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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Hitch Cart “Landing Gear”, Rebekah White, Jose Raygoza, Randy Hernandez, Brandon Leon Dec 2024

Hitch Cart “Landing Gear”, Rebekah White, Jose Raygoza, Randy Hernandez, Brandon Leon

Mechanical Engineering

This report aims to allow our sponsor, to review our design process of the Hitch Cart Landing Gear Prototype. In the design overview section of this report, we discuss the primary design modifications we made to the wheel mechanism of the existing hitch cart prototype, including the addition of the ACME screws and the folding brackets. This allows our sponsor to see the intended improvements made to the past prototype and understand the primary goal of our project. Then, in the implementation section, we cover the entire manufacturing process to allow our sponsor to understand what manufacturing steps must be …


The Mongolian Remodeling And The Structure Of Anoplocephalid Cestode Diversity, Mackenzie Grover Dec 2024

The Mongolian Remodeling And The Structure Of Anoplocephalid Cestode Diversity, Mackenzie Grover

All NMU Master's Theses

Ecological disruption plays an important role in structuring diversity of flora, fauna, and their parasites. At the end of the Eocene, climatic change across Asia resulted in a faunal turnover (the Mongolian Remodeling) as rodents diversified and larger mammals declined. Throughout the Oligocene, the landscape in Asia was characterized by episodic climatic and landscape changes resulting in pulses of rodent diversification. The role of historical ecological disruption in Central Asia in structuring the diversity of parasites of small rodents has not been thoroughly investigated. The hyper-diverse Paranoplocephala species complex (family: Anoplocephalidae) infect rodents throughout the Holarctic and present an opportunity …


Reclaiming Healing Spaces: A Phenomenological Study On The Transformative Power Of Outdoor Therapy From The Lived Experiences Of Black Clinicians Working With Black Clients, Lynn Murphy Sep 2024

Reclaiming Healing Spaces: A Phenomenological Study On The Transformative Power Of Outdoor Therapy From The Lived Experiences Of Black Clinicians Working With Black Clients, Lynn Murphy

Dissertations

This phenomenological study involved assessing the experiences of Black therapists who engaged Black clients in outdoor therapeutic contexts. The study was founded on the existing literature that shows the quality of the therapeutic relationship is pivotal for client retention and the Western standards that have historically favored treatment within indoor environments. To contextualize this research, a comprehensive literature review was commenced, covering topics such as the decolonization of therapy, the historical and present-day relationship between Blacks and the outdoors in the United States, sedentary lifestyles, the psychological benefits of time spent in nature, various types of outdoor therapy, and the …


On Weak Solutions And The Navier-Stokes Equations, Aryan Prabhudesai Aug 2024

On Weak Solutions And The Navier-Stokes Equations, Aryan Prabhudesai

Mathematical Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this paper, I will discuss a partial differential equation that has solutions that are discontinuous. This example motivates the need for distribution theory, which will provide an interpretation of what it means for a discontinuous function to be a “solution” to a PDE. Then I will give a detailed foundation of distributions, including the definition of the derivative of a distribution. Then I will introduce and give background on the Navier-Stokes equations. Following that, I will explain the Millennium Problem concerning global regularity for the Navier-Stokes equations and share mathematical results regarding weak solutions. Finally, I will go over …


Enabling Iov Communication Through Secure Decentralized Clustering Using Federated Deep Reinforcement Learning, Chandler Scott Aug 2024

Enabling Iov Communication Through Secure Decentralized Clustering Using Federated Deep Reinforcement Learning, Chandler Scott

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) holds immense potential for revolutionizing transporta- tion systems by facilitating seamless vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. However, challenges such as congestion, pollution, and security per- sist, particularly in rural areas with limited infrastructure. Existing centralized solu- tions are impractical in such environments due to latency and privacy concerns. To address these challenges, we propose a decentralized clustering algorithm enhanced with Federated Deep Reinforcement Learning (FDRL). Our approach enables low- latency communication, competitive packet delivery ratios, and cluster stability while preserving data privacy. Additionally, we introduce a trust-based security framework for IoV environments, integrating a central authority …


The Gavel And The Camera: Environmental Law And Photojournalism's Relationship To Appalachian Identity, Emily S. Patton Aug 2024

The Gavel And The Camera: Environmental Law And Photojournalism's Relationship To Appalachian Identity, Emily S. Patton

