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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Quantics Tensor Trains: The Study Of A Continuous Lattice Model And Beyond, Aleix Bou Comas Jun 2024

Quantics Tensor Trains: The Study Of A Continuous Lattice Model And Beyond, Aleix Bou Comas

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This four-chapter dissertation studies the efficient discretization of continuous variable functions with tensor train representation. The first chapter describes all the methodology used to discretize functions and store them efficiently. In this section, the algorithm tensor renormalization group is explained for self-containment purposes. The second chapter centers around the XY model. Quantics tensor trains are used to describe the transfer matrix of the model and compute one and two-dimensional quantities. The one dimensional magnitudes are compared to analytical results with an agreement close to machine precision. As for two dimensions, the analytical results cannot be computed. However, the critical temperature …


Three Essays Applying Dynamic Models In Economics, Finance, And Machine Learning, Lucas C. Dowiak Jun 2024

Three Essays Applying Dynamic Models In Economics, Finance, And Machine Learning, Lucas C. Dowiak

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a composition in three parts. Collectively, these essays investigate dynamic methods and their application in the fields of Economics, Finance, and Machine Learning. It pulls liberally from all three. In particular, this dissertation makes repeated use of multi-state modeling frameworks popular in Economics to bring a faceted view to the underlying data and detect its hidden heterogeneity. The challenge of modeling financial assets and estimating their dependence is another focus. For stimulus, concepts in the Machine Learning field are brought in to aid or compete with established econometric techniques.

Econometric Applications of the Hierarchical Mixture-of-Experts

In this …


Modeling And Dynamics Of Capillary Bridges, Moyosore Odunsi Jun 2024

Modeling And Dynamics Of Capillary Bridges, Moyosore Odunsi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Capillary bridges are ubiquitous in nature and have important implications in processes like inkjet printing. They are an important area of study not only because of their industrial applications but because many of the questions in capillary bridge research are applicable to other systems. For example, they exhibit pinning and unpinning patterns that are similar to those in sliding droplets. The rules underlying this pinning are essential to predicting liquid shapes and understanding how contact lines move across surfaces. Many previous studies have focused on axisymmetric capillary bridges and neglected to model the tangential forces that arise due to asymmetry. …


Positron Emission Tomography In Oncology And Environmental Science, Samantha Delaney Jun 2024

Positron Emission Tomography In Oncology And Environmental Science, Samantha Delaney

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The last half century has played witness to the onset of molecular imaging for the clinical assessment of physiological targets. While several medical imaging modalities allow for the visualization of the functional and anatomical properties of humans and living systems, few offer accurate quantitation and the ability to detect biochemical processes with low-administered drug mass doses. This limits how physicians and scientists may diagnose and treat medical issues, such as cancer, disease, and foreign agents.

A promising alternative to extant invasive procedures and suboptimal imaging modalities to assess the nature of a biological environment is the use of positron emission …


Parabolic And Non-Parabolic Surfaces With Small Or Large End Spaces Via Fenchel-Nielsen Parameters, Michael Antony Pandazis Jun 2024

Parabolic And Non-Parabolic Surfaces With Small Or Large End Spaces Via Fenchel-Nielsen Parameters, Michael Antony Pandazis

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

We consider conditions on the Fenchel-Nielsen parameters of a Riemann surface X that determine whether or not a surface X is parabolic. Fix a geodesic pants decomposition of a surface and call the boundary geodesics in the decomposition cuffs. For a zero or half-twist flute surface, we prove that parabolicity is equivalent to the surface having a covering group of the first kind. Using that result, we give necessary and sufficient conditions on the Fenchel-Nielsen parameters of a half-twist flute surface X with increasing cuff lengths such that X is parabolic. As an application, we determine whether or not each …


Context In Computer Vision: A Taxonomy, Multi-Stage Integration, And A General Framework, Xuan Wang Jun 2024

Context In Computer Vision: A Taxonomy, Multi-Stage Integration, And A General Framework, Xuan Wang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Contextual information has been widely used in many computer vision tasks, such as object detection, video action detection, image classification, etc. Recognizing a single object or action out of context could be sometimes very challenging, and context information may help improve the understanding of a scene or an event greatly. However, existing approaches design specific contextual information mechanisms for different detection tasks.

