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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Android Security: Analysis And Applications, Raina Samuel Dec 2022

Android Security: Analysis And Applications, Raina Samuel

Dissertations

The Android mobile system is home to millions of apps that offer a wide range of functionalities. Users rely on Android apps in various facets of daily life, including critical, e.g., medical, settings. Generally, users trust that apps perform their stated purpose safely and accurately. However, despite the platform’s efforts to maintain a safe environment, apps routinely manage to evade scrutiny. This dissertation analyzes Android app behavior and has revealed several weakness: lapses in device authentication schemes, deceptive practices such as apps covering their traces, as well as behavioral and descriptive inaccuracies in medical apps. Examining a large corpus of …


Hydrodynamic Investigation Of The Discharge Of Complex Fluids From Dispensing Bottles Using Experimental And Computational Approaches, Baran Teoman Dec 2022

Hydrodynamic Investigation Of The Discharge Of Complex Fluids From Dispensing Bottles Using Experimental And Computational Approaches, Baran Teoman

Dissertations

The discharge of non-Newtonian, complex fluids through orifices of industrial tanks, pipes, dispensers, or packaging containers is a ubiquitous but often problematic process because of the complex rheology of such fluids and the geometry of the containers. This, in turn, reduces the discharge rate and results in residual fluid left in the container, often referred to as heel. Heel formation is undesired in general, since it causes loss of valuable material, container fouling, and cross-contamination between batches. Heel may be of significant concern not only in industrial vessels but also in consumer packaging. Despite its relevance, the research in this …


Interactions Of Amyloid Peptides With Lipid Membranes, Yanxing Yang Dec 2022

Interactions Of Amyloid Peptides With Lipid Membranes, Yanxing Yang

Dissertations

The aggregation of amyloid proteins into fibrils is a hallmark of several diseases including Alzheimer’s (AD), Parkinson’s, and Type II diabetes. This aggregation process involves the formation of small size oligomers preceding the formation of insoluble fibrils. Recent studies have shown that these oligomers are more likely to be responsible for cell toxicity than fibrils. A possible mechanism of toxicity involves the interaction of oligomers with the cell membrane compromising its integrity. In particular, oligomers may form pore-like structures in the cell membrane affecting its permeability or they may induce lipid loss via a detergent-like effect. This dissertation aims to …


Using Materialized Views For Answering Graph Pattern Queries, Michael Lan Dec 2022

Using Materialized Views For Answering Graph Pattern Queries, Michael Lan

Dissertations

Discovering patterns in graphs by evaluating graph pattern queries involving direct (edge-to-edge mapping) and reachability (edge-to-path mapping) relationships under homomorphisms on data graphs has been extensively studied. Previous studies have aimed to reduce the evaluation time of graph pattern queries due to the potentially numerous matches on large data graphs.

In this work, the concept of the summary graph is developed to improve the evaluation of tree pattern queries and graph pattern queries. The summary graph first filters out candidate matches which violate certain reachability constraints, and then finds local matches of query edges. This reduces redundancy in the representation …


Photonic Monitoring Of Atmospheric Fauna, Adrien P. Genoud Dec 2022

Photonic Monitoring Of Atmospheric Fauna, Adrien P. Genoud

Dissertations

Insects play a quintessential role in the Earth’s ecosystems and their recent decline in abundance and diversity is alarming. Monitoring their population is paramount to understand the causes of their decline, as well as to guide and evaluate the efficiency of conservation policies. Monitoring populations of flying insects is generally done using physical traps, but this method requires long and expensive laboratory analysis where each insect must be identified by qualified personnel. Lack of reliable data on insect populations is now considered a significant issue in the field of entomology, often referred to as a “data crisis” in the field. …


Helioseismic Diagnostics Of Active Regions And Their Magnetic Fields, John T. Stefan Dec 2022

Helioseismic Diagnostics Of Active Regions And Their Magnetic Fields, John T. Stefan