Honors Theses

Both the federal government and photojournalism have played a substantial role in the “othering” of Appalachia while simultaneously attempting to save it. Examining both institutions demonstrates the exploitative processes that alter the perception of rural communities and their surrounding environment. Stacey Kranitz’s archival exhibit, As It Was Give(n) To Me, internalizes this precarious role of the camera in a region heavily journalized. By inhabiting the area for years, establishing close relationships, and researching the documented history of Appalachia, Kranitz’s work becomes her livelihood in the dissolution of profession vs. personal. She is critical of past projects whose objective portrayal of …


Application Of Functionalized Organosilicas In Adsorption Of Nitrates, Stephen Amoako Aug 2024

Application Of Functionalized Organosilicas In Adsorption Of Nitrates, Stephen Amoako

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study addresses the critical environmental issue of elevated nitrate levels in water bodies, primarily due to excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers and improper waste disposal. It focuses on reducing nitrate concentrations in polluted water to permissible levels through the effectiveness of hybrid materials in nitrate adsorption. We synthesized nine amino-functionalized adsorbents using grafting and sol-gel techniques. Batch adsorption tests confirmed the high nitrate adsorption capacities of these adsorbents, with sol-gel materials showing the highest efficiency due to their abundant amino group contents. Among these, the surfactant-free, sol-gel adsorbent was the most effective, combining ease of synthesis with cost-efficiency. Our …


Developing Educational Tools For Sustainable Stormwater Management, Lauren Houskeeper Aug 2024

Developing Educational Tools For Sustainable Stormwater Management, Lauren Houskeeper

All Graduate Reports and Creative Projects, Fall 2023 to Present

Rapid population growth and development in Western states are exerting strain on the region’s limited water resources. Urbanization exacerbates this issue by increasing impervious surfaces, limiting infiltration of precipitation during storm events and snowmelt, which results in changes to hydrologic conditions with higher runoff volumes and higher peak flows. Stormwater transports pollutants as it flows across impervious surfaces, discharging high volumes of runoff and elevated loads of urban contaminants into receiving waters. The amount of pollution entering waterways continually increases as urban areas expand. Utah is currently experiencing a rapid transition from undeveloped to developed landscapes, necessitating the implementation of …


Creating A Virtual Hierarchy From A Relational Database, Yucong Mo Aug 2024

Creating A Virtual Hierarchy From A Relational Database, Yucong Mo

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

In data management and modeling, the value of the hierarchical model is that it does not require expensive JOIN operations at runtime; once the hierarchy is built, the relationships among data are embedded in the tree-like hierarchical structure, and thus querying data could be much faster than using a relational database. Today most data is stored in relational databases, but if the data were stored in hierarchies, what would these hierarchies look like? And more importantly, would this transition lead to a more efficient database? This thesis explores these questions by introducing a set of algorithms to convert a relational …


Excited State Processes In Radical Elaborated Platinum Donor-Acceptor Complexes, Sangita Paudel Jul 2024

Excited State Processes In Radical Elaborated Platinum Donor-Acceptor Complexes, Sangita Paudel

Chemistry and Chemical Biology ETDs

Organo-transition metal complexes are being widely studied to understand their photophysical properties for their wide range of applications as efficient emitters in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), light emitting electrochemical cells (LEECs), etc. Cyclometalated organo-transition metal complexes such as cyclometalated square planar platinum(II) complexes are becoming suitable candidates for such applications because of their highly efficient luminescence. Understanding the excited properties of such complexes is useful in designing highly efficient and color tunable phosphors with desired excited state lifetimes. We aim to explore the influence of radical substituents on electronic structure, luminescence quantum efficiencies, and excited state lifetimes by synthesizing …


Differential Elliptic Flow Analysis Of Hadrons With Different Wuark Content In Simulated Pp Collisions, Elhussein Osama Jun 2024

Differential Elliptic Flow Analysis Of Hadrons With Different Wuark Content In Simulated Pp Collisions, Elhussein Osama

Theses and Dissertations

According to current physics theories, it is assumed that in the first microsecond after the big bang, the universe was in a state of matter called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), where the fundamental consistent of matters (quarks and leptons), were highly energetic, and floating around freely. Searching for such phase of matter; as the possible earliest signatures after the big bang, and among many other interesting experimental measurements, the jet quenching and elliptic flow are the most important ones, in the heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments.

