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Faculty Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Monolithically Integrated Microscale Pressure Sensor On An Optical Fiber Tip [U.S. Patent Us11326970b2], Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim May 2022

Monolithically Integrated Microscale Pressure Sensor On An Optical Fiber Tip [U.S. Patent Us11326970b2], Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim

Faculty Publications

A passive microscopic Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (FPI) pressure sensor includes an optical fiber and a three-dimensional microscopic optical enclosure. The three-dimensional microscopic optical enclosure includes tubular side walls having lateral pleated corrugations and attached to a cleaved tip of the optical fiber to receive a light signal. An optically reflecting end wall is distally engaged to the tubular side walls to enclose a trapped quantity of gas that longitudinally positions the optically reflecting end wall in relation to ambient air pressure, changing a distance traveled by a light signal reflected back through the optical fiber.


Hinged Temperature-Immune Self-Referencing Fabry–Pérot Cavity Sensors [Us Patent Us11320596b2], Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim May 2022

Hinged Temperature-Immune Self-Referencing Fabry–Pérot Cavity Sensors [Us Patent Us11320596b2], Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim

Faculty Publications

A passive microscopic Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (FPI) sensor includes a three-dimensional microscopic optical structure formed on a cleaved tip of the optical fighter using a two-photon polymerization process on a photosensitive polymer by a three-dimensional micromachining device. The three-dimensional microscopic optical structure having a hinged optical layer pivotally connected to a distal portion of a suspended structure. A reflective layer is deposited on a mirror surface of the hinged optical layer while in an open position. The hinged optical layer is subsequently positioned in the closed position to align the mirror surface to at least partially reflect a light signal back ...


On Uniqueness And Stability For The Boltzmann-Enskog Equation, Martin Friesen, Barbara Ruediger, Padmanabhan Subdar May 2022

On Uniqueness And Stability For The Boltzmann-Enskog Equation, Martin Friesen, Barbara Ruediger, Padmanabhan Subdar

Faculty Publications

The time-evolution of a moderately dense gas in a vacuum is described in classical mechanics by a particle density function obtained from the Boltzmann-Enskog equation. Based on a McKean-Vlasov equation with jumps, the associated stochastic process was recently constructed by modified Picard iterations with the mean-field interactions, and more generally, by a system of interacting particles. By the introduction of a shifted distance that exactly compensates for the free transport term that accrues in the spatially inhomogeneous setting, we prove in this work an inequality on the Wasserstein distance for any two measure-valued solutions to the Boltzmann-Enskog equation. As a ...


Controls On Buffering And Coastal Acidification In A Temperate Estuary, Christopher W. Hunt, Joseph Salisbury, Douglas Vandemark Apr 2022

Controls On Buffering And Coastal Acidification In A Temperate Estuary, Christopher W. Hunt, Joseph Salisbury, Douglas Vandemark

Faculty Publications

Estuaries may be uniquely susceptible to the combined acidification pressures of atmospherically driven ocean acidification (OA), biologically driven CO2 inputs from the estuary itself, and terrestrially derived freshwater inputs. This study utilized continuous measurements of total alkalinity (TA) and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) from the mouth of Great Bay, a temperate northeastern U.S. estuary, to examine the potential influences of endmember mixing and biogeochemical transformation upon estuary buffering capacity (β–H). Observations were collected hourly over 28 months representing all seasons between May 2016 and December 2019. Results indicated that endmember mixing explained most of the ...


Two-Photon Nanomachining Of A Micromechanically Enhanced Optical Cavity Sensor On An Optical Fiber Tip, Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim, Joseph S. Suelzer, Nicholas G. Usechak Apr 2022

Two-Photon Nanomachining Of A Micromechanically Enhanced Optical Cavity Sensor On An Optical Fiber Tip, Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim, Joseph S. Suelzer, Nicholas G. Usechak

Faculty Publications

Herein, a two-photon nanostructuring process that is employed to monolithically integrate dynamic three-dimensional (3D) micromechanical features into Fabry–Pérot cavity (FPC) sensors on an optical fiber tip is demonstrated. These features represent a breakthrough in the integration and fabrication capabilities of micro optomechanical devices and systems. The demonstrated dynamic optical surface enables directional thin-film deposition onto obscured areas. The rotation of the dynamically movable mirror to deposit a thin reflective coating onto the inner surfaces of a FPC with curved geometry is leveraged. The reflective coating in conjunction with the dynamically rotatable mirror greatly improves the quality factor of the ...


