 16th-century manuscript. TrOCR uses a vision transformer to encode the input images and a language transformer to decode them back to text. We showed that carefully preprocessed images and designed augmentations can improve the performance of TrOCR. We suggest an ensemble of augmented models to achieve an even better performance.


Generalized Differentiable Neural Architecture Search With Performance And Stability Improvements, Emily J. Herron Dec 2023

Generalized Differentiable Neural Architecture Search With Performance And Stability Improvements, Emily J. Herron

Doctoral Dissertations

This work introduces improvements to the stability and generalizability of Cyclic DARTS (CDARTS). CDARTS is a Differentiable Architecture Search (DARTS)-based approach to neural architecture search (NAS) that uses a cyclic feedback mechanism to train search and evaluation networks concurrently, thereby optimizing the search process by enforcing that the networks produce similar outputs. However, the dissimilarity between the loss functions used by the evaluation networks during the search and retraining phases results in a search-phase evaluation network, a sub-optimal proxy for the final evaluation network utilized during retraining. ICDARTS, a revised algorithm that reformulates the search phase loss functions to ensure …


Context-Aware Temporal Embeddings For Text And Video Data, Ahnaf Farhan Dec 2023

Context-Aware Temporal Embeddings For Text And Video Data, Ahnaf Farhan

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Recent years have seen an exponential increase in unstructured data, primarily in the form of text, images, and videos. Extracting useful features and trends from large-scale unstructured datasets -- such as news outlets, scientific papers, and videos like security cameras or body cam recordings -- is faced with substantial challenges of volume, scalability, complexity, and semantic understanding. In analyzing trends, comprehending the temporal context is vital for uncovering patterns and narratives that are not apparent from a single video frame or text document. Despite its importance, many existing data mining and machine learning approaches overlook extracting evolutionary contextual features in …


Decoding Usage And Adoption Behavior Of The Low-Carbon Transportation Market: An Ai-Driven Exploration, Vuban Chowdhury Dec 2023

Decoding Usage And Adoption Behavior Of The Low-Carbon Transportation Market: An Ai-Driven Exploration, Vuban Chowdhury

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The transportation sector stands as a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, with its environmental impact steadily escalating over the past few decades. This has prompted government agencies to facilitate the adoption and usage of low-carbon transportation (LCT) options as alternatives to fossil-fuel-powered transportation. LCTs include modes of transportation that minimize the overall carbon footprint of the transportation sector by relying on energy sources that are environmentally sustainable. These sustainable transportation options have also garnered significant interest in the transportation research community. For government agencies and researchers alike, a comprehensive understanding of the adoption and usage …


Integrating Machine Learning Methods For Medical Diagnosis, Jazmin Quezada Dec 2023

Integrating Machine Learning Methods For Medical Diagnosis, Jazmin Quezada

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Abstract:The rapid advancement of machine learning techniques has revolutionized the field of medical diagnosis by offering powerful tools to analyze complex data sets and make accurate predictions. In this proposed method, we present a novel approach that integrates machine learning and optimization models to enhance the accuracy of medical diagnoses. Our method focuses on fine-tuning and optimizing the parameters of machine learning algorithms commonly used in medical diagnosis, such as logistic regression, support vector machines, and neural networks. By employing optimization techniques, we systematically explore the parameter space of these algorithms to discover the most optimal configurations. Moreover, by representing …


A Design Strategy To Improve Machine Learning Resiliency Of Physically Unclonable Functions Using Modulus Process, Yuqiu Jiang Dec 2023

A Design Strategy To Improve Machine Learning Resiliency Of Physically Unclonable Functions Using Modulus Process, Yuqiu Jiang

Theses and Dissertations

Physically unclonable functions (PUFs) are hardware security primitives that utilize non-reproducible manufacturing variations to provide device-specific challenge-response pairs (CRPs). Such primitives are desirable for applications such as communication and intellectual property protection. PUFs have been gaining considerable interest from both the academic and industrial communities because of their simplicity and stability. However, many recent studies have exposed PUFs to machine-learning (ML) modeling attacks. To improve the resilience of a system to general ML attacks instead of a specific ML technique, a common solution is to improve the complexity of the system. Structures, such as XOR-PUFs, can significantly increase the nonlinearity …


Towards Explaining Neural Networks: Tools For Visualizing Activations And Parameters, Juan Puebla Dec 2023

Towards Explaining Neural Networks: Tools For Visualizing Activations And Parameters, Juan Puebla