Dissertations

While two and a half decades of nearly constant observation by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft have yielded key insights into the structure and dynamics of active regions, it is still unclear if active regions can be identified before emerging on the solar surface and, once emerged, whether the subsurface structure of an active region’s magnetic field can be measured. Regarding the dynamical processes associated with active regions, the height and mechanism of sunquake excitation remains poorly understood. To answer these questions, a comprehensive survey of active region magnetic fields and their …


Carrier Transport Engineering In Wide Bandgap Semiconductors For Photonic And Memory Device Applications, Ravi Teja Velpula Dec 2022

Carrier Transport Engineering In Wide Bandgap Semiconductors For Photonic And Memory Device Applications, Ravi Teja Velpula

Dissertations

Wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors play a crucial role in the current solid-state lighting technology. The AlGaN compound semiconductor is widely used for ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), however, the efficiency of these LEDs is largely in a single-digit percentage range due to several factors. Until recently, AlInN alloy has been relatively unexplored, though it holds potential for light-emitters operating in the visible and UV regions. In this dissertation, the first axial AlInN core-shell nanowire UV LEDs operating in the UV-A and UV-B regions with an internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of 52% are demonstrated. Moreover, the light extraction efficiency of this …


Integrated Machine Learning And Optimization Approaches, Dogacan Yilmaz Dec 2022

Integrated Machine Learning And Optimization Approaches, Dogacan Yilmaz

Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the integration of machine learning and optimization. Specifically, novel machine learning-based frameworks are proposed to help solve a broad range of well-known operations research problems to reduce the solution times. The first study presents a bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory framework to learn optimal solutions to sequential decision-making problems. Computational results show that the framework significantly reduces the solution time of benchmark capacitated lot-sizing problems without much loss in feasibility and optimality. Also, models trained using shorter planning horizons can successfully predict the optimal solution of the instances with longer planning horizons. For the hardest data set, …


Software Protection And Secure Authentication For Autonomous Vehicular Cloud Computing, Muhammad Hataba Oct 2022

Software Protection And Secure Authentication For Autonomous Vehicular Cloud Computing, Muhammad Hataba

Dissertations

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is changing every technology we deal with. Autonomy has been a sought-after goal in vehicles, and now more than ever we are very close to that goal. Vehicles before were dumb mechanical devices, now they are becoming smart, computerized, and connected coined as Autonomous Vehicles (AVs). Moreover, researchers found a way to make more use of these enormous capabilities and introduced Autonomous Vehicles Cloud Computing (AVCC). In these platforms, vehicles can lend their unused resources and sensory data to join AVCC.

In this dissertation, we investigate security and privacy issues in AVCC. As background, we built our …


Evaluating The Impact Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge On Nutrients And Trace Elements In Coastal Systems: The Examples Of The Tuckean Swamp (Australia) And The Mississippi Sound (Usa), Amy Moody Oct 2022

Evaluating The Impact Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge On Nutrients And Trace Elements In Coastal Systems: The Examples Of The Tuckean Swamp (Australia) And The Mississippi Sound (Usa), Amy Moody

Dissertations

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the advective flow of both fresh terrestrial groundwater and recirculating seawater through aquifer sediments, which is released into the coastal ocean. In this dissertation, I evaluated the impact of SGD on the distributions and input of trace metals and nutrients. In the Tuckean Swamp, an estuary in Australia dominated by coastal acid sulfate soils, I determined the impact of groundwater on Ba and U during the flood season, when the local aquifer is flushed out after a rapid increase in water table elevation. For Ba and U, groundwater contributed up to 18 and 66 % …


Performance Analysis Of The Dominant Mode Rejection Beamformer, Enlong Hu Aug 2022

Performance Analysis Of The Dominant Mode Rejection Beamformer, Enlong Hu

Dissertations

In array signal processing over challenging environments, due to the non-stationarity nature of data, it is difficult to obtain enough number of data snapshots to construct an adaptive beamformer (ABF) for detecting weak signal embedded in strong interferences. One type of adaptive method targeting for such applications is the dominant mode rejection (DMR) method, which uses a reshaped eigen-decomposition of sample covariance matrix (SCM) to define a subspace containing the dominant interferers to be rejected, thereby allowing it to detect weak signal in the presence of strong interferences. The DMR weight vector takes a form similar to the adaptive minimum …


