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Faculty Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Effect Of Fabrication Parameters On The Ferroelectricity Of Hafnium Zirconium Oxide Films: A Statistical Study, Guillermo A. Salcedo, Ahmad E. Islam, Elizabeth Reichley, Michael Dietz, Christine M. Schubert Kabban, Kevin D. Leedy, Tyson C. Back, Weison Wang, Andrew Green, Timothy S. Wolfe, James M. Sattler Mar 2024

Effect Of Fabrication Parameters On The Ferroelectricity Of Hafnium Zirconium Oxide Films: A Statistical Study, Guillermo A. Salcedo, Ahmad E. Islam, Elizabeth Reichley, Michael Dietz, Christine M. Schubert Kabban, Kevin D. Leedy, Tyson C. Back, Weison Wang, Andrew Green, Timothy S. Wolfe, James M. Sattler

Faculty Publications

Ferroelectricity in hafnium zirconium oxide (Hf1−xZrxO2) and the factors that impact it have been a popular research topic since its discovery in 2011. Although the general trends are known, the interactions between fabrication parameters and their effect on the ferroelectricity of Hf1−xZrxO2 require further investigation. In this paper, we present a statistical study and a model that relates Zr concentration (x), film thickness (tf), and annealing temperature (Ta) with the remanent polarization (Pr) in tungsten (W)-capped Hf1−xZrxO2. …


Relative Vectoring Using Dual Object Detection For Autonomous Aerial Refueling, Derek B. Worth, Jeffrey L. Choate, James Lynch, Scott L. Nykl, Clark N. Taylor Mar 2024

Relative Vectoring Using Dual Object Detection For Autonomous Aerial Refueling, Derek B. Worth, Jeffrey L. Choate, James Lynch, Scott L. Nykl, Clark N. Taylor

Faculty Publications

Once realized, autonomous aerial refueling will revolutionize unmanned aviation by removing current range and endurance limitations. Previous attempts at establishing vision-based solutions have come close but rely heavily on near perfect extrinsic camera calibrations that often change midflight. In this paper, we propose dual object detection, a technique that overcomes such requirement by transforming aerial refueling imagery directly into receiver aircraft reference frame probe-to-drogue vectors regardless of camera position and orientation. These vectors are precisely what autonomous agents need to successfully maneuver the tanker and receiver aircraft in synchronous flight during refueling operations. Our method follows a common 4-stage process …


Seasonal Variability And Predictability Of Monsoon Precipitation In Southern Africa, Matthew F. Horan, Fred Kucharski, Moetasim Ashfaq Mar 2024

Seasonal Variability And Predictability Of Monsoon Precipitation In Southern Africa, Matthew F. Horan, Fred Kucharski, Moetasim Ashfaq

Faculty Publications

Rainfed agriculture is the mainstay of economies across Southern Africa (SA), where most precipitation is received during the austral summer monsoon. This study aims to further our understanding of monsoon precipitation predictability over SA. We use three natural climate forcings, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and the Indian Ocean Precipitation Dipole (IOPD)—the dominant precipitation variability mode—to construct an empirical model that exhibits significant skill over SA during monsoon in explaining precipitation variability and in forecasting it with a five-month lead. While most explained precipitation variance (50%–75%) comes from contemporaneous IOD and IOPD, preconditioning all three forcings is key …


The Behavior Of ½⟨111⟩ Screw Dislocations In W–Mo Alloys Analyzed Through Atomistic Simulations, Lucas A. Heaton, Kevin Chu, Adib J. Samin Feb 2024

The Behavior Of ½⟨111⟩ Screw Dislocations In W–Mo Alloys Analyzed Through Atomistic Simulations, Lucas A. Heaton, Kevin Chu, Adib J. Samin

Faculty Publications

Analyzing plastic flow in refractory alloys is relevant to many different commercial and technological applications. In this study, screw dislocation statics and dynamics were studied for various compositions of the body-centered cubic binary alloy tungsten–molybdenum (W–Mo). The core structure did not appear to change for different alloy compositions, consistent with the literature. The pure tungsten and pure molybdenum samples had the lowest plastic flow, while the highest dislocation velocities were observed for equiatomic, W0.5Mo0.5 alloys. In general, dislocation velocities were found to largely align with a well-established dislocation mobility phenomenological model supporting two discrete dislocation mobility regimes, …


Unimer Suppression Enables Supersaturated Homopolymer Swollen Micelles With Long-Term Stability After Glassy Entrapment, Eric R. Williams, Christian X. Ruff, Morgan Stefik Feb 2024

Unimer Suppression Enables Supersaturated Homopolymer Swollen Micelles With Long-Term Stability After Glassy Entrapment, Eric R. Williams, Christian X. Ruff, Morgan Stefik

