# Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons™

Articles 1 - 30 of 2875

## Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Logic And Rationality, Rohit J. Parikh Apr 2023

#### Logic And Rationality, Rohit J. Parikh

##### Publications and Research

Logic aims at truth, or more accurately, at deriving some truths from other truths. But why are we interested in truth in the first place? Surely one reason is that relying on truth makes it easier to make better choices.

One could think of Game theory as a tool which bridges the gap between logic and rationality.

Decision theory - or single agent game theory tells us when to make the best choice in a game of us against nature. But nature has no desire to further or frustrate our efforts. Nature is mysterious but not malign. Things change when …

Feb 2023

#### Unlocking Potential: The School-To-Prison Pipeline For Students With Disabilities, Navena F. Chaitoo

##### Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This research uses quasi-experimental, matched sampling to examine the school-to-prison pipeline for students with disabilities using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. This study presents novel insights into an at-risk group that has faced disproportionate rates of school discipline and incarceration. The study finds school suspension to be associated with future involvement in the criminal legal system and lower educational attainment. Disability was not found to mediate the relationship between suspension and future involvement in the criminal legal system or the relationship between suspension and academic outcomes. However, disability was found to be a statistically …

A Stronger Strong Schottky Lemma For Euclidean Buildings, Michael E. Ferguson Feb 2023

#### A Stronger Strong Schottky Lemma For Euclidean Buildings, Michael E. Ferguson

##### Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

We provide a criterion for two hyperbolic isometries of a Euclidean building to generate a free group of rank two. In particular, we extend the application of a Strong Schottky Lemma to buildings given by Alperin, Farb and Noskov. We then use this extension to obtain an infinite family of matrices that generate a free group of rank two. In doing so, we also introduce an algorithm that terminates in finite time if the lemma is applicable for pairs of certain kinds of matrices acting on the Euclidean building for the special linear group over certain discretely valued fields.

Social Impacts Of Robotics On The Labor And Employment Market, Kelvin Espinal Feb 2023

#### Social Impacts Of Robotics On The Labor And Employment Market, Kelvin Espinal

##### Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Robotics have been introduced into the workplace to perform tasks that human beings have traditionally fulfilled. Complementing or substituting human labor with robotics eliminates human involvement in functions attributable to hazardous environments, heavy lifting, toxic substances, and repetitive low-level tasks. On the other hand, they are meant to be more efficient and cost-effective, saving money, time, and labor. However, since the introduction of robotics in the workforce, societal opposition has been towards this branch of technology in fear of losing employment, wages, and purpose.

Previous studies have reported an overarching societal fear that adopting robotics in the workplace and industry …

#### Optimized Peptide Nanomaterials As Delivery Vehicles For Hydrophobic Metal-Based Anticancer Agents, Yaron Marciano

##### Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Enzyme-responsive materials have been well explored, particularly as therapeutic and diagnostic agents. In this thesis we demonstrate that anionic self-assembling peptides can be utilized as delivery vehicles for metal-based hydrophobic payloads. The tunability of the system is highlighted as well as the increase in cytotoxicity and selectivity in vitro. The rapid degradation of peptides in cell media may lead to the formation of new peptide-drug bioconjugates with increased activity and selectivity. The physiological stability of these peptide delivery vehicles has been optimized by capping the N-terminus with an acetyl group. This simple backbone modification was shown to not prevent self-assembly, …

Electromagnetic Theory And Applications, Nicholas Madamopoulos, George Kliros Jan 2023

#### Electromagnetic Theory And Applications, Nicholas Madamopoulos, George Kliros

##### Open Educational Resources

This book intends to provide both the fundamentals of Electromagnetics but also some practical applications of the concepts covered. Having taught electromagnetics for several years, the authors feel that many times the field of electromagnetics comes as “old” and often times students do not appreciate the concepts and their importance in everyday applications. The authors intend to accompany the EM concepts with life applications. Hence, students may see the direct impact of the knowledge they acquire through the study of the field of electromagnetics and better appreciate the field.

Combinatorics Syllabus, Tugce Ozdemir Jan 2023

#### Combinatorics Syllabus, Tugce Ozdemir

##### Open Educational Resources

No abstract provided.

The Water, Ji Kim Jan 2023

#### The Water, Ji Kim

##### Open Educational Resources

Water is everywhere, thus, we tend to take it for granted. However, access to clean water has been inequitable; climate change is threatening the sea water level, causing the acidification of ocean water. In this project, we will investigate the environmental and social issues related to clean water and its impacts on our life by reading articles, watching videos, and exploring activities.