In this research, we first present a comprehensive survey of context understanding in computer vision, with a taxonomy to describe context in different types and levels. Then we proposed MultiCLU, a new multi-stage context learning and utilization framework, …


Higher Diffeology Theory, Emilio Minichiello Jun 2024

Higher Diffeology Theory, Emilio Minichiello

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Finite dimensional smooth manifolds have been studied for hundreds of years, and a massive theory has been built around them. However, modern mathematicians and physicists are commonly dealing with objects outside the purview of classical differential geometry, such as orbifolds and loop spaces. Diffeology is a new framework for dealing with such generalized smooth spaces. This theory (whose development started in earnest in the 1980s) has started to catch on amongst the wider mathematical community, thanks to its simplicity and power, but it is not the only approach to dealing with generalized smooth spaces. Higher topos theory is another such …


Bifurcations And Resultants For Rational Maps And Dynatomic Modular Curves In Positive Characteristic, Colette Lapointe Jun 2024

Bifurcations And Resultants For Rational Maps And Dynatomic Modular Curves In Positive Characteristic, Colette Lapointe

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Magnetic Draping On Satellite Galaxies In Clusters, Vanessa Brown Jun 2024

Effect Of Magnetic Draping On Satellite Galaxies In Clusters, Vanessa Brown

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Galaxy evolution has been observed to be influenced by environment. Satellite galaxies orbiting within clusters can experience changes in morphology and composition through various mechanisms such as ram-pressure stripping (RPS), which removes a galaxy’s interstellar medium as it passes through the cluster via direct interaction with the hot intracluster medium gas. An open question is whether intracluster magnetic fields affect galaxy evolution, for example by forming a magnetic layer around infalling galaxies (called magnetic draping) and mitigating gas removal by RPS. Using the code GADGET-3, we compare global properties and mass distributions within identical cluster simulations run with and without …


Sigma_N-Correct Forcing Axioms, Benjamin P. Goodman Jun 2024

Sigma_N-Correct Forcing Axioms, Benjamin P. Goodman

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

I introduce a new family of axioms extending ZFC set theory, the Sigma_n-correct forcing axioms. These assert roughly that whenever a forcing name a' can be forced by a poset in some forcing class Gamma to have some Sigma_n property phi which is provably preserved by all further forcing in Gamma, then a' reflects to some small name such that there is already in V a filter which interprets that small name so that phi holds. Sigma_1-correct forcing axioms turn out to be equivalent to classical forcing axioms, while Sigma_2-correct forcing axioms for Sigma_2-definable forcing classes are consistent relative to …


Explicit Composition Identities For Higher Composition Laws In The Quadratic Case, Ajith A. Nair Jun 2024

Explicit Composition Identities For Higher Composition Laws In The Quadratic Case, Ajith A. Nair

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The theory of Gauss composition of integer binary quadratic forms provides a very useful way to compute the structure of ideal class groups in quadratic number fields. In addition to that, Gauss composition is also important in the problem of representations of integers by binary quadratic forms. In 2001, Bhargava discovered a new approach to Gauss composition which uses 2x2x2 integer cubes, and he proved a composition law for such cubes. Furthermore, from the higher composition law on cubes, he derived four new higher composition laws on the following spaces - 1) binary cubic forms, 2) pairs of binary quadratic …


Aspects Of Parity Breaking In Classical And Quantum Fluids, Dylan J. Reynolds Jun 2024

Aspects Of Parity Breaking In Classical And Quantum Fluids, Dylan J. Reynolds

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Parity-breaking is ubiquitous across many scales of physics, from the rotation of galaxies at the largest of scales, to the cyclotron orbits of electrons at the microscopic scale. In describing the collective dynamics of many particle systems, parity breaking effects typically originate from some form of chirality, such as angular momentum, at the level of the constituent particles. External forces can also induce chiral motion, with the primary examples being the Lorentz and Coriolis forces.

The effects of parity breaking are perhaps most strikingly seen in active matter, systems of complex particles that tend to convert energy into some directed …


Me And Mathematics: “Doing What You’Re Talking About”: In Dialogue With My Family, Eden Morris Jun 2024

Me And Mathematics: “Doing What You’Re Talking About”: In Dialogue With My Family, Eden Morris

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This paper is a philosophically oriented accompaniment to my audio project (accessible through the following link: https://cuny.manifoldapp.org/projects/me-and-mathematics). Working together, the paper and audio collages form a call to action and a resource. My primary finding is the importance of doing what you’re talking about or exploring and implementing your ideas experientially. Doing what you’re talking about is important for effective teaching/learning and feeling in line with oneself. This working concept came to my attention during my research conversation with my oldest living relative, and then, again, with my youngest (non-baby) relative. This doing what you’re talking about is a way …