Application Of Machine Learning To Predict The Performance Of An Emipg Reactor Using Data From Numerical Simulations, Owen Sedej, Eric G. Mbonimpa, Trevor Sleight, Jeremy Slagley Mar 2022

Application Of Machine Learning To Predict The Performance Of An Emipg Reactor Using Data From Numerical Simulations, Owen Sedej, Eric G. Mbonimpa, Trevor Sleight, Jeremy Slagley

Faculty Publications

Microwave-driven plasma gasification technology has the potential to produce clean energy from municipal and industrial solid wastes. It can generate temperatures above 2000 K (as high as 30,000 K) in a reactor, leading to complete combustion and reduction of toxic byproducts. Characterizing complex processes inside such a system is however challenging. In previous studies, simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) produced reproducible results, but the simulations are tedious and involve assumptions. In this study, we propose machine-learning models that can be used in tandem with CFD, to accelerate high-fidelity fluid simulation, improve turbulence modeling, and enhance reduced-order models. A ...


Method Of Making Hinged Self-Referencing Fabry–Pérot Cavity Sensors [U.S. Patent Us11287575b2], Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim Mar 2022

Method Of Making Hinged Self-Referencing Fabry–Pérot Cavity Sensors [U.S. Patent Us11287575b2], Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim

Faculty Publications

A method is provided for fabricating a passive optical sensor on a tip of an optical fiber. The method includes perpendicularly cleaving a tip of an optical fiber and mounting the tip of the optical fiber in a specimen holder of a photosensitive polymer three-dimensional micromachining machine. The method includes forming a three-dimensional microscopic optical structure within the photosensitive polymer that comprises a two cavity Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) having a hinged optical layer that is pivotally coupled to a suspended structure. The method includes removing an uncured portion of the photosensitive polymer using a solvent. The method includes depositing a ...


Global Gnss-Ro Electron Density In The Lower Ionosphere, Dong L. Wu, Daniel J. Emmons Ii, Nimalan Swarnalingam Mar 2022

Global Gnss-Ro Electron Density In The Lower Ionosphere, Dong L. Wu, Daniel J. Emmons Ii, Nimalan Swarnalingam

Faculty Publications

Lack of instrument sensitivity to low electron density (Ne) concentration makes it difficult to measure sharp Ne vertical gradients (four orders of magnitude over 30 km) in the D/E-region. A robust algorithm is developed to retrieve global D/E-region Ne from the high-rate GNSS radio occultation (RO) data, to improve spatiotemporal coverage using recent SmallSat/CubeSat constellations. The new algorithm removes F-region contributions in the RO excess phase profile by fitting a linear function to the data below the D-region. The new GNSS-RO observations reveal many interesting features in the diurnal, seasonal, solar-cycle, and magnetic-field-dependent variations ...


Considerations For Radio Frequency Fingerprinting Across Multiple Frequency Channels, Jose A. Gutierrez Del Arroyo, Brett J. Borghetti, Michael A. Temple Mar 2022

Considerations For Radio Frequency Fingerprinting Across Multiple Frequency Channels, Jose A. Gutierrez Del Arroyo, Brett J. Borghetti, Michael A. Temple

Faculty Publications

Radio Frequency Fingerprinting (RFF) is often proposed as an authentication mechanism for wireless device security, but application of existing techniques in multi-channel scenarios is limited because prior models were created and evaluated using bursts from a single frequency channel without considering the effects of multi-channel operation. Our research evaluated the multi-channel performance of four single-channel models with increasing complexity, to include a simple discriminant analysis model and three neural networks. Performance characterization using the multi-class Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) revealed that using frequency channels other than those used to train the models can lead to a deterioration in performance from ...