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

There is a growing number of applications using neural networks for making decisions. However, there is a general lack of understanding of how neural networks work. Neural networks have even been described as black boxes which has led to a lack of trust in artificially intelligent programs. To remedy this, explainable artificial intelligence has risen as a means to validate the decision-making processes and the results of computer programs that use artificial intelligence. The work in this masterâ??s thesis is our contribution to explainable artificial intelligence, focusing on neural networks with the goal of helping users make more sense of …


Towards Long-Term Fairness In Sequential Decision Making, Yaowei Hu Dec 2023

Towards Long-Term Fairness In Sequential Decision Making, Yaowei Hu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With the development of artificial intelligence, automated decision-making systems are increasingly integrated into various applications, such as hiring, loans, education, recommendation systems, and more. These machine learning algorithms are expected to facilitate faster, more accurate, and impartial decision-making compared to human judgments. Nevertheless, these expectations are not always met in practice due to biased training data, leading to discriminatory outcomes. In contemporary society, countering discrimination has become a consensus among people, leading the EU and the US to enact laws and regulations that prohibit discrimination based on factors such as gender, age, race, and religion. Consequently, addressing algorithmic discrimination has …


Analysis Of Student Behavior And Score Prediction In Assistments Online Learning, Aswani Yaramala Dec 2023

Analysis Of Student Behavior And Score Prediction In Assistments Online Learning, Aswani Yaramala

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Understanding and analyzing student behavior is paramount in enhancing online learning, and this thesis delves into the subject by presenting an in-depth analysis of student behavior and score prediction in the ASSISTments online learning platform. We used data from the EDM Cup 2023 Kaggle Competition to answer four key questions. First, we explored how students seeking hints and explanations affect their performance in assignments, shedding light on the role of guidance in learning. Second, we looked at the connection between students mastering specific skills and their performance in related assignments, giving insights into the effectiveness of curriculum alignment. Third, we …


Demystifying Artificial Intelligence (Ai) For Early Childhood And Elementary Education: A Case Study Of Perceptions Of Ai Of State Of Missouri Educators, Kathryn Arnone, James Hutson, Karen Woodruff Dec 2023

Demystifying Artificial Intelligence (Ai) For Early Childhood And Elementary Education: A Case Study Of Perceptions Of Ai Of State Of Missouri Educators, Kathryn Arnone, James Hutson, Karen Woodruff

Faculty Scholarship

Artificial intelligence (AI) and its impact on society have received a great deal of attention in the past five years since the first Stanford AI100 report. AI already globally impacts individuals in critical and personal ways, and many industries will continue to experience disruptions as the full algorithmic effects are understood. However, with regard to education, adopting in disciplines remains limited largely to Computer Science and Information Technology in postsecondary education. Recent advances with technology are especially promising for their potential to create and scale personalized learning for students, to optimize strategies for learning outcomes, and to increase access to …


Generative Adversarial Game With Tailored Quantum Feature Maps For Enhanced Classification, Anais Sandra Nguemto Guiawa Dec 2023

Generative Adversarial Game With Tailored Quantum Feature Maps For Enhanced Classification, Anais Sandra Nguemto Guiawa

Doctoral Dissertations

In the burgeoning field of quantum machine learning, the fusion of quantum computing and machine learning methodologies has sparked immense interest, particularly with the emergence of noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices. These devices hold the promise of achieving quantum advantage, but they grapple with limitations like constrained qubit counts, limited connectivity, operational noise, and a restricted set of operations. These challenges necessitate a strategic and deliberate approach to crafting effective quantum machine learning algorithms.

This dissertation revolves around an exploration of these challenges, presenting innovative strategies that tailor quantum algorithms and processes to seamlessly integrate with commercial quantum platforms. A …


Hypothyroid Disease Analysis By Using Machine Learning, Sanjana Seelam Dec 2023

Hypothyroid Disease Analysis By Using Machine Learning, Sanjana Seelam

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Thyroid illness frequently manifests as hypothyroidism. It is evident that people with hypothyroidism are primarily female. Because the majority of people are unaware of the illness, it is quickly becoming more serious. It is crucial to catch it early on so that medical professionals can treat it more effectively and prevent it from getting worse. Machine learning illness prediction is a challenging task. Disease prediction is aided greatly by machine learning. Once more, unique feature selection strategies have made the process of disease assumption and prediction easier. To properly monitor and cure this illness, accurate detection is essential. In order …


General Population Projection Model With Census Population Data, Takenori Tsuruga Dec 2023

General Population Projection Model With Census Population Data, Takenori Tsuruga