Towards A New Role Of Mitochondrial Hydrogen Peroxide In Synaptic Function, Cliyahnelle Z. Alexander May 2024

Towards A New Role Of Mitochondrial Hydrogen Peroxide In Synaptic Function, Cliyahnelle Z. Alexander

Student Theses and Dissertations

Aerobic metabolism is known to generate damaging ROS, particularly hydrogen peroxide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules containing oxygen that have the potential to cause damage to cells and tissues in the body. ROS are highly reactive atoms or molecules that rapidly interact with other molecules within a cell. Intracellular accumulation can result in oxidative damage, dysfunction, and cell death. Due to the limitations of H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) detectors, other impacts of ROS exposure may have been missed. HyPer7, a genetically encoded sensor, measures hydrogen peroxide emissions precisely and sensitively, even at sublethal levels, during …


Examining Galaxy Bulge Regions With The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Sarah E. Draves, Ariyeh Maller May 2024

Examining Galaxy Bulge Regions With The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Sarah E. Draves, Ariyeh Maller

Publications and Research

Nearly all of the ordinary matter in the universe is located in galaxies, which are made up stars, gas, dust, and black holes, and range in size from a few thousand to a few hundred thousand light years across. Galaxies come in different shapes, but many of them are spiral shaped, and some of those have a central bulge region that is distinct from the rest of the galactic disk. This project used a large data set of galaxies that had their bulge and disk components separated to see what correlations those fractions of each galaxy have with other galaxy …


Performance Outcomes In Introductory Statistics: R Vs. Spss Usage At A Community College, Venessa Singhroy Ph.D., Bianca Sosnovski Apr 2024

Performance Outcomes In Introductory Statistics: R Vs. Spss Usage At A Community College, Venessa Singhroy Ph.D., Bianca Sosnovski

Publications and Research

This dataset corresponds to a study investigating the performance outcomes of students enrolled in two sections of an introductory statistics course at a community college in New York. The study, titled "Examining Differences in Performance Outcomes between Statistics Classes using High-coding vs. Low-coding Statistical Software Packages," explores the impact of utilizing different statistical software packages (R and SPSS) on student performance and motivation. The dataset comprises assessments administered to participants, including the Mathematics Motivation Questionnaire, Reading Comprehension Assessment, Algebra Assessment, Statistics Assessment, and Coding Assessment. Participants were divided into two sections: one utilizing R and the other utilizing SPSS for …


Modeling Of Covid-19 Clinical Outcomes In Mexico: An Analysis Of Demographic, Clinical, And Chronic Disease Factors, Livia Clarete Feb 2024

Modeling Of Covid-19 Clinical Outcomes In Mexico: An Analysis Of Demographic, Clinical, And Chronic Disease Factors, Livia Clarete

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study explores COVID-19 clinical outcomes in Mexico, focusing on demographic, clinical, and chronic disease variables to develop predictive models. In the binary classification task, the Ada Boost Classifier distinguishes survivors from non-survivors, with age, sex, ethnicity, and chronic medical conditions influencing outcomes. In multiclass classification, the Gradient Boosting Classifier categorizes patients into outcome groups.

Demographic variables, especially age, are crucial for predicting COVID-19 outcomes for both the binary and multiclass classification tasks. Clinical information about previous conditions, including chronic diseases, also holds relevance, especially diabetes, immunocompromise, and cardiovascular diseases. These insights inform public health measures and healthcare strategies, emphasizing …


Stereospecific Cross-Coupling Reactions Of Vinyl Triflates And An Investigation Of The Synthesis And Reactivity Of Activated Alkyltricyclohexylstannanes, Pejman Ghaemimohammadi Feb 2024

Stereospecific Cross-Coupling Reactions Of Vinyl Triflates And An Investigation Of The Synthesis And Reactivity Of Activated Alkyltricyclohexylstannanes, Pejman Ghaemimohammadi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Organic chemistry exists in all aspects of everyday life from polymers to pharmaceutics. Formation of carbon-carbon bonds is essential for the synthesis of complex organic compounds. This goal can be achieved by using transition metal catalysts. Second-row transition metals such as Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ir have shown remarkable efficacy in these reactions. Metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions form carbon-carbon bonds between electrophiles and nucleophiles using transition metal catalysts. Pd is mainly used in this reaction.

Transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions that form a bond between two C(sp2) carbons have been widely studied over the past decades. C(sp2)-C(sp3 …


New Effective Transformational Computational Methods, Jun Zhang, Ruzong Fan, Fangyang Shen, Junyi Tu Feb 2024

New Effective Transformational Computational Methods, Jun Zhang, Ruzong Fan, Fangyang Shen, Junyi Tu

Publications and Research

Mathematics serves as a fundamental intelligent theoretic basis for computation, and mathematical analysis is very useful to develop computational methods to solve various problems in science and engineering. Integral transforms such as Laplace Transform have been playing an important role in computational methods. In this paper, we will introduce Sumudu Transform in a new computational approach, in which effective computational methods will be developed and implemented. Such computational methods are straightforward to understand, but powerful to incorporate into computational science to solve different problems automatically. We will provide computational analysis and essentiality by surveying and summarizing some related recent works, …


New Algorithmic Support For The Fundamental Theorem Of Algebra, Vitaly Zaderman Feb 2024

New Algorithmic Support For The Fundamental Theorem Of Algebra, Vitaly Zaderman

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Univariate polynomial root-finding is a venerated subjects of Mathematics and Computational Mathematics studied for four millenia. In 1924 Herman Weyl published a seminal root-finder and called it an algorithmic proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. Steve Smale in 1981 and Arnold Schonhage in 1982 proposed to classify such algorithmic proofs in terms of their computational complexity. This prompted extensive research in 1980s and 1990s, culminated in a divide-and-conquer polynomial root-finder by Victor Pan at ACM STOC 1995, which used a near optimal number of bit-operations. The algorithm approximates all roots of a polynomial p almost as fast as one …


Exciton Dynamics, Interaction, And Transport In Monolayers Of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides, Saroj Chand Feb 2024

Exciton Dynamics, Interaction, And Transport In Monolayers Of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides, Saroj Chand

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Monolayers Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted much attention in recent years due to their promising optical and electronic properties for applications in optoelectronic devices. The rich multivalley band structure and sizable spin-orbit coupling in monolayer TMDs result in several optically bright and dark excitonic states with different spin and valley configurations. In the proposed works, we have developed experimental techniques and theoretical models to study the dynamics, interactions, and transport of both dark and bright excitons.

In W-based monolayers of TMDs, the momentum dark exciton cannot typically recombine optically, but they represent the lowest excitonic state of the system …


Evaluating The Reliability And Accuracy Of Alchemical Binding Free Energy Methods And Calculations, Fnu Sheenam Feb 2024

Evaluating The Reliability And Accuracy Of Alchemical Binding Free Energy Methods And Calculations, Fnu Sheenam

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Molecular recognition plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as enzymatic reactions, signal transduction, and genetic information processing. Investigating how proteins selectively bind to their partners is an active research area, but there is a lack of experimental details on protein structures and interactions in molecular complexes. Computational techniques based on macromolecular structures offer a way to predict protein-ligand interactions and explore their recognition mechanisms. Estimating binding affinities, particularly through alchemical binding free energy calculations, has become valuable in supporting drug discovery. This work introduces new methodologies, utilizing the Alchemical Transfer Method, to address issues like poor convergence …


Clustering Of Patients With Heart Disease, Mukadder Cinar Feb 2024

Clustering Of Patients With Heart Disease, Mukadder Cinar

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Heart disease, a leading cause of mortality worldwide, presents complex challenges in public health due to its varied manifestations. Accurate diagnosis and patient stratification are essential for effective management and improved outcomes. In response, this study employed machine learning techniques to analyze heart disease data obtained from UCI Machine Learning Repository, aiming to enhance patient care through advanced data analysis.

The study began with the application of K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) classification, which categorized patients into 'Disease' and 'No Disease' groups. This preliminary step provided initial insights into the structure of the dataset. Subsequently, K-means clustering was applied in two rounds, …


Examining The Health Risks Of Particulate Matter 2.5 In New York City: How It Affects Marginalized Groups And The Steps Needed To Reduce Air Pollution, Freddy Castro Feb 2024

Examining The Health Risks Of Particulate Matter 2.5 In New York City: How It Affects Marginalized Groups And The Steps Needed To Reduce Air Pollution, Freddy Castro

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The following examines the impact of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) on public health, focusing on its sources and effects on vulnerable populations in New York City. PM2.5 is a particle that is 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter and, because of its size, can enter the bloodstream affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular systems and further complicating the health of the immunocompromised. Recent studies have shown that PM2.5 can come from various sources, including transportation and industrial emissions, as well as indoor sources like cigarettes and gas-operated stoves. Despite reduced levels of PM2.5 due to recent policy changes and initiatives taken …