Classical Mechanics, Mark D. Shattuck Dec 2022

#### Classical Mechanics, Mark D. Shattuck

##### Open Educational Resources

Syllabus for Classical Mechanics

Dec 2022

#### From Computer Curriculum That Works For The Use Of Computer Intellignece Computer Science, Malachi B. Bacchus

##### Publications and Research

Computer interconnection can link different networks by using electrical artificial flow ways that can travel through different connections. these are called data network which travels through different sectors of the network simulation of service computer network using artificial intelligence to enhanced further understanding the computations, I've also demonstrated knowing by using the network to get better understanding of how ethical computing can be learned through universities and collegiate that can help established knowledge and healthy computer information. The main tools for the research are using data networking, ethical learning and translation towards different computer systems.

Coupled Spherical-Cavities, Stanislav Kreps, Vladimir Shuvayev, Mark Douvidzon, Baheej Bathish, Tom Lenkiewicz Abudi, Amirreza Ghaznavi, Jie Xu, Yang Lin, Lev Deych, Tal Carmon Dec 2022

#### Coupled Spherical-Cavities, Stanislav Kreps, Vladimir Shuvayev, Mark Douvidzon, Baheej Bathish, Tom Lenkiewicz Abudi, Amirreza Ghaznavi, Jie Xu, Yang Lin, Lev Deych, Tal Carmon

##### Publications and Research

In this work, we study theoretically and experimentally optical modes of photonic molecules—clusters of optically coupled spherical resonators. Unlike previous studies, we do not use stems to hold spheres in their positions relying, instead on optical tweezers to maintain desired structures. The modes of the coupled resonators are excited using a tapered fiber and are observed as resonances with a quality factor as high as 107. Using the fluorescent mapping technique, we observe families of coupled modes with similar spatial and spectral shapes repeating every free spectral range (a spectral separation between adjacent resonances of individual spheres). Experimental results are …

Sea Level Rising And Its Impact On Nyc, Angela Knafo, Jeff Mao, Andray Whyte, Filip Valencin, Erick Humala, Jubran Alawdi, Jonathan Carangui Dec 2022

#### Sea Level Rising And Its Impact On Nyc, Angela Knafo, Jeff Mao, Andray Whyte, Filip Valencin, Erick Humala, Jubran Alawdi, Jonathan Carangui

##### Publications and Research

Climate change is not only about the rising temperatures, which is usually the most discussed topic in news, but it also involves other Earth sciences like hydrology, oceanography and other parts of meteorology In our poster we are focusing on sea level rising and its impact on NYC, and how people could mitigate and adapt to it

Systematic Review Of A Ramsar Wetland And Unesco Biosphere Reserve In A Climate Change Hotspot (Ichkeul Lake, Tunisia), Sabrine Sahbani, Béchir Béjaoui, Sihem Benabdalla, Rachid Toujani, Afef Fathalli, Noureddine Zaaboub, Jalel Aouissi, Zeineb Kassouk, Nabil Hamdi, Nabiha Ben Mbarek, Hechmi Missaoui, Leila Basti, Reginald Blake, Hamidreza Norouzi Dec 2022

#### Systematic Review Of A Ramsar Wetland And Unesco Biosphere Reserve In A Climate Change Hotspot (Ichkeul Lake, Tunisia), Sabrine Sahbani, Béchir Béjaoui, Sihem Benabdalla, Rachid Toujani, Afef Fathalli, Noureddine Zaaboub, Jalel Aouissi, Zeineb Kassouk, Nabil Hamdi, Nabiha Ben Mbarek, Hechmi Missaoui, Leila Basti, Reginald Blake, Hamidreza Norouzi

##### Publications and Research

Tunisia's Ichkeul Lake is among the most productive ecosystems in the Mediterranean, with a great regional value thanks to its diversity of habitats. It is an important overwintering area for waterfowl species. It is a RAMSAR wetland, a National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage, and a Biosphere Reserve. This review paper provides a broad overview of the climatic, hydraulic, biogeochemical features, bio-resources, and bio-productivity of the Lake. The interconnectivity between the different environmental components of the lake is presented, highlighting the main characteristics of this vital ecosystem. Its ecosystem consists of a permanent lake bordered by temporary marshes. It is …