The azimuthal anisotropy …


Quantics Tensor Trains: The Study Of A Continuous Lattice Model And Beyond, Aleix Bou Comas Jun 2024

Quantics Tensor Trains: The Study Of A Continuous Lattice Model And Beyond, Aleix Bou Comas

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This four-chapter dissertation studies the efficient discretization of continuous variable functions with tensor train representation. The first chapter describes all the methodology used to discretize functions and store them efficiently. In this section, the algorithm tensor renormalization group is explained for self-containment purposes. The second chapter centers around the XY model. Quantics tensor trains are used to describe the transfer matrix of the model and compute one and two-dimensional quantities. The one dimensional magnitudes are compared to analytical results with an agreement close to machine precision. As for two dimensions, the analytical results cannot be computed. However, the critical temperature …


Context In Computer Vision: A Taxonomy, Multi-Stage Integration, And A General Framework, Xuan Wang Jun 2024

Context In Computer Vision: A Taxonomy, Multi-Stage Integration, And A General Framework, Xuan Wang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Contextual information has been widely used in many computer vision tasks, such as object detection, video action detection, image classification, etc. Recognizing a single object or action out of context could be sometimes very challenging, and context information may help improve the understanding of a scene or an event greatly. However, existing approaches design specific contextual information mechanisms for different detection tasks.

In this research, we first present a comprehensive survey of context understanding in computer vision, with a taxonomy to describe context in different types and levels. Then we proposed MultiCLU, a new multi-stage context learning and utilization framework, …


Effect Of Magnetic Draping On Satellite Galaxies In Clusters, Vanessa Brown Jun 2024

Effect Of Magnetic Draping On Satellite Galaxies In Clusters, Vanessa Brown

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Galaxy evolution has been observed to be influenced by environment. Satellite galaxies orbiting within clusters can experience changes in morphology and composition through various mechanisms such as ram-pressure stripping (RPS), which removes a galaxy’s interstellar medium as it passes through the cluster via direct interaction with the hot intracluster medium gas. An open question is whether intracluster magnetic fields affect galaxy evolution, for example by forming a magnetic layer around infalling galaxies (called magnetic draping) and mitigating gas removal by RPS. Using the code GADGET-3, we compare global properties and mass distributions within identical cluster simulations run with and without …


Three Essays Applying Dynamic Models In Economics, Finance, And Machine Learning, Lucas C. Dowiak Jun 2024

Three Essays Applying Dynamic Models In Economics, Finance, And Machine Learning, Lucas C. Dowiak

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a composition in three parts. Collectively, these essays investigate dynamic methods and their application in the fields of Economics, Finance, and Machine Learning. It pulls liberally from all three. In particular, this dissertation makes repeated use of multi-state modeling frameworks popular in Economics to bring a faceted view to the underlying data and detect its hidden heterogeneity. The challenge of modeling financial assets and estimating their dependence is another focus. For stimulus, concepts in the Machine Learning field are brought in to aid or compete with established econometric techniques.

Econometric Applications of the Hierarchical Mixture-of-Experts

In this …


Bifurcations And Resultants For Rational Maps And Dynatomic Modular Curves In Positive Characteristic, Colette Lapointe Jun 2024

Bifurcations And Resultants For Rational Maps And Dynatomic Modular Curves In Positive Characteristic, Colette Lapointe

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

No abstract provided.


Explicit Composition Identities For Higher Composition Laws In The Quadratic Case, Ajith A. Nair Jun 2024

Explicit Composition Identities For Higher Composition Laws In The Quadratic Case, Ajith A. Nair

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The theory of Gauss composition of integer binary quadratic forms provides a very useful way to compute the structure of ideal class groups in quadratic number fields. In addition to that, Gauss composition is also important in the problem of representations of integers by binary quadratic forms. In 2001, Bhargava discovered a new approach to Gauss composition which uses 2x2x2 integer cubes, and he proved a composition law for such cubes. Furthermore, from the higher composition law on cubes, he derived four new higher composition laws on the following spaces - 1) binary cubic forms, 2) pairs of binary quadratic …


Aspects Of Parity Breaking In Classical And Quantum Fluids, Dylan J. Reynolds Jun 2024

Aspects Of Parity Breaking In Classical And Quantum Fluids, Dylan J. Reynolds

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Parity-breaking is ubiquitous across many scales of physics, from the rotation of galaxies at the largest of scales, to the cyclotron orbits of electrons at the microscopic scale. In describing the collective dynamics of many particle systems, parity breaking effects typically originate from some form of chirality, such as angular momentum, at the level of the constituent particles. External forces can also induce chiral motion, with the primary examples being the Lorentz and Coriolis forces.