A Multiparameter Degeneracy In Microlensing Events With Extreme Finite Source Effects, Samson A. Johnson, Matthew T. Penny, B. Scott Gaudi Mar 2022

A Multiparameter Degeneracy In Microlensing Events With Extreme Finite Source Effects, Samson A. Johnson, Matthew T. Penny, B. Scott Gaudi

Faculty Publications

For microlenses with sufficiently low mass, the angular radius of the source star can be much larger than the angular Einstein ring radius of the lens. For such extreme finite source effect (EFSE) events, finite source effects dominate throughout the duration of the event. Here, we demonstrate and explore a continuous degeneracy between multiple parameters of such EFSE events. The first component in the degeneracy arises from the fact that the directly observable peak change of the flux depends on both the ratio of the angular source radius to the angular Einstein ring radius and the fraction of the baseline ...


Gaia Gral: Gaia Dr2 Gravitational Lens Systems. Vii. Xmm-Newton Observations Of Lensed Quasars, Thomas Connor, Daniel Stern, Alberto Krone-Martins, S. G. Djorgovski, Matthew J. Graham Mar 2022

Gaia Gral: Gaia Dr2 Gravitational Lens Systems. Vii. Xmm-Newton Observations Of Lensed Quasars, Thomas Connor, Daniel Stern, Alberto Krone-Martins, S. G. Djorgovski, Matthew J. Graham

Faculty Publications

We present XMM-Newton X-ray observations of nine confirmed lensed quasars at 1 less than or similar to z less than or similar to 3 identified by the Gaia Gravitational Lens program. Eight systems are strongly detected, with 0.3-8.0 keV fluxes F (0.3-8.0) greater than or similar to 5 x10(-14) erg cm(-2) s(-1). Modeling the X-ray spectra with an absorbed power law, we derive power-law photon indices and 2-10 keV luminosities for the eight detected quasars. In addition to presenting sample properties for larger quasar population studies and for use in planning for future ...


Peak Chlorophyll A Concentrations In The Lower Mississippi River From 1997 To 2018, R. Eugene Turner, Charles S. Milan, Erick M. Swenson, James M. Lee Mar 2022

Peak Chlorophyll A Concentrations In The Lower Mississippi River From 1997 To 2018, R. Eugene Turner, Charles S. Milan, Erick M. Swenson, James M. Lee

Faculty Publications

Large and turbid rivers have varying temperatures, light conditions, nutrient availability, and nutrient ratios that may affect phytoplankton communities and occur within a changing world of point and nonpoint source nutrient loadings. We investigated how these physical and chemical factors affect Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations in the Mississippi River, the largest river in North America, by sampling 878 times from February 1997 to December 2018 near its terminus at Baton Rouge, Louisiana. We hypothesized that nutrient concentrations and ratios were significant factors limiting phytoplankton biomass accumulations in this turbid river. The Chl a concentrations were in the "poor" water ...


Delaunay Walk For Fast Nearest Neighbor: Accelerating Correspondence Matching For Icp, James D. Anderson, Ryan M. Raettig, Joshua Larson, Clark N. Taylor, Thomas Wischgoll Feb 2022

Delaunay Walk For Fast Nearest Neighbor: Accelerating Correspondence Matching For Icp, James D. Anderson, Ryan M. Raettig, Joshua Larson, Clark N. Taylor, Thomas Wischgoll

Faculty Publications

Point set registration algorithms such as Iterative Closest Point (ICP) are commonly utilized in time-constrained environments like robotics. Finding the nearest neighbor of a point in a reference 3D point set is a common operation in ICP and frequently consumes at least 90% of the computation time. We introduce a novel approach to performing the distance-based nearest neighbor step based on Delaunay triangulation. This greedy algorithm finds the nearest neighbor of a query point by traversing the edges of the Delaunay triangulation created from a reference 3D point set. Our work integrates the Delaunay traversal into the correspondences search of ...