Faculty Publications

Micelle sizes are critical for a range of applications where the simple ability to adjust and lock in specific stable sizes has remained largely elusive. While micelle swelling agents are well-known, their dynamic re-equilibration in solution implies limited stability. Here, a non-equilibrium processing sequence is studied where supersaturated homopolymer swelling is combined with glassy-core (“persistent”) micelles. This path-dependent process was found to sensitively depend on unimer concentration as revealed by DLS, SAXS, and TEM analysis. Here, lower-selectivity solvent combinations led to the formation of unimer-homopolymer aggregates and eventual precipitation, reminiscent of anomalous micellization. In contrast, higher-selectivity solvents enabled supersaturated homopolymer …


Residual Optical Absorption From Native Defects In Cdsip2 Crystals, Timothy D. Gustafson, Nancy C. Giles, Elizabeth M. Scherrer, Kevin T. Zawilski, Peter G. Schunemann, Kent L. Averett, Jonathan E. Slagle, Larry E. Halliburton Feb 2024

Residual Optical Absorption From Native Defects In Cdsip2 Crystals, Timothy D. Gustafson, Nancy C. Giles, Elizabeth M. Scherrer, Kevin T. Zawilski, Peter G. Schunemann, Kent L. Averett, Jonathan E. Slagle, Larry E. Halliburton

Faculty Publications

CdSiP2 crystals are used in optical parametric oscillators to produce tunable output in the mid-infrared. As expected, the performance of the OPOs is adversely affected by residual optical absorption from native defects that are unintentionally present in the crystals. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) identifies these native defects. Singly ionized silicon vacancies (V-Si) are responsible for broad optical absorption bands peaking near 800, 1033, and 1907 nm. A fourth absorption band, peaking near 630 nm, does not involve silicon vacancies. Exposure to 1064 nm light when the temperature of the CdSiP2 crystal is near 80K converts …


Editorial: Observations And Simulations Of Layering Phenomena In The Middle/Upper Atmosphere And Ionosphere, Bingkun Yu, Xuguang Cai, Daniel J. Emmons Ii, Chong Wang And Jianfei Wu Jan 2024

Editorial: Observations And Simulations Of Layering Phenomena In The Middle/Upper Atmosphere And Ionosphere, Bingkun Yu, Xuguang Cai, Daniel J. Emmons Ii, Chong Wang And Jianfei Wu

Faculty Publications

The middle/upper atmosphere and ionosphere are the transition between neutral and ionized components of the Earth’s atmosphere, including stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionospheric E region and ionospheric F region (Laštovička et al., 2006; Xu, et al., 2007; Smith, 2012). The atmospheric thermal structure and composition are significantly affected by dynamical processes through coupling. The layering phenomena such as mesospheric metal layers, sporadic E layers, and noctilucent clouds are important tracers to study mechanisms of the vertical coupling from the lower to the upper atmosphere (Dou et al., 2010; Plane, 2012; Xue et al., 2013).


Gnss Software Defined Radio: History, Current Developments, And Standardization Efforts, Thomas Pany, Dennis Akos, Javier Arribas, M. Zahidul H. Bhuiyan, Pau Closas, Fabio Dovis, Ignacio Fernandez-Hernandez, Carles Fernandez-Prades, Sanjeev Gunawardena, Todd Humphreys, Zaher M. Kassas, Jose A. Lopez Salcedo, Mario Nicola, Mario L. Psiaki, Alexander Rugamer, Yong-Jin Song, Jong-Hoon Won Jan 2024

Gnss Software Defined Radio: History, Current Developments, And Standardization Efforts, Thomas Pany, Dennis Akos, Javier Arribas, M. Zahidul H. Bhuiyan, Pau Closas, Fabio Dovis, Ignacio Fernandez-Hernandez, Carles Fernandez-Prades, Sanjeev Gunawardena, Todd Humphreys, Zaher M. Kassas, Jose A. Lopez Salcedo, Mario Nicola, Mario L. Psiaki, Alexander Rugamer, Yong-Jin Song, Jong-Hoon Won

Faculty Publications

Taking the work conducted by the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) software-defined radio (SDR) working group during the last decade as a seed, this contribution summarizes, for the first time, the history of GNSS SDR development. This report highlights selected SDR implementations and achievements that are available to the public or that influenced the general development of SDR. Aspects related to the standardization process of intermediate-frequency sample data and metadata are discussed, and an update of the Institute of Navigation SDR Standard is proposed. This work focuses on GNSS SDR implementations in general-purpose processors and leaves aside developments conducted on …