The effects of parity breaking are perhaps most strikingly seen in active matter, systems of complex particles that tend to convert energy into some directed …


Sigma_N-Correct Forcing Axioms, Benjamin P. Goodman Jun 2024

Sigma_N-Correct Forcing Axioms, Benjamin P. Goodman

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

I introduce a new family of axioms extending ZFC set theory, the Sigma_n-correct forcing axioms. These assert roughly that whenever a forcing name a' can be forced by a poset in some forcing class Gamma to have some Sigma_n property phi which is provably preserved by all further forcing in Gamma, then a' reflects to some small name such that there is already in V a filter which interprets that small name so that phi holds. Sigma_1-correct forcing axioms turn out to be equivalent to classical forcing axioms, while Sigma_2-correct forcing axioms for Sigma_2-definable forcing classes are consistent relative to …


Positron Emission Tomography In Oncology And Environmental Science, Samantha Delaney Jun 2024

Positron Emission Tomography In Oncology And Environmental Science, Samantha Delaney

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The last half century has played witness to the onset of molecular imaging for the clinical assessment of physiological targets. While several medical imaging modalities allow for the visualization of the functional and anatomical properties of humans and living systems, few offer accurate quantitation and the ability to detect biochemical processes with low-administered drug mass doses. This limits how physicians and scientists may diagnose and treat medical issues, such as cancer, disease, and foreign agents.

A promising alternative to extant invasive procedures and suboptimal imaging modalities to assess the nature of a biological environment is the use of positron emission …


Parabolic And Non-Parabolic Surfaces With Small Or Large End Spaces Via Fenchel-Nielsen Parameters, Michael Antony Pandazis Jun 2024

Parabolic And Non-Parabolic Surfaces With Small Or Large End Spaces Via Fenchel-Nielsen Parameters, Michael Antony Pandazis

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

We consider conditions on the Fenchel-Nielsen parameters of a Riemann surface X that determine whether or not a surface X is parabolic. Fix a geodesic pants decomposition of a surface and call the boundary geodesics in the decomposition cuffs. For a zero or half-twist flute surface, we prove that parabolicity is equivalent to the surface having a covering group of the first kind. Using that result, we give necessary and sufficient conditions on the Fenchel-Nielsen parameters of a half-twist flute surface X with increasing cuff lengths such that X is parabolic. As an application, we determine whether or not each …


Higher Diffeology Theory, Emilio Minichiello Jun 2024

Higher Diffeology Theory, Emilio Minichiello

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Finite dimensional smooth manifolds have been studied for hundreds of years, and a massive theory has been built around them. However, modern mathematicians and physicists are commonly dealing with objects outside the purview of classical differential geometry, such as orbifolds and loop spaces. Diffeology is a new framework for dealing with such generalized smooth spaces. This theory (whose development started in earnest in the 1980s) has started to catch on amongst the wider mathematical community, thanks to its simplicity and power, but it is not the only approach to dealing with generalized smooth spaces. Higher topos theory is another such …


Modeling And Dynamics Of Capillary Bridges, Moyosore Odunsi Jun 2024

Modeling And Dynamics Of Capillary Bridges, Moyosore Odunsi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Capillary bridges are ubiquitous in nature and have important implications in processes like inkjet printing. They are an important area of study not only because of their industrial applications but because many of the questions in capillary bridge research are applicable to other systems. For example, they exhibit pinning and unpinning patterns that are similar to those in sliding droplets. The rules underlying this pinning are essential to predicting liquid shapes and understanding how contact lines move across surfaces. Many previous studies have focused on axisymmetric capillary bridges and neglected to model the tangential forces that arise due to asymmetry. …


Non-Destructive Determination Of Surface Area In Reverse Phase Chromatographic Columns, Margaret Figus May 2024

Non-Destructive Determination Of Surface Area In Reverse Phase Chromatographic Columns, Margaret Figus

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Excess adsorption isotherms of acetonitrile and methanol from water were measured on eight commercial columns. Columns used in this study represent the latest examples in column development and include three different poroshell columns (Kinotex C18, Ascentis C18, and Halo C18) as well as conventional columns with significantly different adsorbent geometries (Allure C18, YMC C18) and various hybrid-silica columns (Gemini C18, Xterra C18, and XBridge C18). Comparison of the excess adsorption isotherms measured on all these columns and expressed in surface-specific form demonstrated significant similarity of the adsorption properties of all columns, which allows the introduction of the Standard Excess Adsorption …


Mending Trust In Ai: Trust Repair Policy Interventions For Large Language Models In Visual Data Journalism, Hangxiao Zhu May 2024

Mending Trust In Ai: Trust Repair Policy Interventions For Large Language Models In Visual Data Journalism, Hangxiao Zhu