Utilization And Efficient Computation Of Polarization Factor Q For Fast, Accurate Brdf Modeling, Samuel D. Butler, Michael A. Marciniak Feb 2022

Utilization And Efficient Computation Of Polarization Factor Q For Fast, Accurate Brdf Modeling, Samuel D. Butler, Michael A. Marciniak

Faculty Publications

The Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is of substantial use in remote sensing, scene generation, and computer graphics, to describe optical scatter off realistic surfaces. This paper begins by summarizing our prior work in relating wave optics and geometric optics models, culminating with the Modified Cook-Torrance (MCT) model. The MCT model is evaluated here against aluminum, Infragold, and silver paint at various wavelengths in the IR. In each case, the MCT model is shown to outperform a standard microfacet model. Then, this paper shows a non-trivial method of computing the primary new term, the polarization factor Q. This optimization requires ...


Connecting The Dots: Transmission Of Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease From The Marquesas To The Dry Tortugas, Thomas Dobbelaere, Daniel M. Holstein, Erinn M. Muller, Lewis J. Gramer, Lucas Mceachron, Sara D. Williams, Emmanuel Hanert Feb 2022

Connecting The Dots: Transmission Of Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease From The Marquesas To The Dry Tortugas, Thomas Dobbelaere, Daniel M. Holstein, Erinn M. Muller, Lewis J. Gramer, Lucas Mceachron, Sara D. Williams, Emmanuel Hanert

Faculty Publications

For the last 7 years, Florida's Coral Reef (FCR) has suffered from widespread and severe coral loss caused by stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD). First observed off the coast of Miami-Dade county in 2014, the outbreak has since spread throughout the entirety of FCR and some areas of the Caribbean. However, the propagation of the disease through FCR seemed to slow down when it reached the western end of the Marquesas in August 2020. Despite being present about 30 km (similar to 20 miles) from the Dry Tortugas (DRTO), SCTLD was not reported in this area before May ...


Search Full Text Options Here 2 Of 4 Kmt-2021-Blg-0912lb: A Microlensing Super Earth Around A K-Type Star, Cheongho Han, Ian A. Bond, Jennifer C. Yee, Weicheng Zang, Michael D. Albrow Feb 2022

Search Full Text Options Here 2 Of 4 Kmt-2021-Blg-0912lb: A Microlensing Super Earth Around A K-Type Star, Cheongho Han, Ian A. Bond, Jennifer C. Yee, Weicheng Zang, Michael D. Albrow

Faculty Publications

Aims. The light curve of the microlensing event KMT-2021-BLG-0912 exhibits a very short anomaly relative to a single-lens single-source form. We investigate the light curve for the purpose of identifying the origin of the anomaly.

Methods. We model the light curve under various interpretations. From this, we find four solutions, in which three solutions are found under the assumption that the lens is composed of two masses (2L1S models), and the other solution is found under the assumption that the source is comprised of binary stars (1L2S model). The 1L2S model is ruled out based on the contradiction that the ...


Search Full Text Options Here 3 Of 3 Heat-Mitigated Design And Lorentz Force-Based Steering Of An Mri-Driven Microcatheter Toward Minimally Invasive Surgery, Martin Francis Phelan Iii, Mehmet Efe Tiryaki, Jelena Lazovic, Hunter Gilbert, Metin Sitti Feb 2022

Search Full Text Options Here 3 Of 3 Heat-Mitigated Design And Lorentz Force-Based Steering Of An Mri-Driven Microcatheter Toward Minimally Invasive Surgery, Martin Francis Phelan Iii, Mehmet Efe Tiryaki, Jelena Lazovic, Hunter Gilbert, Metin Sitti

Faculty Publications

Catheters integrated with microcoils for electromagnetic steering under the high, uniform magnetic field within magnetic resonance (MR) scanners (3-7 Tesla) have enabled an alternative approach for active catheter operations. Achieving larger ranges of tip motion for Lorentz force-based steering have previously been dependent on using high power coupled with active cooling, bulkier catheter designs, or introducing additional microcoil sets along the catheter. This work proposes an alternative approach using a heat-mitigated design and actuation strategy for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-driven microcatheter. A quad-configuration microcoil (QCM) design is introduced, allowing miniaturization of existing MRI-driven, Lorentz force-based catheters down to ...


