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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Exploring The Effectiveness Of Multiple-Exemplar Training For Visual Analysis Of Ab-Design Graphs, Verena S. Bethke Jun 2022

Exploring The Effectiveness Of Multiple-Exemplar Training For Visual Analysis Of Ab-Design Graphs, Verena S. Bethke

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In behavior analysis, data are usually analyzed using visual analysis of the graphed data. There are a wide range of methods used to visually analyze data, from a basic ‘textbook’ style approach to the use of visual aids, decision-rubrics, and computer-based approaches. In the literature, there have been some comparisons of the efficacy of different approaches. Visual analysis as a behavior can be taught using a variety of methods, independent of how the skill itself is to be performed. Teaching methods include lecture, online instruction, and equivalence-based instruction. There is not much research on the teaching of visual analysis specifically ...


The Zariski-Riemann Space As A Universal Model For The Birational Geometry Of A Function Field, Giovan Battista Pignatti Morano Di Custoza Jun 2022

The Zariski-Riemann Space As A Universal Model For The Birational Geometry Of A Function Field, Giovan Battista Pignatti Morano Di Custoza

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Given a function field $K$ over an algebraically closed field $k$, we propose to use the Zariski-Riemann space $\ZR (K/k)$ of valuation rings as a universal model that governs the birational geometry of the field extension $K/k$. More specifically, we find an exact correspondence between ad-hoc collections of open subsets of $\ZR (K/k)$ ordered by quasi-refinements and the category of normal models of $K/k$ with morphisms the birational maps. We then introduce suitable Grothendieck topologies and we develop a sheaf theory on $\ZR (K/k)$ which induces, locally at once, the sheaf theory of each normal ...


Symmetries, Zero Modes And Light Transport In Non-Hermitian Photonics, Jose David Hernandez Rivero Jun 2022

Symmetries, Zero Modes And Light Transport In Non-Hermitian Photonics, Jose David Hernandez Rivero

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

We approach some fundamental aspects of photonic dissipative systems treated by a non-Hermitian theory. Inspired by the possibilities provided by some major non-Hermitian symmetries, we study systematically the properties of the novel pseudochirality, pseudo-anti-Hermiticity, and supersymmetry. We analyze other aspect of photonics, the zero mode, which has a profound connection to non-Hermitian physics. We propose a scheme to realize a zero mode that exists even in the absence of symmetries. Finally, we approach light transport in non-Hermitian photonic systems, where the introduction of gain and loss can modify drastically the propagation speed of wavepackets.


Phase Transitions, Critical Phenomena, And Correlation Functions In The 2d Ising Model And Its Applications To Quantum Dynamics: A Tensor Network Approach, Sankhya Basu Jun 2022

Phase Transitions, Critical Phenomena, And Correlation Functions In The 2d Ising Model And Its Applications To Quantum Dynamics: A Tensor Network Approach, Sankhya Basu

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis explores several aspects of the 2D Ising Model at both real and complex temperatures utilizing tensor network algorithms. We briefly discuss the importance of tensor networks in the context of forming efficient representations of wavefunctions and partition functions for quantum and classical many-body systems respectively, followed by a brief review of the tensor network renormalization algorithms to compute the one point and two point correlation functions. We use the Tensor Renormalization Group (TRG) to study critical phenomena and examine feasibility of accurate estimations of universal critical data for three critical points for three critical points in two dimensions ...


Optical Studies Of Wide Bandgap Photonic Materials, Nikesh Maharjan Jun 2022

Optical Studies Of Wide Bandgap Photonic Materials, Nikesh Maharjan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this dissertation work, optical properties of wide bandgap materials such as hexagonal Boron Nitride (h-BN) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) have been studied. Deep UV photoluminescence spectroscopy was employed to study the optical properties of bulk h-BN and powder crystals using a laser of wavelength 200 nm, which is the fourth harmonic of Ti:Sapphire laser as excitation source. The properties and chemical compositions of annealed and unannealed bulk h-BN were investigated. The PL spectra from h-BN samples annealed at 900 ºC in ambient air, had strong phonon assisted band edge emissions along with a sharp atomic-like emission line at ...