Stochastic Modeling Of Flows In Membrane Pore Networks, Binan Gu Aug 2022

Stochastic Modeling Of Flows In Membrane Pore Networks, Binan Gu

Dissertations

Membrane filters provide immediate solutions to many urgent problems such as water purification, and effective remedies to pressing environmental concerns such as waste and air treatment. The ubiquity of applications gives rise to a significant amount of research in membrane material selection and structural design to optimize filter efficiency. As physical experiments tend to be costly, numerical simulation and analysis of fluid flow, foulant transport and geometric evolution due to foulant deposition in complex geometries become particularly relevant. In this dissertation, several mathematical modeling and analytical aspects of the industrial membrane filtration process are investigated. A first-principles mathematical model for …


Computation Of Risk Measures In Finance And Parallel Real-Time Scheduling, Yajuan Li Aug 2022

Computation Of Risk Measures In Finance And Parallel Real-Time Scheduling, Yajuan Li

Dissertations

Many application areas employ various risk measures, such as a quantile, to assess risks. For example, in finance, risk managers employ a quantile to help determine appropriate levels of capital needed to be able to absorb (with high probability) large unexpected losses in credit portfolios comprising loans, bonds, and other financial instruments subject to default. This dissertation discusses the computation of risk measures in finance and parallel real-time scheduling.

Firstly, two estimation approaches are compared for one risk measure, a quantile, via randomized quasi-Monte Carlo (RQMC) in an asymptotic setting where the number of randomizations for RQMC grows large, but …


Low-Reynolds-Number Locomotion Via Reinforcement Learning, Yuexin Liu Aug 2022

Low-Reynolds-Number Locomotion Via Reinforcement Learning, Yuexin Liu

Dissertations

This dissertation summarizes computational results from applying reinforcement learning and deep neural network to the designs of artificial microswimmers in the inertialess regime, where the viscous dissipation in the surrounding fluid environment dominates and the swimmer’s inertia is completely negligible. In particular, works in this dissertation consist of four interrelated studies of the design of microswimmers for different tasks: (1) a one-dimensional microswimmer in free-space that moves towards the target via translation, (2) a one-dimensional microswimmer in a periodic domain that rotates to reach the target, (3) a two-dimensional microswimmer that switches gaits to navigate to the designated targets in …


Understanding The Role Of Magnetic Field Evolution In The Initiation And Development Of Solar Eruptions, Nian Liu Aug 2022

Understanding The Role Of Magnetic Field Evolution In The Initiation And Development Of Solar Eruptions, Nian Liu

Dissertations

This dissertation aims to understand the initiation and evolution of solar eruptions. The essential science questions to answer include: What is the role of magnetohydro dynamic (MHD) instabilities and magnetic reconnection in triggering and driving eruptions? What are the role of Kink Instability (KI) and Torus Instability (TI) in determining the successful and failed eruptions? What is the thermal behavior of flare precursors in the initiation stage of solar eruptions? Finally, how does the corona magnetic field respond to the flare eruptions? The dissertation mainly includes the following studies.

First, this dissertation presents a multi-instrument study of the two precursor …


Diagnostics Of Energy Release In Solar Flares With Radio Dynamic Imaging Spectroscopy, Yingjie Luo Aug 2022

Diagnostics Of Energy Release In Solar Flares With Radio Dynamic Imaging Spectroscopy, Yingjie Luo

Dissertations

Studies of the magnetic energy release and conversion process lie at the core of solar flare physics. Radio observations serve as a unique diagnostic method. In this dissertation, taking advantage of broadband radio dynamic imaging spectroscopy observations made by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), studies are carried out on the flare energy release processes using different types of radio emissions.