An Analysis Of Precision: Occlusion And Perspective Geometry’S Role In 6d Pose Estimation, Jeffrey Choate, Derek Worth, Scott Nykl, Clark N. Taylor, Brett J. Borghetti, Christine M. Schubert Kabban Jan 2024

An Analysis Of Precision: Occlusion And Perspective Geometry’S Role In 6d Pose Estimation, Jeffrey Choate, Derek Worth, Scott Nykl, Clark N. Taylor, Brett J. Borghetti, Christine M. Schubert Kabban

Faculty Publications

Achieving precise 6 degrees of freedom (6D) pose estimation of rigid objects from color images is a critical challenge with wide-ranging applications in robotics and close-contact aircraft operations. This study investigates key techniques in the application of YOLOv5 object detection convolutional neural network (CNN) for 6D pose localization of aircraft using only color imagery. Traditional object detection labeling methods suffer from inaccuracies due to perspective geometry and being limited to visible key points. This research demonstrates that with precise labeling, a CNN can predict object features with near-pixel accuracy, effectively learning the distinct appearance of the object due to perspective …


Lithium Tetraborate As A Neutron Scintillation Detector: A Review, Elena Echeverria, John W. Mcclory, Lauren Samson, Katherine Shene, Juan A. Colon Santana, Yaroslav V. Burak, Volodymyr T. Adamiv, Ihor M. Teslyuk, Lu Wang, Wai-Ning Mei, Kyle A. Nelson, Douglas S. Mcgregor, Peter A. Dowben, Carolina C. Ilie, James C. Petrosky, Archit Dhingra Dec 2023

Lithium Tetraborate As A Neutron Scintillation Detector: A Review, Elena Echeverria, John W. Mcclory, Lauren Samson, Katherine Shene, Juan A. Colon Santana, Yaroslav V. Burak, Volodymyr T. Adamiv, Ihor M. Teslyuk, Lu Wang, Wai-Ning Mei, Kyle A. Nelson, Douglas S. Mcgregor, Peter A. Dowben, Carolina C. Ilie, James C. Petrosky, Archit Dhingra

Faculty Publications

The electronic structure and translucent nature of lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) render it promising as a scintillator medium for neutron detection applications. The inherently large neutron capture cross-section due to 10B and 6Li isotopes and the ease with which Li2B4O7 can be enriched with these isotopes, combined with the facile inclusion of rare earth dopants (occupying the Li+ sites), are expected to improve the luminescent properties, as well as the neutron detection efficiency, of Li2B4O7. The electronic structure of both doped …


Directional Microwave Emission From Femtosecond-Laser Illuminated Linear Arrays Of Superconducting Rings, Thomas J. Bullard, Kyle Frische, Charlie Ebbing, Stephen J. Hageman, John Morrison, John Bulmer, Enam A. Chowdury, Michael L. Dexter, Timothy J. Haugan, Anil K. Patniak Dec 2023

Directional Microwave Emission From Femtosecond-Laser Illuminated Linear Arrays Of Superconducting Rings, Thomas J. Bullard, Kyle Frische, Charlie Ebbing, Stephen J. Hageman, John Morrison, John Bulmer, Enam A. Chowdury, Michael L. Dexter, Timothy J. Haugan, Anil K. Patniak

Faculty Publications

We examine the electromagnetic emission from two photo-illuminated linear arrays composed of inductively charged superconducting ring elements. The arrays are illuminated by an ultrafast infrared laser that triggers microwave broadband emission detected in the 1–26 GHz range. Based on constructive interference from the arrays a narrowing of the forward radiation lobe is observed with increasing element count and frequency demonstrating directed GHz emission. Results suggest that higher frequencies and a larger number of elements are achievable leading to a unique pulsed array emitter concept that can span frequencies from the microwave to the terahertz (THz) regime.


Development Of A Methodology For The Quantification Of Reaerosolization Of A Biological Contaminate Surrogate Particle From A Military Uniform Fabric, George Cooksey, Jeremy M. Slagley, Casey W. Cooper, Douglas Lewis, Alisha Helm Dec 2023

Development Of A Methodology For The Quantification Of Reaerosolization Of A Biological Contaminate Surrogate Particle From A Military Uniform Fabric, George Cooksey, Jeremy M. Slagley, Casey W. Cooper, Douglas Lewis, Alisha Helm

Faculty Publications

In a mass casualty medical evacuation after a bioaerosol (BA) dispersal event, a decontamination (DC) method is needed that can both decontaminate and prevent biological particle (BP) re-aerosolization (RA) of contaminated clothes. However, neither the efficacy of current DC methods nor the risk of BP RA is greatly explored in the existing literature. The goals of this study were to develop a repeatable method to quantify the RA of a biological contaminant off military uniform fabric swatches and to test the efficacy of one DC protocol (high-volume, low-pressure water) using 1 µm polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres as a surrogate. A …


