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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Vulnerabilities Of Artificial Intelligence Models And Potential Defenses, Felix Iov Apr 2024

The Vulnerabilities Of Artificial Intelligence Models And Potential Defenses, Felix Iov

Cybersecurity Undergraduate Research Showcase

The rapid integration of artificial intelligence (AI) into various commercial products has raised concerns about the security risks posed by adversarial attacks. These attacks manipulate input data to disrupt the functioning of AI models, potentially leading to severe consequences such as self-driving car crashes, financial losses, or data breaches. We will explore neural networks, their weaknesses, and potential defenses. We will discuss adversarial attacks including data poisoning, backdoor attacks, evasion attacks, and prompt injection. Then, we will explore defense strategies such as data protection, input sanitization, and adversarial training. By understanding how adversarial attacks work and the defenses against them, …


A Case Study Of The Crashoverride Malware, Its Effects And Possible Countermeasures, Samuel Rector Apr 2024

A Case Study Of The Crashoverride Malware, Its Effects And Possible Countermeasures, Samuel Rector

Cybersecurity Undergraduate Research Showcase

CRASHOVERRIDE is a modular malware tailor-made for electric grid Industrial Control System (ICS) equipment and was deployed by a group named ELECTRUM in a Ukrainian substation. The malware would launch a protocol exploit to flip breakers and would then wipe the system of ICS files. Finally, it would execute a Denial Of Service (DOS) attack on protective relays. In effect, months of damage and thousands out of power. However, due to oversights the malware only caused a brief power outage. Though the implications of the malware are cause for researching and implementing countermeasures against others to come. The CISA recommends …


High-Resolution And Quality Settings With Latent Consistency Models, Steven Chen, Junrui Zhang, Rui Ning Apr 2024

High-Resolution And Quality Settings With Latent Consistency Models, Steven Chen, Junrui Zhang, Rui Ning

Cybersecurity Undergraduate Research Showcase

Diffusion Models have become powerful generative models which is capable of synthesizing high-quality images across various domains. This paper explores Stable Diffusion and mostly focuses on Latent Diffusion Models. Latent Consistency Models can enhance the inference with minimal iterations. It demonstrates the performance in image in-painting and class-conditional synthesis tasks. Throughout the experiment different datasets and parameter configurations, the paper highlights the image quality, processing time, and parameter. It also discussed the future directions including adding trigger-based implementation and emotional-based themes to replace the prompt.


Data Profits Vs. Privacy Rights: Ethical Concerns In Data Commerce, Amiah Armstrong Apr 2024

Data Profits Vs. Privacy Rights: Ethical Concerns In Data Commerce, Amiah Armstrong

Cybersecurity Undergraduate Research Showcase

In today’s digital age, the collection and sale of customer data for advertising is gaining a growing number of ethical concerns. The act of amassing extensive datasets encompassing customer preferences, behaviors, and personal information raises questions of its true purpose. It is widely acknowledged that companies track and store their customer’s digital activities under the pretext of benefiting the customer, but at what cost? Are users aware of how much of their data is being collected? Do they understand the trade-off between personalized services and the potential invasion of their privacy? This paper aims to show the advantages and disadvantages …


What Students Have To Say On Data Privacy For Educational Technology, Stephanie Choi Apr 2024

What Students Have To Say On Data Privacy For Educational Technology, Stephanie Choi

Cybersecurity Undergraduate Research Showcase

The literature on data privacy in terms of educational technology is a growing area of study. The perspective of educators has been captured extensively. However, the literature on students’ perspectives is missing, which is what we explore in this paper. We use a pragmatic qualitative approach with an experiential lens to capture students’ attitudes towards data privacy in terms of educational technology. We identified preliminary, common themes that appeared in the survey responses. The paper concludes by calling for more research on how students perceive data privacy in terms of educational technology.