Computer Ethics In Curriculum, Tiya Williams Dec 2022

#### Computer Ethics In Curriculum, Tiya Williams

##### Publications and Research

Ethics specifically in Computer Curriculum is a growing problem that has yet to be widely addressed. Although, start of computer ethics being taught has been traced back to the early 1940’s it has not been standardized or implemented in all computer curriculum. The objective of this research is to diagnose the reasons why ethics is so crucial in computer curriculum at all levels. I used surveys to investigate whether students were taught ethics in their computer curriculum. I also conducted surveys for professors at universities and colleges if they were taught ethics while obtaining their degree, as well as if …

The Living Breakwaters Pdr Efforts Econcrete Resource Analysis, Guianina Ferrari, Shervon Stephens, Calvin O. Walters Jr. Dec 2022

#### Artificial Intelligence And The Situational Rationality Of Diagnosis: Human Problem-Solving And The Artifacts Of Health And Medicine, Michael W. Raphael

##### Publications and Research

What is the problem-solving capacity of artificial intelligence (AI) for health and medicine? This paper draws out the cognitive sociological context of diagnostic problem-solving for medical sociology regarding the limits of automation for decision-based medical tasks. Specifically, it presents a practical way of evaluating the artificiality of symptoms and signs in medical encounters, with an emphasis on the visualization of the problem-solving process in doctor-patient relationships. In doing so, the paper details the logical differences underlying diagnostic task performance between man and machine problem-solving: its principle of rationality, the priorities of its means of adaptation to abstraction, and the effects …

Conflict Dynamics In Scale-Free Networks With Degree Correlations And Hierarchical Structure, Eduardo Jacobo-Villegas, Bibiana Obregón-Quintana, Lev Guzmán-Vargas, Larry S. Liebovitch Oct 2022

#### Conflict Dynamics In Scale-Free Networks With Degree Correlations And Hierarchical Structure, Eduardo Jacobo-Villegas, Bibiana Obregón-Quintana, Lev Guzmán-Vargas, Larry S. Liebovitch

##### Publications and Research

We present a study of the dynamic interactions between actors located on complex networks with scale-free and hierarchical scale-free topologies with assortative mixing, that is, correlations between the degree distributions of the actors. The actor’s state evolves according to a model that considers its previous state, the inertia to change, and the influence of its neighborhood. We show that the time evolution of the system depends on the percentage of cooperative or competitive
interactions. For scale-free networks, we find that the dispersion between actors is higher when all interactions are either cooperative or competitive, while a balanced presence of interactions …

Small Molecule Modulation Of Microbiota: A Systems Pharmacology Perspective, Qiao Liu, Bohyun Lee, Lei Xie Sep 2022

### Background

Microbes are associated with many human diseases and influence drug efficacy. Small-molecule drugs may revolutionize biomedicine by fine-tuning the microbiota on the basis of individual patient microbiome signatures. However, emerging endeavors in small-molecule microbiome drug discovery continue to follow a conventional “one-drug-one-target-one-disease” process. A systematic pharmacology approach that would suppress multiple interacting pathogenic species in the microbiome, could offer an attractive alternative solution.

### Results

We construct a disease-centric signed microbe–microbe interaction network using curated microbe metabolite information and their effects on host. We develop a Signed Random Walk with Restart algorithm for the accurate prediction of effect of microbes …

Web Design, Kwame A. Baffour Sep 2022

#### Web Design, Kwame A. Baffour

##### Open Educational Resources

No abstract provided.

Toward Informatics-Enabled Preparedness For Natural Hazards To Minimize Health Impacts Of Climate Change, Jimmy Phuong, Naomi O. Riches, Luca Calzoni, Gora Datta, Deborah Duran, Asiyah Yu Lin, Ramesh P. Singh, Anthony E. Solomonides, Noreen Y. Whysel, Ramakanth Kavuluru Sep 2022

#### Toward Informatics-Enabled Preparedness For Natural Hazards To Minimize Health Impacts Of Climate Change, Jimmy Phuong, Naomi O. Riches, Luca Calzoni, Gora Datta, Deborah Duran, Asiyah Yu Lin, Ramesh P. Singh, Anthony E. Solomonides, Noreen Y. Whysel, Ramakanth Kavuluru