Analysis And Requirement Generation For Defense Intelligence Search: Addressing Data Overload Through Human–Ai Agent System Design For Ambient Awareness, Mark C. Duncan, Michael E. Miller, Brett J. Borghetti Nov 2023

Analysis And Requirement Generation For Defense Intelligence Search: Addressing Data Overload Through Human–Ai Agent System Design For Ambient Awareness, Mark C. Duncan, Michael E. Miller, Brett J. Borghetti

Faculty Publications

This research addresses the data overload faced by intelligence searchers in government and defense agencies. The study leverages methods from the Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) literature to generate insights into the intelligence search work domain. These insights are applied to a supporting concept and requirements for designing and evaluating a human-AI agent team specifically for intelligence search tasks. Domain analysis reveals the dynamic nature of the ‘value structure’, a term that describes the evolving set of criteria governing the intelligence search process. Additionally, domain insight provides details for search aggregation and conceptual spaces from which the value structure could be …


Search For Evidence Of Baryogenesis And Dark Matter In B+→Ψd+P Decays At Babar, J. P. Lees, V. Poireau, E. Grauges, A. Palano, G. Eigen, D. N. Brown, Yu. G. Kolomensky, M. Fritsch, H. Koch, R. Cheaib, C. Hearty, T. S. Mattison, J. A. Mckenna, R. Y. So, V. E. Blinov, A. R. Buzykaev, V. P. Druzhinin, E. A. Kravchenko, Milind Purohit, Et. Al. Nov 2023

Search For Evidence Of Baryogenesis And Dark Matter In B+→Ψd+P Decays At Babar, J. P. Lees, V. Poireau, E. Grauges, A. Palano, G. Eigen, D. N. Brown, Yu. G. Kolomensky, M. Fritsch, H. Koch, R. Cheaib, C. Hearty, T. S. Mattison, J. A. Mckenna, R. Y. So, V. E. Blinov, A. R. Buzykaev, V. P. Druzhinin, E. A. Kravchenko, Milind Purohit, Et. Al.

Faculty Publications

A new dark sector antibaryon, denoted ψD, could be produced in decays of B mesons. This Letter presents a search for B+ψD+p (and the charge conjugate) decays in e+e annihilations at 10.58 GeV, using data collected in the BABAR experiment. Data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 398 fb−1 are analyzed. No evidence for a signal is observed. Branching fraction upper limits in the range from 10−7–10−5 are obtained at 90% confidence level for masses of 1.0<D< 4.3 GeV/c2. The result is also reinterpreted to provide …


Detailed Characterization Of A Khz-Rate Laser-Driven Fusion At A Thin Liquid Sheet With A Neutron Detection Suite, Benjamin M. Knight, Connor Gautam, Colton R. Stoner, Bryan V. Egner, Joseph R. Smith, Christopher M. Orban, Juan J. Manfredi, Kyle Frische, Michael L. Dexter, Enam A. Chowdury, Anil K. Patniak Nov 2023

Detailed Characterization Of A Khz-Rate Laser-Driven Fusion At A Thin Liquid Sheet With A Neutron Detection Suite, Benjamin M. Knight, Connor Gautam, Colton R. Stoner, Bryan V. Egner, Joseph R. Smith, Christopher M. Orban, Juan J. Manfredi, Kyle Frische, Michael L. Dexter, Enam A. Chowdury, Anil K. Patniak

Faculty Publications

We present detailed characterization of laser driven fusion and neutron production (∼105/second) employing 8 mJ, 40fs laser pulses on a thin (< 1 µm) D2O liquid sheet employing a measurement suite. At relativistic intensity (∼5×1018W/cm2) and high repetition-rate (1 kHz), the system produces consistent D-D fusion, allowing for consistent neutron generation. Evidence of D-D fusion neutron production is verified b y a measurement suite with three independent detection systems: an EJ-309 organic scintillator with pulse-shape discrimination, a 3He proportional counter, and a set of 36 bubble detectors. Time-of-flight analysis of the scintillator data shows …


Measurement Of Additional Radiation In The Initial-State-Radiation Processes E+E-Μ+Μ- Y And E+E-+- Y At Babar, J. P. Lees, V. Poireau, V. Tisserand, E. Grauges, A. Palano, G. Eigen, D. N. Brown, Yu. G. Kolomensky, M. Fritsch, H. Koch, R. Cheaib, C. Hearty, T. S. Mattison, J. A. Mckenna, R. Y. So, V. E. Blinov, A. R. Buzykaev, V. P. Druzhinin, E. A. Kozyrev, Milind Purohit, Et. Al. Nov 2023