Investigating Vulnerabilities In The Bluetooth Host Layer In Linux, Jack Dibari Apr 2024

Investigating Vulnerabilities In The Bluetooth Host Layer In Linux, Jack Dibari

Cybersecurity Undergraduate Research Showcase

This paper investigates vulnerabilities within the Bluetooth host layer in Linux systems. It examines the Bluetooth protocol's evolution, focusing on its implementation in Linux, particularly through the BlueZ host software. Various vulnerabilities, including BleedingTooth, BLESA, and SweynTooth, are analyzed.


The Security Of Deep Neural Networks, Jalaya Allen Apr 2024

The Security Of Deep Neural Networks, Jalaya Allen

Cybersecurity Undergraduate Research Showcase

Our society has transitioned from our primitive lifestyle to soon, an increasingly automatic one. That idea is further exemplified as we shift into an AI era, better known as Artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence is classified as computer systems that can perform tasks that typically require human intelligence. However, a common thought or question that most might have is, how is this done? How does AI process information the way we want it to and have access to so much information? AI is trained by systems called AI models. These modeling programs are trained on data to recognize patterns or make …


Monarch Science Observer, Volume 18, College Of Sciences, Old Dominion University Apr 2024

Monarch Science Observer, Volume 18, College Of Sciences, Old Dominion University

College of Sciences Newsletter

Spring 2024, issue of Monarch Science Observer, ODU Colleges of Sciences Newsletter.


Auditory Vigilance Decrement In Drivers Of A Partially Automated Vehicle: A Pilot Study Using A High-Fidelity Driving Simulator, Luca Brooks, Jeffrey Glassman, Yusuke Yamani Mar 2024

Auditory Vigilance Decrement In Drivers Of A Partially Automated Vehicle: A Pilot Study Using A High-Fidelity Driving Simulator, Luca Brooks, Jeffrey Glassman, Yusuke Yamani

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Vigilance decrement is the decline in the ability to monitor and detect behaviorally important signals over time, a phenomenon that can arise even after 30 minutes of watch (Mackworth, 1948). Recently, McCarley & Yamani (2021) found bias shifts, sensitivity losses, and attentional lapses contribute to vigilance decrement, but when each effect is isolated, there was little evidence that sensitivity loss affected vigilance decrement. With the introduction of partially autonomous vehicles, vigilance decrement may be problematic for drivers who must monitor the autonomous system for failures and takeover requests. Thus, this pilot study aims to extend McCarley and Yamani (2021) and …


Improving Educational Delivery And Content In Juvenile Detention Centers, Yomna Elmousalami Mar 2024

Improving Educational Delivery And Content In Juvenile Detention Centers, Yomna Elmousalami

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Students in juvenile detention centers have the greatest need to receive improvements in educational delivery and content; however, they are one of the “truly disadvantaged” populations in terms of receiving those improvements. This work presents a qualitative data analysis based on a focus group meeting with stakeholders at a local Juvenile Detention Center. The current educational system in juvenile detention centers is based on paper worksheets, single-room style teaching methods, outdated technology, and a shortage of textbooks and teachers. In addition, detained students typically have behavioral challenges that are deemed "undesired" in society. As a result, many students miss classes …


Machine Learning As A Tool For Early Detection: A Focus On Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer Across Socioeconomic Spectrums, Hadiza Galadima, Rexford Anson-Dwamena, Ashley Johnson, Ghalib Bello, Georges Adunlin, James Blando Jan 2024

Machine Learning As A Tool For Early Detection: A Focus On Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer Across Socioeconomic Spectrums, Hadiza Galadima, Rexford Anson-Dwamena, Ashley Johnson, Ghalib Bello, Georges Adunlin, James Blando

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of various machine learning (ML) algorithms in predicting late-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnoses against the backdrop of socio-economic and regional healthcare disparities. Methods: An innovative theoretical framework was developed to integrate individual- and census tract-level social determinants of health (SDOH) with sociodemographic factors. A comparative analysis of the ML models was conducted using key performance metrics such as AUC-ROC to evaluate their predictive accuracy. Spatio-temporal analysis was used to identify disparities in late-stage CRC diagnosis probabilities. Results: Gradient boosting emerged as the superior model, with the top predictors for late-stage CRC diagnosis being anatomic site, …