The VLA is a general-purpose radio observatory located in New Mexico, which provides high-quality radio dynamic imaging spectroscopic observations with an ultra-fast time cadence. In the first study, stochastic decimetric radio spike bursts are observed by the …


Analyzing Fluctuation Of Topics And Public Sentiment Through Social Media Data, Haoyue Liu Aug 2022

Analyzing Fluctuation Of Topics And Public Sentiment Through Social Media Data, Haoyue Liu

Dissertations

Over the past decade years, Internet users were expending rapidly in the world. They form various online social networks through such Internet platforms as Twitter, Facebook and Instagram. These platforms provide a fast way that helps their users receive and disseminate information and express personal opinions in virtual space. When dealing with massive and chaotic social media data, how to accurately determine what events or concepts users are discussing is an interesting and important problem.

This dissertation work mainly consists of two parts. First, this research pays attention to mining the hidden topics and user interest trend by analyzing real-world …


A Study Of Red Snapper (Lutjanus Campechanus) Ecology In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico And The Effect Of Variable River Outflow Using Stable Isotope Analysis Of The Food Web And Eye Lenses, Caitlin C. Slife Aug 2022

A Study Of Red Snapper (Lutjanus Campechanus) Ecology In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico And The Effect Of Variable River Outflow Using Stable Isotope Analysis Of The Food Web And Eye Lenses, Caitlin C. Slife

Dissertations

In the Mississippi Bight and surrounding waters, river outflow impacts the basal resources of the Red Snapper food web, altering carbon sources and impacting prey and predator isotopes. In this study, the impact of riverine outflow on nutrients, particulate organic matter (POM), and physical water parameters on Red Snapper and their food web was analyzed using stable isotope and stomach content analysis over 5 years. The Mississippi, Pearl, Pascagoula, and Mobile rivers were included in the analysis of river impact. The Mississippi and Mobile rivers were found to significantly impact nutrients and POM in the region. River outflow was also …


Data Collection And Machine Learning Methods For Automated Pedestrian Facility Detection And Mensuration, Joseph Bailey Luttrell Iv Aug 2022

Data Collection And Machine Learning Methods For Automated Pedestrian Facility Detection And Mensuration, Joseph Bailey Luttrell Iv

Dissertations

Large-scale collection of pedestrian facility (crosswalks, sidewalks, etc.) presence data is vital to the success of efforts to improve pedestrian facility management, safety analysis, and road network planning. However, this kind of data is typically not available on a large scale due to the high labor and time costs that are the result of relying on manual data collection methods. Therefore, methods for automating this process using techniques such as machine learning are currently being explored by researchers. In our work, we mainly focus on machine learning methods for the detection of crosswalks and sidewalks from both aerial and street-view …


Evidence For An Early Saginaw Lobe Ice Retreat And Drainage Adjustments Across Southern Michigan, Usa, Nathan Erber Aug 2022

Evidence For An Early Saginaw Lobe Ice Retreat And Drainage Adjustments Across Southern Michigan, Usa, Nathan Erber

Dissertations

The Saginaw lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS), flowed out of Saginaw Bay, across Lower Michigan and into northern Indiana. As it retreated, the Saginaw lobe deposited the Sturgis moraine, a recessional moraine of the lobe in southern Michigan. Positioned to the west and east of the Saginaw lobe were the Lake Michigan and Huron-Erie lobes, respectively. These lobes retreated across the region asynchronously, with the Saginaw lobe retreating first. The asynchronous behavior of the lobes allowed for the Lake Michigan and Huron-Erie lobes to overprint and alter landscapes once occupied by the Saginaw lobe ice.