Measurement Of Additional Radiation In The Initial-State-Radiation Processes E+E- →Μ+Μ- Y And E+E- → ℼ+ℼ- Y At Babar, J. P. Lees, V. Poireau, V. Tisserand, E. Grauges, A. Palano, G. Eigen, D. N. Brown, Yu. G. Kolomensky, M. Fritsch, H. Koch, R. Cheaib, C. Hearty, T. S. Mattison, J. A. Mckenna, R. Y. So, V. E. Blinov, A. R. Buzykaev, V. P. Druzhinin, E. A. Kozyrev, Milind Purohit, Et. Al.

Faculty Publications

A dedicated measurement of additional radiation in e+e → µ+µγ and e+eπ+πγ initial-state-radiation events is presented using the full BABAR data sample. For the first time results are presented at next-to- and next-to-next-to-leading order, with one and two additional photons, respectively, for radiation from the initial and final states. Comparison with predictions from PHOKHARA and AFKQED Monte Carlo generators is performed, revealing discrepancies in the one-photon rates and angular distributions for the former. This disagreement has a negligible effect on the BABAR measurement of …


Legendre Pairs Of Lengths ℓ ≡ 0 (Mod 5), Ilias S. Kotsireas, Christopher Koutschan, Dursun Bulutoglu, David M. Arquette, Jonathan S. Turner, Kenneth J. Ryan Nov 2023

Legendre Pairs Of Lengths ℓ ≡ 0 (Mod 5), Ilias S. Kotsireas, Christopher Koutschan, Dursun Bulutoglu, David M. Arquette, Jonathan S. Turner, Kenneth J. Ryan

Faculty Publications

By assuming a type of balance for length ℓ = 87 and nontrivial subgroups of multiplier groups of Legendre pairs (LPs) for length ℓ = 85 , we find LPs of these lengths. We then study the power spectral density (PSD) values of m compressions of LPs of length 5 m . We also formulate a conjecture for LPs of lengths ℓ ≡ 0 (mod 5) and demonstrate how it can be used to decrease the search space and storage requirements for finding such LPs. The newly found LPs decrease the number of integers in the range ≤ 200 for …


A Computational Approach For Mapping Electrochemical Activity Of Multi-Principal Element Alloys, Jodie A. Yuwono, Xinyu Li, Tyler D. Dolezal, Adib J. Samin, Javen Qinfeng Shi, Zhipeng Li, Nick Birbilis Nov 2023

A Computational Approach For Mapping Electrochemical Activity Of Multi-Principal Element Alloys, Jodie A. Yuwono, Xinyu Li, Tyler D. Dolezal, Adib J. Samin, Javen Qinfeng Shi, Zhipeng Li, Nick Birbilis

Faculty Publications

Multi principal element alloys (MPEAs) comprise an atypical class of metal alloys. MPEAs have been demonstrated to possess several exceptional properties, including, as most relevant to the present study a high corrosion resistance. In the context of MPEA design, the vast number of potential alloying elements and the staggering number of elemental combinations favours a computational alloy design approach. In order to computationally assess the prospective corrosion performance of MPEA, an approach was developed in this study. A density functional theory (DFT) – based Monte Carlo method was used for the development of MPEA ‘structure’; with the AlCrTiV alloy used …


System-Level Noise Performance Of Coherent Imaging Systems, Derek J. Burrell, Joshua H. Follansbee, Mark F. Spencer, Ronald G. Driggers Nov 2023

System-Level Noise Performance Of Coherent Imaging Systems, Derek J. Burrell, Joshua H. Follansbee, Mark F. Spencer, Ronald G. Driggers

Faculty Publications

We provide an in-depth analysis of noise considerations in coherent imaging, accounting for speckle and scintillation in addition to “conventional” image noise. Specifically, we formulate closed-form expressions for total effective noise in the presence of speckle only, scintillation only, and speckle combined with scintillation. We find analytically that photon shot noise is uncorrelated with both speckle and weak-to-moderate scintillation, despite their shared dependence on the mean signal. Furthermore, unmitigated speckle and scintillation noise tends to dominate coherent-imaging performance due to a squared mean-signal dependence. Strong coupling occurs between speckle and scintillation when both are present, and we characterize this behavior …


Impact Of Silicon Ion Irradiation On Aluminum Nitride-Transduced Microelectromechanical Resonators, David D. Lynes, Joshua Young, Eric Lang, Hengky Chandrahalim Nov 2023

Impact Of Silicon Ion Irradiation On Aluminum Nitride-Transduced Microelectromechanical Resonators, David D. Lynes, Joshua Young, Eric Lang, Hengky Chandrahalim