Understanding Coastal And Inland Hydrometeorological Hazards Produced By Extratropical And Tropical Cyclones Along The East Coast Of The United States, Katherine Towey Jun 2022

Understanding Coastal And Inland Hydrometeorological Hazards Produced By Extratropical And Tropical Cyclones Along The East Coast Of The United States, Katherine Towey

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As global temperatures continue to rise, the effects of anthropogenic climate change will impact the magnitude and frequency of pluvial, fluvial, and coastal flooding events. If we want to accurately predict changes in these flooding events, we need to fully understand them in the current climate. As such, this research examines the relationship between hydrometeorological hazards and the characteristics of the storm types, such as extratropical cyclones (ETCs) and tropical cyclones (TCs), that produce such hazards. Through the use of observational and reanalysis data, the work herein utilizes a cyclone-hazard association algorithm and extreme value analysis to assess the extent ...


Coded Distributed Function Computation, Pedro J. Soto Jun 2022

Coded Distributed Function Computation, Pedro J. Soto

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A ubiquitous problem in computer science research is the optimization of computation on large data sets. Such computations are usually too large to be performed on one machine and therefore the task needs to be distributed amongst a network of machines. However, a common problem within distributed computing is the mitigation of delays caused by faulty machines. This can be performed by the use of coding theory to optimize the amount of redundancy needed to handle such faults. This problem differs from classical coding theory since it is concerned with the dynamic coded computation on data rather than just statically ...


Challenges In Migrating Imperative Deep Learning Programs To Graph Execution: An Empirical Study, Tatiana Castro Vélez, Raffi T. Khatchadourian, Mehdi Bagherzadeh, Anita Raja May 2022

Challenges In Migrating Imperative Deep Learning Programs To Graph Execution: An Empirical Study, Tatiana Castro Vélez, Raffi T. Khatchadourian, Mehdi Bagherzadeh, Anita Raja

Publications and Research

Efficiency is essential to support responsiveness w.r.t. ever-growing datasets, especially for Deep Learning (DL) systems. DL frameworks have traditionally embraced deferred execution-style DL code that supports symbolic, graph-based Deep Neural Network (DNN) computation. While scalable, such development tends to produce DL code that is error-prone, non-intuitive, and difficult to debug. Consequently, more natural, less error-prone imperative DL frameworks encouraging eager execution have emerged at the expense of run-time performance. While hybrid approaches aim for the "best of both worlds," the challenges in applying them in the real world are largely unknown. We conduct a data-driven analysis of challenges ...


A Tool For Rejuvenating Feature Logging Levels Via Git Histories And Degree Of Interest, Yiming Tang, Allan Spektor, Raffi T. Khatchadourian, Mehdi Bagherzadeh May 2022

A Tool For Rejuvenating Feature Logging Levels Via Git Histories And Degree Of Interest, Yiming Tang, Allan Spektor, Raffi T. Khatchadourian, Mehdi Bagherzadeh

Publications and Research

Logging is a significant programming practice. Due to the highly transactional nature of modern software applications, a massive amount of logs are generated every day, which may overwhelm developers. Logging information overload can be dangerous to software applications. Using log levels, developers can print the useful information while hiding the verbose logs during software runtime. As software evolves, the log levels of logging statements associated with the surrounding software feature implementation may also need to be altered. Maintaining log levels necessitates a significant amount of manual effort. In this paper, we demonstrate an automated approach that can rejuvenate feature log ...


Superfluidity Of Dipolar Excitons In A Double Layer Of Α -T3 With A Mass Term, Oleg L. Berman, Godfrey Gumbs, Gabriel P. Martins, Paula Fekete Apr 2022

Superfluidity Of Dipolar Excitons In A Double Layer Of Α -T3 With A Mass Term, Oleg L. Berman, Godfrey Gumbs, Gabriel P. Martins, Paula Fekete

Publications and Research

We predict Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity of dipolar excitons, formed by electron-hole pairs in spatially separated gapped hexagonal α − T3 (GHAT3) layers. In the α − T3 model, the AB-honeycomb lattice structure is supplemented with C atoms located at the centers of the hexagons in the lattice. We considered the α − T3 model in the presence of a mass term which opens a gap in the energy-dispersive spectrum. The gap opening mass term, caused by a weak magnetic field, plays the role of Zeeman splitting at low magnetic fields for this pseudospin-1 system. The band structure of GHAT3 monolayers leads to ...