What Does One Billion Dollars Look Like?: Visualizing Extreme Wealth, William Mahoney Luckman Feb 2024

What Does One Billion Dollars Look Like?: Visualizing Extreme Wealth, William Mahoney Luckman

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The word “billion” is a mathematical abstraction related to “big,” but it is difficult to understand the vast difference in value between one million and one billion; even harder to understand the vast difference in purchasing power between one billion dollars, and the average U.S. yearly income. Perhaps most difficult to conceive of is what that purchasing power and huge mass of capital translates to in terms of power. This project blends design, text, facts, and figures into an interactive narrative website that helps the user better understand their position in relation to extreme wealth: https://whatdoesonebilliondollarslooklike.website/

The site incorporates …


Making Sense Of Making Parole In New York, Alexandra Mcglinchy Feb 2024

Making Sense Of Making Parole In New York, Alexandra Mcglinchy

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

For many individuals incarcerated in New York, the initial step toward freedom begins with an interview with the Board of Parole. This process, however, is frequently a complex and challenging one, characterized by repeated denials and extended incarcerations. The disparity in outcomes – where one individual may receive over 20 denials and another is granted parole on their first attempt – highlights the ambiguity and inconsistency in the parole decision-making process. This project aims to clarify the factors that influence parole decisions by concentrating on measurable variables. These include age, race, duration of sentence served, proportion of sentence served, type …


Towards Sociobiogeochemistry: Critical Perspectives On Anthropogenic Alterations To Soil Nitrogen Chemistry Via U.S. Urban And Suburban Development, Christopher D. Ryan Feb 2024

Towards Sociobiogeochemistry: Critical Perspectives On Anthropogenic Alterations To Soil Nitrogen Chemistry Via U.S. Urban And Suburban Development, Christopher D. Ryan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The ecological impacts of changes to land use are relevant to concerns about climate change, eutrophication of waterbodies, and reductions in biodiversity. As a foundational component of ecosystem functioning, changes to soil biogeochemistry have significant effects on overall ecosystem health. With cities continuing to grow and develop in extent, the impacts of urbanization and suburbanization on soils are of particular concern. Despite a wide range of natural climatic and geologic conditions, several factors have driven similar patterns of land transformation and management across the United States. In particular, federal initiatives including the Home Owners Loan Corporation, the Federal Housing Administration, …


Trees In Urban Environments: How Soil Quality Impacts Tree Performance, Saidan Qi Feb 2024

Trees In Urban Environments: How Soil Quality Impacts Tree Performance, Saidan Qi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cities around the world are increasingly investing in reforestation and afforestation efforts to mitigate impacts from climate change and population growth. However, urban soil conditions can be unfavorable for tree growth. Street trees are widely known to suffer from poor soil quality, but there has been no comprehensive review of this topic so far. Clean soils can be transported from nonurban areas to support cities’ green projects, but this approach is not sustainable. Artificial (constructed) soils can be created from various materials and have been proposed as an alternative medium for urban tree growth, but no research has been done …


Containerization Of Seafarers In The International Shipping Industry: Contemporary Seamanship, Maritime Social Infrastructures, And Mobility Politics Of Global Logistics, Liang Wu Feb 2024

Containerization Of Seafarers In The International Shipping Industry: Contemporary Seamanship, Maritime Social Infrastructures, And Mobility Politics Of Global Logistics, Liang Wu

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation discusses the mobility politics of container shipping and argues that technological development, political-economic order, and social infrastructure co-produce one another. Containerization, the use of standardized containers to carry cargo across modes of transportation that is said to have revolutionized and globalized international trade since the late 1950s, has served to expand and extend the power of international coalitions of states and corporations to control the movements of commodities (shipments) and labor (seafarers). The advent and development of containerization was driven by a sociotechnical imaginary and international social contract of seamless shipping and cargo flows. In practice, this liberal, …


Deep Learning-Based Human Action Understanding In Videos, Elahe Vahdani Feb 2024

Deep Learning-Based Human Action Understanding In Videos, Elahe Vahdani

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The understanding of human actions in videos holds immense potential for technological advancement and societal betterment. This thesis explores fundamental aspects of this field, including action recognition in trimmed clips and action localization in untrimmed videos. Trimmed videos contain only one action instance, with moments before or after the action excluded from the video. However, the majority of videos captured in unconstrained environments, often referred to as untrimmed videos, are naturally unsegmented. Untrimmed videos are typically lengthy and may encompass multiple action instances, along with the moments preceding or following each action, as well as transitions between actions. In the …