A Survey Of Blind Modulation Classification Techniques For Ofdm Signals, Anand Kumar, Sudhan Majhi, Guan Gui, Hsiao-Chun Wu, Chau Yuen Feb 2022

A Survey Of Blind Modulation Classification Techniques For Ofdm Signals, Anand Kumar, Sudhan Majhi, Guan Gui, Hsiao-Chun Wu, Chau Yuen

Faculty Publications

Blind modulation classification (MC) is an integral part of designing an adaptive or intelligent transceiver for future wireless communications. Blind MC has several applications in the adaptive and automated systems of sixth generation (6G) communications to improve spectral efficiency and power efficiency, and reduce latency. It will become a integral part of intelligent software-defined radios (SDR) for future communication. In this paper, we provide various MC techniques for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in a systematic way. We focus on the most widely used statistical and machine learning (ML) models and emphasize their advantages and limitations. The statistical-based blind ...


A Survey Of Blind Modulation Classification Techniques For Ofdm Signals, Anand Kumar, Sudhan Majhi, Guan Gui, Hsiao-Chun Wu, Chau Yuen Feb 2022

A Survey Of Blind Modulation Classification Techniques For Ofdm Signals, Anand Kumar, Sudhan Majhi, Guan Gui, Hsiao-Chun Wu, Chau Yuen

Faculty Publications

Blind modulation classification (MC) is an integral part of designing an adaptive or intelligent transceiver for future wireless communications. Blind MC has several applications in the adaptive and automated systems of sixth generation (6G) communications to improve spectral efficiency and power efficiency, and reduce latency. It will become a integral part of intelligent software-defined radios (SDR) for future communication. In this paper, we provide various MC techniques for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in a systematic way. We focus on the most widely used statistical and machine learning (ML) models and emphasize their advantages and limitations. The statistical-based blind ...


Whole-Genome Sequencing And Rna-Seq Reveal Differences In Genetic Mechanism For Flowering Response Between Weedy Rice And Cultivated Rice, Richard S. Garcia, Sapphire Coronejo, Jonathan Concepcion, Prasanta K. Subudhi Feb 2022

Whole-Genome Sequencing And Rna-Seq Reveal Differences In Genetic Mechanism For Flowering Response Between Weedy Rice And Cultivated Rice, Richard S. Garcia, Sapphire Coronejo, Jonathan Concepcion, Prasanta K. Subudhi

Faculty Publications

Flowering is a key agronomic trait that influences adaptation and productivity. Previous studies have indicated the genetic complexity associated with the flowering response in a photoinsensitive weedy rice accession PSRR-1 despite the presence of a photosensitive allele of a key flowering gene Hd1. In this study, we used whole-genome and RNA sequencing data from both cultivated and weedy rice to add further insights. The de novo assembly of unaligned sequences predicted 225 genes, in which 45 were specific to PSRR-1, including two genes associated with flowering. Comparison of the variants in PSRR-1 with the 3K rice genome (RG) dataset identified ...


Singing Strategies Are Linked To Perch Use On Foraging Territories In Heart-Nosed Bats, Grace C. Smarsh, Ashley M. Long, Michael Smotherman Feb 2022

Singing Strategies Are Linked To Perch Use On Foraging Territories In Heart-Nosed Bats, Grace C. Smarsh, Ashley M. Long, Michael Smotherman

Faculty Publications

Acoustic communication allows animals to coordinate and optimize resource utilization in space. Cardioderma cor, the heart-nosed bat, is one of the few species of bats known to sing during nighttime foraging. Previous research found that heart-nosed bats react aggressively to song playback, supporting the territorial defense hypothesis of singing in this species. We further investigated the territorial defense hypothesis from an ecological standpoint, which predicts that singing should be associated with exclusive areas containing a resource, by tracking 14 individuals nightly during the dry seasons in Tanzania. We quantified the singing behavior of individuals at all perches used throughout the ...