In Pursuit Of Consumption-Based Forecasting, Charles Chase, Kenneth B. Kahn Jan 2024

In Pursuit Of Consumption-Based Forecasting, Charles Chase, Kenneth B. Kahn

Marketing Faculty Publications

[Introduction] Today's most mature, most sophisticated, best-in-class forecasting is what we call consumption-based forecasting (CBF). In contrast, the least sophisticated companies typically do not forecast at all, but rather set financial targets based on management expectations. Companies beginning to use statistical forecasting techniques usually take a supply-centric orientation, relying on time series techniques applied to shipment and/or order history. The next stage of progression is to incorporate promotions data, economic data, and market data alongside supply-centric data so that regression and other advanced analytics can be used. Companies pursing CBF utilize even more advanced capabilities to capture, examine, and understand …


Complex Dynamics Of Coral Gene Expression Responses To Low Ph Across Species, Veronica Z. Radice, Ana Martinez, Adina Paytan, Donald C. Potts, Daniel J. Barshis Jan 2024

Complex Dynamics Of Coral Gene Expression Responses To Low Ph Across Species, Veronica Z. Radice, Ana Martinez, Adina Paytan, Donald C. Potts, Daniel J. Barshis

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Coral capacity to tolerate low pH affects coral community composition and, ultimately, reef ecosystem function. Low pH submarine discharges (‘Ojo’; Yucatán, México) represent a natural laboratory to study plasticity and acclimatization to low pH in relation to ocean acidification. A previous >2‐year coral transplant experiment to ambient and low pH common garden sites revealed differential survivorship across species and sites, providing a framework to compare mechanistic responses to differential pH exposures. Here, we examined gene expression responses of transplants of three species of reef‐building corals (Porites astreoides, Porites porites and Siderastrea siderea) and their algal endosymbiont communities …


Identifying Patterns For Neurological Disabilities By Integrating Discrete Wavelet Transform And Visualization, Soo Yeon Ji, Sampath Jayarathna, Anne M. Perrotti, Katrina Kardiasmenos, Dong Hyun Jeong Jan 2024

Identifying Patterns For Neurological Disabilities By Integrating Discrete Wavelet Transform And Visualization, Soo Yeon Ji, Sampath Jayarathna, Anne M. Perrotti, Katrina Kardiasmenos, Dong Hyun Jeong

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Neurological disabilities cause diverse health and mental challenges, impacting quality of life and imposing financial burdens on both the individuals diagnosed with these conditions and their caregivers. Abnormal brain activity, stemming from malfunctions in the human nervous system, characterizes neurological disorders. Therefore, the early identification of these abnormalities is crucial for devising suitable treatments and interventions aimed at promoting and sustaining quality of life. Electroencephalogram (EEG), a non-invasive method for monitoring brain activity, is frequently employed to detect abnormal brain activity in neurological and mental disorders. This study introduces an approach that extends the understanding and identification of neurological disabilities …


A Comparison Of Adenosine Triphosphate With Other Metrics Of Microbial Biomass In A Gradient From The North Atlantic To The Chesapeake Bay, Alexander B. Bochdansky, Amber A. Beecher, Joshua R. Calderon, Alison N. Stouffer, Nyjaee N. Washington Jan 2024

A Comparison Of Adenosine Triphosphate With Other Metrics Of Microbial Biomass In A Gradient From The North Atlantic To The Chesapeake Bay, Alexander B. Bochdansky, Amber A. Beecher, Joshua R. Calderon, Alison N. Stouffer, Nyjaee N. Washington