The Solar-Electric Sail: Application To Interstellar Migration And Consequences For Seti, Gregory Matloff Apr 2022

The Solar-Electric Sail: Application To Interstellar Migration And Consequences For Seti, Gregory Matloff

Publications and Research

The Solar-Electric Sail accelerates by reflecting positively charged solar wind ions. If it is used to propel an interstellar migration mission, its interstellar cruise velocity relative to the home star cannot exceed the solar wind velocity. In an effort to analytically determine interstellar cruise velocity for a 107 kg generation ship, a constant solar wind velocity within the heliosphere of a Sun-like star of 600 km/s is assumed. The solar wind proton density at 1 AU is also considered constant at 10 protons per cubic centimeter. Solar wind density is assumed to decrease with the inverse square of solar ...


Applied Math In Introductory Chemistry, Ji Kim, Grace Pai Apr 2022

Applied Math In Introductory Chemistry, Ji Kim, Grace Pai

Open Educational Resources

Students, particularly those who are non-science majors, often struggle with college-level science courses required for graduation due to the applied mathematics needed to successfully complete the course. This resource includes four activities on the topics of units and measurements, dimensional analysis, density, and gases. These topics were specifically designed to teach the mathematics embedded in these topics in a culturally responsive way. Throughout the activities, we incorporate these four elements of culturally relevant pedagogy (Ladson-Billings, 2009) in order to engage students in successfully solving basic mathematics in chemistry while promoting their interest in learning chemistry.


Cosmogenic Ages Indicate No Mis 2 Refugia In The Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, Caleb K. Walcott, Jason P. Briner, James F. Baichtal, Alia J. Lesnek, Joseph M. Licciardi Apr 2022

Cosmogenic Ages Indicate No Mis 2 Refugia In The Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, Caleb K. Walcott, Jason P. Briner, James F. Baichtal, Alia J. Lesnek, Joseph M. Licciardi

Publications and Research

The late-Pleistocene history of the coastal Cordilleran Ice Sheet remains relatively unstudied compared to chronologies of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Yet accurate reconstructions of Cordilleran Ice Sheet extent and the timing of ice retreat along the Pacific Coast are essential for paleoclimate modeling, assessing meltwater contribution to the North Pacific, and determining the availability of ice-free land along the coastal Cordilleran Ice Sheet margin for human migration from Beringia into the rest of the Americas. To improve the chronology of Cordilleran Ice Sheet history in the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, we applied 10Be and 36Cl dating to boulders and glacially sculpted ...


Geology Online Lab Activities An Open Educational Resource For Community College Students And Instructors, Rondi Davies Mar 2022

Geology Online Lab Activities An Open Educational Resource For Community College Students And Instructors, Rondi Davies

Open Educational Resources

The online geology lab for community college students was developed by Dr. Rondi Davies, a faculty member at Queensborough Community College, City University New York, during two years of forced online synchronous learning brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic. This open educational resource collects many of Dr. Davies’ favorite open-access materials and supplements them with her own work within a single, cohesive laboratory manual intended for two-year, non-major college students from the New York area.

Dr. Davies wanted to develop labs that were fun, engaging, and that excited students about the subject, were relevant to their lives, helped them to ...


Spatial Downscaling Of Goes-R Land Surface Temperature Over Urban Regions: A Case Study For New York City, Abdou Bah, Hamidreza Norouzi, Satya Prakash, Reginald Blake, Reza Khanbilvardi, Cynthia Rosenzweig Feb 2022

Spatial Downscaling Of Goes-R Land Surface Temperature Over Urban Regions: A Case Study For New York City, Abdou Bah, Hamidreza Norouzi, Satya Prakash, Reginald Blake, Reza Khanbilvardi, Cynthia Rosenzweig

Publications and Research

The surface urban heat island (SUHI) effect is among the major environmental issues encountered in urban regions. To better predict the dynamics of the SUHI and its impacts on extreme heat events, an accurate characterization of the surface energy balance in urban regions is needed. However, the ability to improve understanding of the surface energy balance is limited by the heterogeneity of surfaces in urban areas. This study aims to enhance the understanding of the urban surface energy budget through an innovation in the use of land surface temperature (LST) observations from remote sensing satellites. A LST database with 5 ...


Diagnosis Of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy From Fluorescein Angiography Using Deep Learning, Yu-Yeh Tsai, Wei-Yang Ling, Shih-Jen Chen, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk, Cheng-Ho King, Chia-Ling Tsai Feb 2022

Diagnosis Of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy From Fluorescein Angiography Using Deep Learning, Yu-Yeh Tsai, Wei-Yang Ling, Shih-Jen Chen, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk, Cheng-Ho King, Chia-Ling Tsai

Publications and Research

Purpose: To differentiate polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) from choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and to determine the extent of PCV from fluorescein angiography (FA) using attention-based deep learning networks.