Strict Lyapunov Functions And Feedback Controls For Sir Models With Quarantine And Vaccination, Hiroshi Ito, Michael Malisoff, Frederic Mazenc Feb 2022

Strict Lyapunov Functions And Feedback Controls For Sir Models With Quarantine And Vaccination, Hiroshi Ito, Michael Malisoff, Frederic Mazenc

Faculty Publications

We provide a new global strict Lyapunov function construction for a susceptible, infected, and recovered (or SIR) disease dynamics that includes quarantine of infected individuals and mass vaccination. We use the Lyapunov function to design feedback controls to asymptotically stabilize a desired endemic equilibrium, and to prove input-to-state stability for the dynamics with a suitable restriction on the disturbances. Our simulations illustrate the potential of our feedback controls to reduce peak levels of infected individuals.


Docking And Molecular Dynamic Of Microalgae Compounds As Potential Inhibitors Of Beta-Lactamase, Roberto Pestana-Nobles, Yani Aranguren-Diaz, Elwi Machado-Sierra, Juvenal Yosa, Nataly J. Galan-Freyle,, Laura X. Sepulveda-Montano, Daniel G. Kuroda, Leonardo C. Pacheco-Londono Feb 2022

Docking And Molecular Dynamic Of Microalgae Compounds As Potential Inhibitors Of Beta-Lactamase, Roberto Pestana-Nobles, Yani Aranguren-Diaz, Elwi Machado-Sierra, Juvenal Yosa, Nataly J. Galan-Freyle,, Laura X. Sepulveda-Montano, Daniel G. Kuroda, Leonardo C. Pacheco-Londono

Faculty Publications

Bacterial resistance is responsible for a wide variety of health problems, both in children and adults. The persistence of symptoms and infections are mainly treated with beta-lactam antibiotics. The increasing resistance to those antibiotics by bacterial pathogens generated the emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), an actual public health problem. This is due to rapid mutations of bacteria when exposed to antibiotics. In this case, beta-lactamases are enzymes used by bacteria to hydrolyze the beta-lactam rings present in the antibiotics. Therefore, it was necessary to explore novel molecules as potential beta-lactamases inhibitors to find antibacterial compounds against infection caused by ESBLs ...


A New Matroid Lift Construction And An Application To Group-Labeled Graphs, Zach Walsh Jan 2022

A New Matroid Lift Construction And An Application To Group-Labeled Graphs, Zach Walsh

Faculty Publications

A well-known result of Brylawski constructs an elementary lift of a matroid M from a linear class of circuits of M. We generalize this result by constructing a rank-k lift of M from a rank-k matroid on the set of circuits of M. We conjecture that every lift of M arises via this construction. We then apply this result to group-labeled graphs, generalizing a construction of Zaslavsky. Given a graph G with edges labeled by a group, Zaslavsky's lift matroid K is an elementary lift of the graphic matroid M(G) that respects the group-labeling; specifically, the cycles of ...


A Comparison Of Sporadic-E Occurrence Rates Using Gps Radio Occultation And Ionosonde Measurements, Rodney Carmona, Omar A. Nava, Eugene V. Dao, Daniel J. Emmons Jan 2022

A Comparison Of Sporadic-E Occurrence Rates Using Gps Radio Occultation And Ionosonde Measurements, Rodney Carmona, Omar A. Nava, Eugene V. Dao, Daniel J. Emmons

Faculty Publications

Sporadic-E (Es) occurrence rates from Global Position Satellite radio occultation (GPS-RO) measurements have shown to vary by a factor of five between studies, motivating the need for a comparison with ground-based measurements. In an attempt to find accurate GPS-RO techniques for detecting Es formation, occurrence rates derived using five previously developed GPS-RO techniques are compared to ionosonde measurements over an eight-year period from 2010–2017. GPS-RO measurements within 170 km of a ionosonde site are used to calculate Es occurrence rates and compared to the ground-truth ionosonde measurements. The techniques are compared individually for each ionosonde site ...


Robust Error Estimation Based On Factor-Graph Models For Non-Line-Of-Sight Localization, O. Arda Vanli, Clark N. Taylor Jan 2022

Robust Error Estimation Based On Factor-Graph Models For Non-Line-Of-Sight Localization, O. Arda Vanli, Clark N. Taylor

Faculty Publications

This paper presents a method to estimate the covariances of the inputs in a factor-graph formulation for localization under non-line-of-sight conditions. A general solution based on covariance estimation and M-estimators in linear regression problems, is presented that is shown to give unbiased estimators of multiple variances and are robust against outliers. An iteratively re-weighted least squares algorithm is proposed to jointly compute the proposed variance estimators and the state estimates for the nonlinear factor graph optimization. The efficacy of the method is illustrated in a simulation study using a robot localization problem under various process and measurement models and measurement ...