OES Faculty Publications

A new, simplified protocol for determining particulate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels allows for the assessment of microbial biomass distribution in aquatic systems at a high temporal and spatial resolution. A comparison of ATP data with related variables, such as particulate carbon, nitrogen, chlorophyll, and turbidity in pelagic samples, yielded significant and strong correlations in a gradient from the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay (sigma-t = 8) to the open North Atlantic (sigma-t = 29). Correlations varied between ATP and biomass depending on the microscopic method employed. Despite the much greater effort involved, biomass determined by microscopy correlated poorly with other …


Re-Evaluating Hydrogen Sulfide As A Sink For Cadmium And Zinc In The Oxic To Suboxic Upper Water Column Of The Pacific Ocean, N. R. Buckley, E. E. Black, J. A. Kenyon, N. T. Lanning, M. Sieber, T. M. Conway, J. N. Fitzsimmons, G. A. Cutter Jan 2024

Re-Evaluating Hydrogen Sulfide As A Sink For Cadmium And Zinc In The Oxic To Suboxic Upper Water Column Of The Pacific Ocean, N. R. Buckley, E. E. Black, J. A. Kenyon, N. T. Lanning, M. Sieber, T. M. Conway, J. N. Fitzsimmons, G. A. Cutter

OES Faculty Publications

Hydrogen sulfide is produced by heterotrophic bacteria in anoxic waters and via carbonyl sulfide hydrolysis and phytoplankton emissions under oxic conditions. Apparent losses of dissolved cadmium (dCd) and zinc (dZn) in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans have been attributed to metal-sulfide precipitation formed via dissimilatory sulfate reduction. It has also been argued that such a removal process could be a globally important sink for dCd and dZn. However, our studies from the North Pacific OMZ show that dissolved and particulate sulfide concentrations are insufficient to support the removal of dCd via precipitation. In contrast, apparent …


Effect Of Resin Bleed Out On Compaction Behavior Of The Fiber Tow Gap Region During Automated Fiber Placement Manufacturing, Von Clyde Jamora, Virginia Rauch, Sergii G. Kravchenko, Oleksandr G. Kravchenko Jan 2024

Effect Of Resin Bleed Out On Compaction Behavior Of The Fiber Tow Gap Region During Automated Fiber Placement Manufacturing, Von Clyde Jamora, Virginia Rauch, Sergii G. Kravchenko, Oleksandr G. Kravchenko

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Automated fiber placement is a state-of-the-art manufacturing method which allows for precise control over layup design. However, AFP results in irregular morphology due to fiber tow deposition induced features such as tow gaps and overlaps. Factors such as the squeeze flow and resin bleed out, combined with large non-linear deformation, lead to morphological variability. To understand these complex interacting phenomena, a coupled multiphysics finite element framework was developed to simulate the compaction behavior around fiber tow gap regions, which consists of coupled chemo-rheological and flow-compaction analysis. The compaction analysis incorporated a visco-hyperelastic constitutive model with anisotropic tensorial prepreg viscosity, which …


The Feasibility Of Motion Tracking Camera System For Magnetic Suspension Wind Tunnel Tests, Hisham M. Shehata, David Cox, Mark Schoenenberger, Colin Britcher, Eli Shellabarger, Timothy Schott, Brendan Mcgovern Jan 2024

The Feasibility Of Motion Tracking Camera System For Magnetic Suspension Wind Tunnel Tests, Hisham M. Shehata, David Cox, Mark Schoenenberger, Colin Britcher, Eli Shellabarger, Timothy Schott, Brendan Mcgovern

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

The Entry Systems Modeling (ESM) Program at NASA has actively participated in the re-development of the Magnetic Suspension Balance System (MSBS) at the six-inch subsonic wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. This initiative aims to enhance the MSBS system's capabilities, enabling the testing of stingless entry vehicle models at supersonic speeds. To achieve this, control algorithms are required to ensure magnetic levitation control and stability for models during free-oscillation dynamic responses. Currently, the system relies on electromagnetic position sensors to provide real-time 3 degrees of freedom control of a rigid body. While this approach has proven successful for subsonic …