The Kalamazoo moraine, …


Time-Dependent Photoionization Modeling Of Warm Absorbers In Active Galactic Nuclei, Dev Raj Sadaula Aug 2022

Time-Dependent Photoionization Modeling Of Warm Absorbers In Active Galactic Nuclei, Dev Raj Sadaula

Dissertations

Warm absorber spectra are bound-bound and bound-free absorption features, seen in the X-ray and UV spectra from many active galactic nuclei (AGN). The widths and centroid energies of these features indicate they occur in outflowing gas moving with hundreds to thousands of km/s. Depending upon the energy and momentum of the outflow, it can affect the gas within the host galaxy. Thus, warm absorbers’ mass and energy budgets are of great interest. Estimates for these properties depend on models that connect the absorption features' observed strengths with the density, composition, and ionization state of the absorbing gas. Such models assume …


Studying The Synthesis Of 196Hg At Astrophysically Relevant Energies Through The Measurement Of Capture Reaction Cross-Sections Of (P, Γ) (P, N) And (P, Α) Reactions, Khushi Bhatt Aug 2022

Studying The Synthesis Of 196Hg At Astrophysically Relevant Energies Through The Measurement Of Capture Reaction Cross-Sections Of (P, Γ) (P, N) And (P, Α) Reactions, Khushi Bhatt

Dissertations

Understanding the origin of all the chemical elements is an important question for the nuclear-astrophysics community. There are many unanswered questions like: What astrophysical events are responsible for the synthesis of what particular chemical elements? How many different elements were made in total? What is the abundance of each synthesized element? etc. Currently, scientists are largely depending upon theory and simulations to define nuclear and astrophysical reaction. This makes it critical to have accurate experimental nuclear physics data to input in astrophysical theoretical models. However, out of more than 20000 reactions involved in these calculations, only a very few are …


Probing The Equation Of State Of Neutron Stars With Heavy Ion Collisions, Om Bhadra Khanal Aug 2022

Probing The Equation Of State Of Neutron Stars With Heavy Ion Collisions, Om Bhadra Khanal

Dissertations

The equation of state (EOS) is a fundamental property of nuclear matter, important for studying the structure of systems as diverse as the atomic nucleus and the neutron star. Nuclear reactions, especially heavy-ion collisions in the laboratories, can produce the nuclear matter similar to those contained in neutron stars. The density and the momentum dependence of the EOS of asymmetric nuclear matter, especially the symmetry energy term, is widely unconstrained. Finding appropriate constrains, especially at higher densities of the nuclear matter, requires the development of new devices, new experimental measurements as well as advances in theoretical understanding of nuclear collisions …


Designing Dynamic And Degradable Polymeric Materials With Thiol-X Chemistries, Reese Sloan Jul 2022

Designing Dynamic And Degradable Polymeric Materials With Thiol-X Chemistries, Reese Sloan

Dissertations

With plastic production poised to increase in coming years, there arises a need to develop new polymeric materials designed to combat the global pollution crisis. A commonly utilized approach in addressing this challenge is to employ a responsive functional moiety into the polymer architecture. Thiol-X reactions, a commonly utilized class of “click” reactions, have garnered broad implementation in new stimuli-responsive materials. This work specifically focuses on utilizing radical-mediated thiol-ene coupling and base-catalyzed thiol-isocyanate reactions to develop a library of ternary thiol-ene/thiourethane covalent adaptable networks (CANs) and hydrolytically labile poly(thioether ketal) thermoplastics. CANs are a class of network materials capable of …


Mechanism Of Sila- And Germafluorenes For Biological Applications, Shelby Jarrett Jun 2022

Mechanism Of Sila- And Germafluorenes For Biological Applications, Shelby Jarrett

Dissertations

2,7-disubstituted silafluorenes and germafluorenes, originally designed for OLED applications, are a class of fluorescent dyes that have gained recent interest as probes for bioimaging and as biosensors to monitor cellular dynamics and interactions. Desirable biological probes absorb in the visible region, have high extinction coefficients, high quantum yield and excellent photostability. Here, their spectral properties are investigated under aqueous conditions for relevant biological applications. These molecules display intense blue fluorescence in the solid state and in solution, have high extinction coefficients, and exhibit appreciable solubility in aqueous solution. To better understand potential applications, the mechanism of fluorescence was investigated. It …