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Trust in Large Language Models (LLMs) emerged as a pivotal concern. This is because, despite the transformative potential of LLMs in enhancing the interpretability and interactivity of complex datasets, the opacity of these models and instances of inaccuracies or biases have led to a significant trust deficit among end-users. Moreover, there is a tendency for people to personify AI tools that utilize these LLMs, attributing abilities and sensibilities that they do not truly possess. This thesis exploits this personification and proposes a comprehensive framework of trust repair policies tailored to address the challenges inherent in LLM annotations within data journalism …


Characteristics Based Factor Models - Comparison Of Estimation Procedures, Henri Ohl May 2024

Characteristics Based Factor Models - Comparison Of Estimation Procedures, Henri Ohl

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Understanding cross-sectional and time series variation of asset returns is fundamental in finance, particularly in asset pricing. This thesis explores the integration of factor theory with machine learning to deepen our comprehension of these dynamics. Characteristics based factor models offer a systematic framework for quantifying an asset's underlying risk-return structure, leveraging time-varying conditional information on model parameters carried by firm-specific characteristics. These models serve as valuable tools for discerning the driving components of an asset's expected excess return. Recent research established a novel methodology for consistent parameter estimation within this framework, only requiring a large cross-section but not a long …


Deformation Mapping And Modeling Of The Aleutian Volcanoes With Insar And Numerical Models, Jiahui Wang May 2024

Deformation Mapping And Modeling Of The Aleutian Volcanoes With Insar And Numerical Models, Jiahui Wang

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Surface deformation mapping is an essential component for comprehensive monitoring of volcanic activities, serving as a vital tool for discerning crucial insights into magma dynamics, storage, and migration for accurate hazard forecasting, assessment, and mitigation. However, monitoring of the volcanic deformation across the Aleutian volcanic arc is usually limited by the lack of terrestrial sensors deployed due to their remote locations and hostile environmental conditions, necessitating alternative methodologies for data acquisition and analysis.

My PhD study aims at precisely mapping the crustal deformation for the Aleutian volcanoes and tracking the evolution of the magmatic system with Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar …


The Geology And Geochemistry Of The Western Iron Ore Group Greenstone Belt, Singhbhum Craton, Eastern India, Jordan Wright May 2024

The Geology And Geochemistry Of The Western Iron Ore Group Greenstone Belt, Singhbhum Craton, Eastern India, Jordan Wright

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents new data on the origin of the Western Iron Ore Group (W-IOG), a Paleoarchean succession deposited on sialic rocks of the Singhbhum Craton. U-Pb ages from zircons from a tuff overlying the Lower Shales just below a banded iron formation (BIF) pin the age of the section to 3.39 Ga. Unconformably overlying the whole IOG section is the Darjing Group, which contains the Birtola Sandstone (on the basis of this work, now estimated to be 2.35 Ga). The lack of penetrative deformation and low-grade metamorphism makes these rocks excellent subjects for combined radiogenic and stable isotope studies. …


Advancing Coupled Cluster Methods: Tensor Factorization And Analytic Gradient Implementation, Tingting Zhao May 2024

Advancing Coupled Cluster Methods: Tensor Factorization And Analytic Gradient Implementation, Tingting Zhao

Chemistry Theses and Dissertations

With the rapid advancement of computing capabilities, computational chemistry has become increasingly indispensable in both experiment design and the interpretation of experimental outcomes. Wave-function-based quantum mechanistic methods are highly sought after for their ability to provide high-accuracy data and their potential for systematic improvement. However, to extend their applicability to larger molecules, it is essential to employ rank-reducing approximations to these methods. This dissertation dedicates Chapters Three and Four to the development of rank-reduced methodologies. Additionally, beyond single-point energies, molecular geometries and properties of molecule-excited states hold paramount importance across diverse fields of chemistry. Hence, Chapter Five presents the work …


Companionship, Romance, And Self-Perception With Conversational Chatbots, Jonathan Windsor May 2024

Companionship, Romance, And Self-Perception With Conversational Chatbots, Jonathan Windsor

Student Research Submissions

Serving as a metaphorical gateway transcending the communicative barriers of physical relationships in interpersonal dialogues, artificial imators of human behavior and speech, also known as conversational chatbots; a simulation of human knowledge and existence in a bi-directional conversation, functions as a rhetor of expression. Spanning from contexts of professional to romantic, I serve to dissect and critically analyze the nuances of human-machine relationships based on pre-established literature, inviting ethical considerations and biases in their design and marketing. Corporate influences spark pre-established servitude-esque relationships with conversational agents. Professional applications, both task-oriented and emotionally based alike, paint a mixed picture of …