Faculty Publications

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators use is widespread, from electronic filters and oscillators to physical sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes. These devices' ubiquity, small size, and low power consumption make them ideal for use in systems such as CubeSats, micro aerial vehicles, autonomous underwater vehicles, and micro-robots operating in radiation environments. Radiation's interaction with materials manifests as atomic displacement and ionization, resulting in mechanical and electronic property changes, photocurrents, and charge buildup. This study examines silicon (Si) ion irradiation's interaction with piezoelectrically transduced MEMS resonators. Furthermore, the effect of adding a dielectric silicon oxide (SiO2) thin film is …


Active-Illumination Extension To The Priest And Meier Pbrdf, Mark F. Spencer, Milo W. Hyde Iv, Santasri R. Bose-Pillai, Michael A. Marciniak Oct 2023

Active-Illumination Extension To The Priest And Meier Pbrdf, Mark F. Spencer, Milo W. Hyde Iv, Santasri R. Bose-Pillai, Michael A. Marciniak

Faculty Publications

This paper develops a 3D vector solution for the scattering of partially coherent laser-beam illumination from statistically rough surfaces. Such a solution enables a rigorous comparison to the well-known Priest and Meier polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF) [Opt Eng 41(5),988 (2002).]. Overall, the comparison shows excellent agreement for the normalized spectral density and the degree of polarization. Based on this agreement, the 3D vector solution also enables an extension to the Priest and Meier pBRDF that accounts for the effects of active illumination. In particular, the 3D vector solution enables the development of a closed-form expression for the spectral …


Reply To: Beyond Microbial Carbon Use Efficiency, Feng Tao, Johannes Lehmann, Ying-Ping Wang, Lifen Jiang, Bernhard Ahrens, Kostiantyn Viatkin, Stefano Manzoni, Benjamin Z. Houlton, Yuanyuan Huang, Bruce A. Hungate, Serita D. Frey, Michael W. I. Schmidt, Markus Reichstein, Nuno Carvalhais, Philippe Ciais, Umakant Mishra, Gustaf Hugelius, Toby D. Hocking, Xingjie Lu, Zheng Shi, Ronald Vargas, Yusuf Yigini, Christian Omuto, Ashish A. Malik, Guillermo Peralta, Rosa Cuevas-Corona, Luciano E. Di Paolo, Isabel Luotto, Cuijuan Liao, Yi-Shuang Liang, Vinisa S. Saynes, Xiaomeng Huang Oct 2023

Reply To: Beyond Microbial Carbon Use Efficiency, Feng Tao, Johannes Lehmann, Ying-Ping Wang, Lifen Jiang, Bernhard Ahrens, Kostiantyn Viatkin, Stefano Manzoni, Benjamin Z. Houlton, Yuanyuan Huang, Bruce A. Hungate, Serita D. Frey, Michael W. I. Schmidt, Markus Reichstein, Nuno Carvalhais, Philippe Ciais, Umakant Mishra, Gustaf Hugelius, Toby D. Hocking, Xingjie Lu, Zheng Shi, Ronald Vargas, Yusuf Yigini, Christian Omuto, Ashish A. Malik, Guillermo Peralta, Rosa Cuevas-Corona, Luciano E. Di Paolo, Isabel Luotto, Cuijuan Liao, Yi-Shuang Liang, Vinisa S. Saynes, Xiaomeng Huang

Faculty Publications

In their commentary, Xiao et al. cautioned that the conclusions on the critical role of microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE) in global soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in a paper by Tao et al. (2023) might be too simplistic. They claimed that Tao et al.’s study lacked mechanistic consideration of SOC formation and excluded important datasets. Xiao et al. brought up important points, which can be largely reconciled with our findings by understanding the differences in expressing processes in empirical studies and in models.


Lightning Forecast From Chaotic And Incomplete Time Series Using Wavelet De-Noising And Spatiotemporal Kriging, Jared K. Nystrom, Raymond Hill, Andrew J. Geyer, Joseph J. Pignatiello Jr., Eric Chicken Oct 2023

Lightning Forecast From Chaotic And Incomplete Time Series Using Wavelet De-Noising And Spatiotemporal Kriging, Jared K. Nystrom, Raymond Hill, Andrew J. Geyer, Joseph J. Pignatiello Jr., Eric Chicken

Faculty Publications

Purpose: Present a method to impute missing data from a chaotic time series, in this case lightning prediction data, and then use that completed dataset to create lightning prediction forecasts.

Design/Methodology/Approach: Using the technique of spatiotemporal kriging to estimate data that is autocorrelated but in space and time. Using the estimated data in an imputation methodology completes a dataset used in lighting prediction.