Abmscore: A Heuristic Algorithm For Forming Strategic Coalitions In Agent-Based Simulation, Andrew J. Collins, Gayane Grigoryan Jan 2024

Abmscore: A Heuristic Algorithm For Forming Strategic Coalitions In Agent-Based Simulation, Andrew J. Collins, Gayane Grigoryan

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Faculty Publications

Integrating human behavior into agent-based models has been challenging due to its diversity. An example is strategic coalition formation, which occurs when an individual decides to collaborate with others because it strategically benefits them, thereby increasing the expected utility of the situation. An algorithm called ABMSCORE was developed to help model strategic coalition formation in agent-based models. The ABMSCORE algorithm employs hedonic games from cooperative game theory and has been applied to various situations, including refugee egress and smallholder farming cooperatives. This paper discusses ABMSCORE, including its mechanism, requirements, limitations, and application. To demonstrate the potential of ABMSCORE, a new …


Methods That Support The Validation Of Agent-Based Models: An Overview And Discussion, Andrew Collins, Matthew Koehler, Christopher Lynch Jan 2024

Methods That Support The Validation Of Agent-Based Models: An Overview And Discussion, Andrew Collins, Matthew Koehler, Christopher Lynch

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Faculty Publications

Validation is the process of determining if a model adequately represents the system under study for the model’s intended purpose. Validation is a critical component in building the credibility of a simulation model with its end-users. Effectively conducting validation can be a daunting task for both novice and experienced simulation developers. Further compounding the difficult task of conducting validation is that there is no universally accepted approach for assessing a simulation. These challenges are particularly relevant to the paradigm of Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation (ABMS) because of the complexity found in these models’ mechanisms and in the real-world situations they …


Automatic Classification Of Activities In Classroom Videos, Jonathan K. Foster, Matthew Korban, Peter Youngs, Ginger S. Watson, Scott T. Acton Jan 2024

Automatic Classification Of Activities In Classroom Videos, Jonathan K. Foster, Matthew Korban, Peter Youngs, Ginger S. Watson, Scott T. Acton

VMASC Publications

Classroom videos are a common source of data for educational researchers studying classroom interactions as well as a resource for teacher education and professional development. Over the last several decades emerging technologies have been applied to classroom videos to record, transcribe, and analyze classroom interactions. With the rise of machine learning, we report on the development and validation of neural networks to classify instructional activities using video signals, without analyzing speech or audio features, from a large corpus of nearly 250 h of classroom videos from elementary mathematics and English language arts instruction. Results indicated that the neural networks performed …


Infusing Machine Learning And Computational Linguistics Into Clinical Notes, Funke V. Alabi, Onyeka Omose, Omotomilola Jegede Jan 2024

Infusing Machine Learning And Computational Linguistics Into Clinical Notes, Funke V. Alabi, Onyeka Omose, Omotomilola Jegede

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

Entering free-form text notes into Electronic Health Records (EHR) systems takes a lot of time from clinicians. A large portion of this paper work is viewed as a burden, which cuts into the amount of time doctors spend with patients and increases the risk of burnout. We will see how machine learning and computational linguistics can be infused in the processing of taking clinical notes. We are presenting a new language modeling task that predicts the content of notes conditioned on historical data from a patient's medical record, such as patient demographics, lab results, medications, and previous notes, with the …


Season Influences Interspecific Responses Of Canopy-Forming Kelps To Future Warming And Acidification At High Latitude, Lauren E. Bell, Lily Westphal, Evan O' Brien, Jason A. Toy, Haleigh Damron, Kristy J. Kroeker Jan 2024

Season Influences Interspecific Responses Of Canopy-Forming Kelps To Future Warming And Acidification At High Latitude, Lauren E. Bell, Lily Westphal, Evan O' Brien, Jason A. Toy, Haleigh Damron, Kristy J. Kroeker