Analysis Of The Zebrafish Olfactory System Using Immunohistochemistry And Enhanced Techniques Of Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Desi-Ms), Tara Lynn Maser Jun 2022

Analysis Of The Zebrafish Olfactory System Using Immunohistochemistry And Enhanced Techniques Of Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Desi-Ms), Tara Lynn Maser

Dissertations

Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI-MS) is an ambient ionization technique where the sample is analyzed directly from a surface with very minimal sample preparation under ambient conditions and follows ESI-like ionization mechanisms. DESI-MS has proven powerful in analyzing or imaging lipids and other small molecules directly from biological samples and even allows for subsequent histological staining and analyses. However, DESI-MS is less widely used for protein analysis due to a lack of sensitivity and the complex diversity of proteins in biological samples.

A major goal of this research has been to obtain new neurobiological knowledge by combining histology and mass spectrometry …


Mixture Of Functional Graphical Models, Qihai Liu Jun 2022

Mixture Of Functional Graphical Models, Qihai Liu

Dissertations

With the development of data collection technologies that use powerful monitoring devices and computational tools, many scientific fields are now obtaining more detailed and more complicatedly structured data, e.g., functional data. This leads to increasing challenges of extracting information from the large complex data. Making use of these data to gain insight into complex phenomena requires characterizing the relationships among a large number of functional variables. Functional data analysis (FDA) is a rapidly developing area of statistics for data which can be naturally viewed as a smooth curve or function. It is a method that changes the frame of data …


Mid To Late Neogene (5.9-3.7 Ma) Epeirogenic Uplift And Associated Ultramafic Volcanism, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand, Katherine Anne Dvorak Jun 2022

Mid To Late Neogene (5.9-3.7 Ma) Epeirogenic Uplift And Associated Ultramafic Volcanism, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand, Katherine Anne Dvorak

Dissertations

Cored marine sediments from Canterbury Basin Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 317 shelf sites U1351, U1353, and upper slope Site U1352 have been resampled with emphasis on benthic foraminifera from the Late Eocene to Late Pliocene. These new data coupled with paleo water-depth and age data from the nearby Clipper-1 petroleum exploration well, are used to develop a 1-dimensional basin subsidence model for the Canterbury Basin. Our model indicates there was widespread epeirogenic uplift of 890  350m, in the mid-Neogene (5.9-3.7 million years ago), which took place during concomitant ultramafic volcanism. Close association of uplift and volcanism could …


Diagnostics Of Dementia From Structural And Functional Markers Of Brain Atrophy With Machine Learning, Tetiana Habuza Jun 2022

Diagnostics Of Dementia From Structural And Functional Markers Of Brain Atrophy With Machine Learning, Tetiana Habuza

Dissertations

Dementia is a condition in which higher mental functions are disrupted. It currently affects an estimated 57 million people throughout the world. A dementia diagnosis is difficult since neither anatomical indicators nor functional testing is currently sufficiently sensitive or specific. There remains a long list of outstanding issues that must be addressed. First, multimodal diagnosis has yet to be introduced into the early stages of dementia screening. Second, there is no accurate instrument for predicting the progression of pre-dementia. Third, non-invasive testing cannot be used to provide differential diagnoses. By creating ML models of normal and accelerated brain aging, we …


Understanding The Voluntary Moderation Practices In Live Streaming Communities, Jie Cai May 2022

Understanding The Voluntary Moderation Practices In Live Streaming Communities, Jie Cai

Dissertations

Harmful content, such as hate speech, online abuses, harassment, and cyberbullying, proliferates across various online communities. Live streaming as a novel online community provides ways for thousands of users (viewers) to entertain and engage with a broadcaster (streamer) in real-time in the chatroom. While the streamer has the camera on and the screen shared, tens of thousands of viewers are watching and messaging in real-time, resulting in concerns about harassment and cyberbullying. To regulate harmful content—toxic messages in the chatroom, streamers rely on a combination of automated tools and volunteer human moderators (mods) to block users or remove content, which …