Findings: The techniques provided prove robust to the chaotic nature of the data, and the resulting time series displays evidence of smoothing while also preserving the signal of interest for lightning prediction.

Abstract © Emerald Publishing …


Precision E- Beam Polarimetry At An E-E+ B Factory Using Tau-Pair Events, J. P. Lees, V. Poireau, V, Tisserand, E. Grauges, A. Palano, G. Eigen, D. N. Brown, Yu. G. Kolomensky, M. Fritsch, H. Koch, R. Cheaib, C. Hearty, T. S. Mattison, J. A. Mckenna, R. Y. So, V. E. Blinov, A. R. Buzykaev, V. P. Druzhinin, Milind Purohit, Et. Al. Sep 2023

Precision E- Beam Polarimetry At An E-E+ B Factory Using Tau-Pair Events, J. P. Lees, V. Poireau, V, Tisserand, E. Grauges, A. Palano, G. Eigen, D. N. Brown, Yu. G. Kolomensky, M. Fritsch, H. Koch, R. Cheaib, C. Hearty, T. S. Mattison, J. A. Mckenna, R. Y. So, V. E. Blinov, A. R. Buzykaev, V. P. Druzhinin, Milind Purohit, Et. Al.

Faculty Publications

We present a new technique, “tau polarimetry,” for measuring the longitudinal beam polarization present in an e+e collider through the analysis of e+e → τ+τ events. By exploiting the sensitivity of τ decay kinematics to the longitudinal polarization of the beams, we demonstrate that the longitudinal polarization can be measured with a 3 per mil systematic uncertainty at the interaction point using a technique that is independent of spin and beam transport modeling. Using 424.2 ± 1.8 fb−1 of BABAR data at √ s = 10.58 GeV, the average longitudinal …


What Is Microbial Dormancy, Mark D. Mcdonald, Carlos Owusu-Ansah, Jared B. Ellenbogen, Zachary D. Malone, Michael P. Ricketts, Steve E. Frolking, Jessica G. Ernakovich, Michael Ibba, Sarah C. Bagby, J. L. Weissman Sep 2023

What Is Microbial Dormancy, Mark D. Mcdonald, Carlos Owusu-Ansah, Jared B. Ellenbogen, Zachary D. Malone, Michael P. Ricketts, Steve E. Frolking, Jessica G. Ernakovich, Michael Ibba, Sarah C. Bagby, J. L. Weissman

Faculty Publications

Life can be stressful. One way to deal with stress is to simply wait it out. Microbes do this by entering a state of reduced activity and increased resistance commonly called ‘dormancy’. But what is dormancy? Different scientific disciplines emphasize distinct traits and phenotypic ranges in defining dormancy for their microbial species and system-specific questions of interest. Here, we propose a unified definition of microbial dormancy, using a broad framework to place earlier discipline-specific definitions in a new context. We then discuss how this new definition and framework may improve our ability to investigate dormancy using multi-omics tools. Finally, we …


Ironnetinjector: Weaponizing .Net Dynamic Language Runtime Engines, Anthony J. Rose, Scott R. Graham, Jacob Krasnov Sep 2023

Ironnetinjector: Weaponizing .Net Dynamic Language Runtime Engines, Anthony J. Rose, Scott R. Graham, Jacob Krasnov

Faculty Publications

As adversaries evolve their Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) to stay ahead of defenders, Microsoft’s .NET Framework emerges as a common component found in the tradecraft of many contemporary Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs), whether through PowerShell or C#. Because of .NET’s ease of use and availability on every recent Windows system, it is at the forefront of modern TTPs and is a primary means of exploitation. This article considers the .NET Dynamic Language Runtime as an attack vector, and how APTs have utilized it for offensive purposes. The technique under scrutiny is Bring Your Own Interpreter (BYOI), which is the …


Speciation Of Elements Via A Sequential Extraction Procedure In Municipal Wastewater Biosolids From Three Rural Wwtp In East Texas (Usa), Kefa K. Onchoke Aug 2023

Speciation Of Elements Via A Sequential Extraction Procedure In Municipal Wastewater Biosolids From Three Rural Wwtp In East Texas (Usa), Kefa K. Onchoke

Faculty Publications

In this data article, the bioavailability of elements in municipal wastewater sludge (also known as biosolids) in samples collected from three treatment plants in East Texas, USA was evaluated. Although detailed speciation of the metals were assessed by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and were discussed in the research article titled “Evaluating bioavailability of elements in municipal wastewater sludge (Biosolids) from three rural wastewater treatment plants in East Texas (USA) by a sequential extraction procedure” [1], this report presents the absolute raw concentrations and fractionations of the 26 metals from the biosolids (Nacogdoches Wastewater Sludge, Lufkin Wastewater Sludge, …