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The US Census Bureau offers a wide range of data, and within this array, the American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate (ACS5) serves as a valuable resource for understanding the US population. This project embarks on an exploration of Machine Learning and the Software Development process with the goal of generating effective population projections from ACS5 data. The project aims to provide methods to make predictions for every city and town in the US, encompassing their total population and population divided into 5-year age groups. It's worth noting that while the generation of these projections is grounded in the generalized statistical …


Ai Assisted Workflows For Computational Electromagnetics And Antenna Design, Oameed Noakoasteen Nov 2023

Ai Assisted Workflows For Computational Electromagnetics And Antenna Design, Oameed Noakoasteen

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

These days large volumes of data can be recorded and manipulated with relative ease. If valuable information can be extracted from them, these vast amounts of data can be a rich resource not just for the digital economy but also for scientific discovery and development of technology. When it comes to deriving valuable information from data, Machine Learning (ML) emerges as the key solution. To unlock the potential benefits of ML to science and technology, extensive research is needed to explore what algorithms are suitable and how they can be applied.

To shine light on various ways that ML can …


Data-Driven Decision Support Tool Co-Development With A Primary Health Care Practice Based Learning Network, Jacqueline K. Kueper, Jennifer Rayner, Sara Bhatti, Kelly Angevaare, Sandra Fitzpatrick, Paulino Lucamba, Eric Sutherland, Daniel J. Lizotte Nov 2023

Data-Driven Decision Support Tool Co-Development With A Primary Health Care Practice Based Learning Network, Jacqueline K. Kueper, Jennifer Rayner, Sara Bhatti, Kelly Angevaare, Sandra Fitzpatrick, Paulino Lucamba, Eric Sutherland, Daniel J. Lizotte

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Publications

Background: The Alliance for Healthier Communities is a learning health system that supports Community Health Centres (CHCs) across Ontario, Canada to provide team-based primary health care to people who otherwise experience barriers to care. This case study describes the ongoing process and lessons learned from the first Alliance for Healthier Communities’ Practice Based Learning Network (PBLN) data-driven decision support tool co-development project.

Methods: We employ an iterative approach to problem identification and methods development for the decision support tool, moving between discussion sessions and case studies with CHC electronic health record (EHR) data. We summarize our work to date in …


Bayesian Structural Causal Inference With Probabilistic Programming, Sam A. Witty Nov 2023

Bayesian Structural Causal Inference With Probabilistic Programming, Sam A. Witty

Doctoral Dissertations

Reasoning about causal relationships is central to the human experience. This evokes a natural question in our pursuit of human-like artificial intelligence: how might we imbue intelligent systems with similar causal reasoning capabilities? Better yet, how might we imbue intelligent systems with the ability to learn cause and effect relationships from observation and experimentation? Unfortunately, reasoning about cause and effect requires more than just data: it also requires partial knowledge about data generating mechanisms. Given this need, our task then as computational scientists is to design data structures for representing partial causal knowledge, and algorithms for updating that knowledge in …


Machine Learning Modeling Of Polymer Coating Formulations: Benchmark Of Feature Representation Schemes, Nelson I. Evbarunegbe Nov 2023

Machine Learning Modeling Of Polymer Coating Formulations: Benchmark Of Feature Representation Schemes, Nelson I. Evbarunegbe

Masters Theses

Polymer coatings offer a wide range of benefits across various industries, playing a crucial role in product protection and extension of shelf life. However, formulating them can be a non-trivial task given the multitude of variables and factors involved in the production process, rendering it a complex, high-dimensional problem. To tackle this problem, machine learning (ML) has emerged as a promising tool, showing considerable potential in enhancing various polymer and chemistry-based applications, particularly those dealing with high dimensional complexities.

Our research aims to develop a physics-guided ML approach to facilitate the formulations of polymer coatings. As the first step, this …


Deciphering Trends And Tactics: Data-Driven Techniques For Forecasting Information Spread And Detecting Coordinated Campaigns In Social Media, Kin Wai Ng Lugo Nov 2023

Deciphering Trends And Tactics: Data-Driven Techniques For Forecasting Information Spread And Detecting Coordinated Campaigns In Social Media, Kin Wai Ng Lugo

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The main objective of this dissertation is to develop models that predict and investigate the spread of information in social media over time. In this context, we consider topics of discussions as the information that spreads. Thus, we are interested in forecasting the number of messages per day in a future interval of time. We take a data-driven approach, in which we compare our results with real datasets from a multitude of socio-political contexts and from multiple social media platforms, specifically, Twitter and YouTube.

We identified a number of challenges related to forecasting social media time series per topic. First, …