Future Of Winter In Northeastern North America: Climate Indicators Portray Warming And Snow Loss That Will Impact Ecosystems And Communities, Elizabeth Burakowski, Alix Contosta, Danielle Grogan, Sarah Nelson, Sarah Garlick, Nora Casson Jan 2022

Future Of Winter In Northeastern North America: Climate Indicators Portray Warming And Snow Loss That Will Impact Ecosystems And Communities, Elizabeth Burakowski, Alix Contosta, Danielle Grogan, Sarah Nelson, Sarah Garlick, Nora Casson

Faculty Publications

Winters in northeastern North America have warmed faster than summers, with impacts on ecosystems and society. Global climate models (GCMs) indicate that winters will continue to warm and lose snow in the future, but uncertainty remains regarding the magnitude of warming. Here, we project future trends in winter indicators under lower and higher climate-warming scenarios based on emission levels across northeastern North America at a fine spatial scale (1/16°) relevant to climate-related decision making. Under both climate scenarios, winters continue to warm with coincident increases in days above freezing, decreases in days with snow cover, and fewer nights below ...


Connecting Ansatz Expressibility To Gradient Magnitudes And Barren Plateaus, Zoe Holmes, Kunal Sharma, M Cerezo, Patrick Coles Jan 2022

Connecting Ansatz Expressibility To Gradient Magnitudes And Barren Plateaus, Zoe Holmes, Kunal Sharma, M Cerezo, Patrick Coles

Faculty Publications

Parametrized quantum circuits serve as ansatze for solving variational problems and provide a flexible paradigm for the programming of near-term quantum computers. Ideally, such ansatze should be highly expressive, so that a close approximation of the desired solution can be accessed. On the other hand, the ansatz must also have sufficiently large gradients to allow for training. Here, we derive a fundamental relationship between these two essential properties: expressibility and trainability. This is done by extending the well-established barren plateau phenomenon, which holds for ansatze that form exact 2-designs, to arbitrary ansatze. Specifically, we calculate the variance in the cost ...


Search For Continuous Gravitational Waves From 20 Accreting Millisecond X-Ray Pulsars In O3 Ligo Data, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C. Adams Jan 2022

Search For Continuous Gravitational Waves From 20 Accreting Millisecond X-Ray Pulsars In O3 Ligo Data, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C. Adams

Faculty Publications

Results are presented of searches for continuous gravitational waves from 20 accreting millisecond x-ray pulsars with accurately measured spin frequencies and orbital parameters, using data from the third observing run of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The search algorithm uses a hidden Markov model, where the transition probabilities allow the frequency to wander according to an unbiased random walk, while the J-statistic maximum-likelihood matched filter tracks the binary orbital phase. Three narrow subbands are searched for each target, centered on harmonics of the measured spin frequency. The search yields 16 candidates, consistent with a false alarm probability of ...


Reef Sediments Can Act As A Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease Vector, Michael S. Studivan, Ashley M. Rossin, Ewelina Rubin, Nash Soderberg, Daniel M. Holstein, Ian C. Enochs Jan 2022

Reef Sediments Can Act As A Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease Vector, Michael S. Studivan, Ashley M. Rossin, Ewelina Rubin, Nash Soderberg, Daniel M. Holstein, Ian C. Enochs

Faculty Publications

Stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD) was first observed in 2014 near Virginia Key in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Field sampling, lab experiments, and modeling approaches have suggested that reef sediments may play a role in SCTLD transmission, though a positive link has not been tested experimentally. We conducted an ex situ transmission assay using a statistically-independent disease apparatus to test whether reef sediments can transmit SCTLD in the absence of direct contact between diseased and healthy coral tissue. We evaluated two methods of sediment inoculation: batch inoculation of sediments collected from southeast Florida using whole colonies of diseased Montastraea cavernosa ...