Utilizing Low-Cost Sensors To Monitor Indoor Air Quality In Mongolian Gers, Callum Flowerday, Jaron C. Hansen, Phil Lundrigan, Christopher Kitras Aug 2023

Utilizing Low-Cost Sensors To Monitor Indoor Air Quality In Mongolian Gers, Callum Flowerday, Jaron C. Hansen, Phil Lundrigan, Christopher Kitras

Faculty Publications

Air quality has important climate and health effects. There is a need, therefore, to monitor air quality both indoors and outdoors. Methods of measuring air quality should be cost-effective if they are to be used widely, and one such method is low-cost sensors (LCS). This study reports on the use of LCSs in Ulaanbataar, Mongolia to measure PM2.5 concentrations inside yurts or “gers”. Some of these gers were part of a non-government agency (NGO) initiative to improve insulating properties of these housing structures. The goal of the NGO was to decrease particulate emissions inside the gers; a secondary result …


Reply To: Contribution Of Carbon Inputs To Soil Carbon Accumulation Cannot Be Neglected, Feng Tao, Benjamin Z. Houlton, Serita D. Frey, Johannes Lehmann, Stefano Manzoni, Yuanyuan Huang, Lifen Jiang, Umakant Mishra, Bruce A. Hungate, Michael W. I. Schmidt, Markus Reichstein, Nuno Carvalhais, Philippe Ciais, Ying-Ping Wang, Bernhard Ahrens, Gustaf Hugelius, Toby D. Hocking, Xingjie Lu, Zheng Shi, Kostiantyn Viatkin, Ronald Vargas, Yusuf Yigini, Christian Omuto, Ashish A. Malik, Guillermo Peralta, Rosa Cuevas-Corona, Luciano E. Di Paolo, Isabel Luotto, Cuijuan Liao, Yi-Shuang Liang, Vinisa S. Saynes, Xiaomeng Huang, Yiqi Luo Aug 2023

Reply To: Contribution Of Carbon Inputs To Soil Carbon Accumulation Cannot Be Neglected, Feng Tao, Benjamin Z. Houlton, Serita D. Frey, Johannes Lehmann, Stefano Manzoni, Yuanyuan Huang, Lifen Jiang, Umakant Mishra, Bruce A. Hungate, Michael W. I. Schmidt, Markus Reichstein, Nuno Carvalhais, Philippe Ciais, Ying-Ping Wang, Bernhard Ahrens, Gustaf Hugelius, Toby D. Hocking, Xingjie Lu, Zheng Shi, Kostiantyn Viatkin, Ronald Vargas, Yusuf Yigini, Christian Omuto, Ashish A. Malik, Guillermo Peralta, Rosa Cuevas-Corona, Luciano E. Di Paolo, Isabel Luotto, Cuijuan Liao, Yi-Shuang Liang, Vinisa S. Saynes, Xiaomeng Huang, Yiqi Luo

Faculty Publications

In the accompanying Comment1, He et al. argue that the determinant role of microbial carbon use efficiency in global soil organic carbon (SOC) storage shown in Tao et al. (2023)2 was overestimated because carbon inputs were neglected in our data analysis while they suggest that our model-based analysis could be biased and model-dependent. Their argument is based on a different choice of independent variables in the data analysis and a sensitivity analysis of two process-based models other than that used in our study. We agree that both carbon inputs and outputs (as mediated by microbial processes) matter when predicting SOC …


Season, Not Long-Term Warming, Affects The Relationship Between Ecosystem Function And Microbial Diversity, Melissa S. Shinfuku, Luiz A. Domeignoz-Horta, Mallory J. Choudoir, Serita D. Frey, Kristen M. Deangelis Aug 2023

Season, Not Long-Term Warming, Affects The Relationship Between Ecosystem Function And Microbial Diversity, Melissa S. Shinfuku, Luiz A. Domeignoz-Horta, Mallory J. Choudoir, Serita D. Frey, Kristen M. Deangelis

Faculty Publications

Across biomes, soil biodiversity promotes ecosystem functions. However, whether this relationship will be maintained under climate change is uncertain. Here, using two long-term warming experiments, we investigated how warming affects the relationship between ecosystem functions and microbial diversity across seasons, soil horizons, and warming duration. The soils in these warming experiments were heated +5 °C above ambient for 13 or 28 years. We measured seven different ecosystem functions representative of soil carbon cycling, soil nitrogen cycling, or nutrient pools. We also surveyed bacterial and fungal community diversity. We found that the relationship between ecosystem function and bacterial diversity and the …