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Variability in primary producers' responses to environmental change may buffer higher trophic levels against shifts in basal resource composition. Then again, in instances where there is a lack of functional redundancy because consumers rely on a few species to meet their energetic requirements at specific times of the year, altered community production dynamics may significantly impact food web resilience. In high-latitude kelp forests, a complementary annual phenology of seaweed production supports coastal marine consumers' metabolic needs across large seasonal variations in their environment. Yet, marine consumers in these systems may face significant metabolic stress under the pronounced low pH conditions …


Targeting Ocean Conservation Outcomes Through Threat Reduction, Joseph A. Turner, Malcolm Starkey, Nicholas K. Dulvy, Frank Hawkins, Louise Mair, Adeline Serckx, Thomas Brooks, Beth Polidoro, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Kent Carpenter, Minna Epps, Rima W. Jabado, Nicholas B. W. Macfarlane, Leon Bennun Jan 2024

Targeting Ocean Conservation Outcomes Through Threat Reduction, Joseph A. Turner, Malcolm Starkey, Nicholas K. Dulvy, Frank Hawkins, Louise Mair, Adeline Serckx, Thomas Brooks, Beth Polidoro, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Kent Carpenter, Minna Epps, Rima W. Jabado, Nicholas B. W. Macfarlane, Leon Bennun

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Nations have committed to reductions in the global rate of species extinctions through the Sustainable Development Goals 14 and 15, for ocean and terrestrial species, respectively. Biodiversity loss is worsening despite rapid growth in the number and extent of protected areas, both at sea and on land. Resolving this requires targeting the locations and actions that will deliver positive conservation outcomes for biodiversity. The Species Threat Abatement and Restoration (STAR) metric, developed by a consortium of experts, quantifies the contributions that abating threats and restoring habitats in specific places offer towards reducing extinction risk based on the IUCN Red List …


Magneto-Thermal Limitations In Superconducting Cavities At High Radio-Frequency Fields, I. Parajuli, G. Ciovati, A. Gurevich Jan 2024

Magneto-Thermal Limitations In Superconducting Cavities At High Radio-Frequency Fields, I. Parajuli, G. Ciovati, A. Gurevich

Physics Faculty Publications

The performance of superconducting radio-frequency Nb cavities at high radio-frequency (rf) fields in the absence of field emission can be limited by either a sharp decrease of the quality factor Q0(Bp) above peak surface magnetic fields Bp ∼100 mT or by a quench. We have measured Q0(Bp) at 2 K of several 1.3 GHz single-cell Nb cavities with different grain sizes, and with different ambient magnetic fields and cooldown rates below the critical temperature. Temperature mapping and a novel magnetic field mapping systems were used to find the location of “hot-spots” …


Opacities Of S-Type Stars: The Singlet B¹⊓−X¹Σ⁺, B¹⊓−A¹Δ, And C¹Σ⁺−X¹Σ⁺ Band Systems Of Zro, Peter F. Bernath, Manish Bhusal, Jacques Liévin Jan 2024

Opacities Of S-Type Stars: The Singlet B¹⊓−X¹Σ⁺, B¹⊓−A¹Δ, And C¹Σ⁺−X¹Σ⁺ Band Systems Of Zro, Peter F. Bernath, Manish Bhusal, Jacques Liévin

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The ZrO B1Π–X1Σ+, B1Π–A1Δ, and C1Σ+–X1Σ+ band systems are important opacity sources in the near-infrared and optical spectra of S-type stars. A total of 21 rovibronic bands with v'' ≤ 7 and v' ⩽ 5 were observed and fit for the B1Π–X1Σ+ transition, five bands for the 90ZrO B1Π–A1Δ transition and one band for the 90ZrO C1Σ+X1Σ+ transition. All band …


Unraveling Sources Of Cyanate In The Marine Environment: Insights From Cyanate Distributions And Production During The Photochemical Degradation Of Dissolved Organic Matter, Rui Wang, Jihua Liu, Yongle Xu, Li Liu, Kenneth Mopper Jan 2024