##### Publications and Research

Natural hazards (NHs) associated with climate change have been increasing in frequency and intensity. These acute events impact humans both directly and through their effects on social and environmental determinants of health. Rather than relying on a fully reactive incident response disposition, it is crucial to ramp up preparedness initiatives for worsening case scenarios. In this perspective, we review the landscape of NH effects for human health and explore the potential of health informatics to address associated challenges, specifically from a preparedness angle. We outline important components in a health informatics agenda for hazard preparedness involving hazard-disease associations, social determinants …

How Many Mutex Bugs Can A Simple Analysis Find In Go Programs?, Fumi Takeuchi, Hidehiko Masuhara, Raffi T. Khatchadourian, Youyou Cong, Keisuke Ishibashi Sep 2022

#### How Many Mutex Bugs Can A Simple Analysis Find In Go Programs?, Fumi Takeuchi, Hidehiko Masuhara, Raffi T. Khatchadourian, Youyou Cong, Keisuke Ishibashi

##### Publications and Research

In open-source software, it is known that there are many concurrency bugs. A previous study in Go revealed that a considerable number of such bugs are simple (for example, 9% of the bugs are the ones that forget to unlock a mutex,) through a manual program investigation. This paper tries to detect such bugs by applying a simple analysis to see how far such a tool can match the manual analysis. We built a simple intraprocedural control flow analysis in Go, and evaluated its performance concerning the open source programs with concurrency bugs reported in the previous study. Consequently, as …

Generalization Of Bi-Canonical Degrees, Joseph Brennan, Laura Ghezzi, Jooyoun Hong, Wolmer Vasconcelos Sep 2022

#### Generalization Of Bi-Canonical Degrees, Joseph Brennan, Laura Ghezzi, Jooyoun Hong, Wolmer Vasconcelos

##### Publications and Research

We discuss invariants of Cohen-Macaulay local rings that admit a canonical module ω. Attached to each such ring R, when ω is an ideal, there are integers–the type of R, the reduction number of ω–that provide valuable metrics to express the deviation of R from being a Gorenstein ring. In (Ghezzi et al. in JMS 589:506–528, 2017) and (Ghezzi et al. in JMS 571:55–74, 2021) we enlarged this list with the canonical degree and the bi-canonical degree. In this work we extend the bi-canonical degree to rings where ω is not necessarily an ideal. We also discuss generalizations to rings …

Towards Explaining Variation In Entrainment, Andreas Weise Sep 2022

#### Towards Explaining Variation In Entrainment, Andreas Weise

##### Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Entrainment refers to the tendency of human speakers to adapt to their interlocutors to become more similar to them. This affects various dimensions and occurs in many contexts, allowing for rich applications in human-computer interaction. However, it is not exhibited by every speaker in every conversation but varies widely across features, speakers, and contexts, hindering broad application. This variation, whose guiding principles are poorly understood even after decades of entrainment research, is the subject of this thesis. We begin with a comprehensive literature review that serves as the foundation of our own work and provides a reference to guide future …

Sep 2022

#### Engineering Rare-Earth Based Color Centers In Wide Bandgap Semiconductors For Quantum And Nanoscale Applications, Gabriel I. López-Morales

##### Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

For many years, atomic point-defects have been readily used to tune the bulk properties of solid-state crystalline materials, for instance, through the inclusion of elemental impurities (doping) during growth, or post-processing treatments such as ion bombardment or high-energy irradiation. Such atomic point-defects introduce local ‘incompatible’ chemical interactions with the periodic atomic arrangement that makes up the crystal, resulting for example in localized electronic states due to dangling bonds or excess of electrons. When present in sufficient concentrations, the defects interact collectively to alter the overall bulk properties of the host material. In the low concentration limit, however, point-defects can serve …

Stability Of Two-Dimensional Magnetic Skyrmions, Amel Derras-Chouk Sep 2022

#### Stability Of Two-Dimensional Magnetic Skyrmions, Amel Derras-Chouk

##### Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Magnetic skyrmions are whirls formed by magnetic moments in a crystal. They have attracted attention largely due to their topological protection, which provides an avenue for technology like next-generation memory storage. The idea of topologically protected solutions of a quantum field theory was originally proposed by Tony Skyrme when he developed a model to explain the stability of hadrons in particle physics. His work has extended far beyond his original intent to several areas of condensed matter physics. Here we focus on skyrmions in magnetic materials.

Skyrme's original theory modeled excitations which exist in three spatial dimensions, a requirement for …