Unraveling Sources Of Cyanate In The Marine Environment: Insights From Cyanate Distributions And Production During The Photochemical Degradation Of Dissolved Organic Matter, Rui Wang, Jihua Liu, Yongle Xu, Li Liu, Kenneth Mopper

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Cyanate is a nitrogen and energy source for diverse marine microorganisms, playing important roles in the nitrogen cycle. Despite the extensive research on cyanate utilization, the sources of this nitrogen compound remain largely enigmatic. To unravel the sources of cyanate, distributions and production of cyanate during photochemical degradation of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) were investigated across various environments, including freshwater, estuarine, coastal areas in Florida, and the continental and slope regions of the North American mid-Atlantic Ocean (NATL). Cyanate production was also examined during the photochemical degradation of exudates from a typical strain of Synechococcus, an important phytoplankton …


Using Phenology To Unravel Differential Soil Water Use And Productivity In A Semiarid Savanna, Blake Steiner, Russell L. Scott, Jia Hu, Natasha Mcbean, Andrew Richardson, David J. P. Moore Jan 2024

Using Phenology To Unravel Differential Soil Water Use And Productivity In A Semiarid Savanna, Blake Steiner, Russell L. Scott, Jia Hu, Natasha Mcbean, Andrew Richardson, David J. P. Moore

University Administration Publications

Savannas are water-limited ecosystems characterized by two dominant plant types: trees and an understory primarily made up grass. Different phenology and root structures of these plant types complicate how savanna primary productivity responds to changes in water availability. We tested the hypothesis that productivity in savannas is controlled by the temporal and vertical distribution of soil water content (SWC) and differences in growing season length of understory and tree plant functional types. To quantify the relationship between tree, understory, and savanna-wide phenology and productivity, we used PhenoCam and satellite observations surrounding an eddy covariance tower at a semiarid savanna site …


Delayed Coastal Inundations Caused By Ocean Dynamics Post-Hurricane Matthew, Kyungmin Park, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Yinglong J. Zhang, Tal Ezer, Fei Yi Jan 2024

Delayed Coastal Inundations Caused By Ocean Dynamics Post-Hurricane Matthew, Kyungmin Park, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Yinglong J. Zhang, Tal Ezer, Fei Yi

CCPO Publications

Post Hurricane Abnormal Water Level (PHAWL) poses a persistent inundation threat to coastal communities, yet unresolved knowledge gaps exist regarding its spatiotemporal impacts and causal mechanisms. Using a high-resolution coastal model with a set of observations, we find that the PHAWLs are up to 50 cm higher than the normal water levels for several weeks and cause delayed inundations around residential areas of the U.S. Southeast Coast (USSC). Numerical experiments reveal that while atmospheric forcing modulates the coastal PHAWLs, ocean dynamics primarily driven by the Gulf Stream control the mean component and duration of the shelf-scale PHAWLs. Because of the …


Designing High-Performance Identity-Based Quantum Signature Protocol With Strong Security, Sunil Prajapat, Pankaj Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Ashok Kumar Das, Sachin Shetty, M. Shamim Hossain Jan 2024

Designing High-Performance Identity-Based Quantum Signature Protocol With Strong Security, Sunil Prajapat, Pankaj Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Ashok Kumar Das, Sachin Shetty, M. Shamim Hossain

VMASC Publications

Due to the rapid advancement of quantum computers, there has been a furious race for quantum technologies in academia and industry. Quantum cryptography is an important tool for achieving security services during quantum communication. Designated verifier signature, a variant of quantum cryptography, is very useful in applications like the Internet of Things (IoT) and auctions. An identity-based quantum-designated verifier signature (QDVS) scheme is suggested in this work. Our protocol features security attributes like eavesdropping, non-repudiation, designated verification, and hiding sources attacks. Additionally, it is protected from attacks on forgery, inter-resending, and impersonation. The proposed scheme benefits from the traditional designated …