Methods: We build two deep learning networks for diagnosis of PCV using FA, one for detection and one for segmentation. Attention-gated convolutional neural network (AG-CNN) differentiates PCV from other types of wet age-related macular degeneration. Gradient-weighted class activation map (Grad-CAM) is generated to highlight important regions in the image for making the prediction, which offers explainability of the network. Attention-gated recurrent neural network (AG-PCVNet) for spatiotemporal prediction is applied for segmentation of PCV ...


Identifying, Evaluating And Applying Importance Maps For Speech, Viet Anh Trinh Feb 2022

Identifying, Evaluating And Applying Importance Maps For Speech, Viet Anh Trinh

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Like many machine learning systems, speech models often perform well when employed on data in the same domain as their training data. However, when the inference is on out-of-domain data, performance suffers. With a fast-growing number of applications of speech models in healthcare, education, automotive, automation, etc., it is essential to ensure that speech models can generalize to out-of-domain data, especially to noisy environments in real-world scenarios. In contrast, human listeners are quite robust to noisy environments. Thus, a thorough understanding of the differences between human listeners and speech models is urgently required to enhance speech model performance in noise ...


Usability Of Health-Related Websites By Filipino-American Adults And Nursing Informatics Experts, Kathleen Begonia Feb 2022

Usability Of Health-Related Websites By Filipino-American Adults And Nursing Informatics Experts, Kathleen Begonia

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Filipino-Americans are an understudied minority group with high prevalence and mortality from chronic conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Facing barriers to care and lack of culturally appropriate health resources, they frequently use the internet to obtain health information. It is unknown whether they perceive health-related websites to be useful or easy to use because there are no published usability studies involving this population. Using the Technology Acceptance Model as a theoretical framework, this study investigated the difference between website design ratings by experts and the perceptions of Filipino-American users to determine if usability guidelines influenced the perceived ease ...


Representation Learning For Chemical Activity Predictions, Mohamed S. Ayed Feb 2022

Representation Learning For Chemical Activity Predictions, Mohamed S. Ayed

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Computational prediction of a phenotypic response upon the chemical perturbation on a biological system plays an important role in drug discovery and many other applications. Chemical fingerprints derived from chemical structures are a widely used feature to build machine learning models. However, the fingerprints ignore the biological context, thus, they suffer from several problems such as the activity cliff and curse of dimensionality. Fundamentally, the chemical modulation of biological activities is a multi-scale process. It is the genome-wide chemical-target interactions that modulate chemical phenotypic responses. Thus, the genome-scale chemical-target interaction profile will more directly correlate with in vitro and in ...


Blockchain: Key Principles, Nadezda Chikurova Feb 2022

Blockchain: Key Principles, Nadezda Chikurova

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

“Blockchain: Key Principles” is an interactive visual project that explains the importance of data privacy and security, decentralized computing, and open-source software in the modern digital world through the history of the underlying principles of blockchain technology. Some of these key concepts have their roots in the time before the Information Age. By explaining the history of these principles, I want to present the fact that over the past centuries, humanity has been fighting for their privacy, security, and the ability to efficiently express themselves one way or another. Blockchain technology, which was introduced to the public in 2008 through ...


Slices Of The Big Apple: A Visual Explanation And Analysis Of The New York City Budget, Joanne Ramadani Feb 2022

Slices Of The Big Apple: A Visual Explanation And Analysis Of The New York City Budget, Joanne Ramadani

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As a component of government, budgets are fundamental not only to improving the quality of a shared society, but also to understanding what our government officials consider to be their priorities. However, most budgets can be difficult to understand, using terms that are not familiar to people who have not studied finance or economics. To that end, Slices of the Big Apple is an interactive, centralized narrative website that uses visualizations at its core in order to: 1) facilitate a holistic understanding of the New York City government budget for NYC residents; and 2) conduct a five-year analysis of Community ...


Water-Based Lead Generation, Brian Olson Feb 2022

Water-Based Lead Generation, Brian Olson

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Water-based Lead Generation. The opioid epidemic and the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are current serious challenges whose devastating effects could be assuaged through the development of new drugs. Opioids that are functional painkillers, that are less likely to cause overdose, and small molecule drugs that could inhibit the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 would be useful. The work herein investigated the use of water molecules for lead generation in drug development against opioid receptors and SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. In opioid receptor binding sites, purported bridging waters were obtained from crystal waters or from molecular dynamics simulations, as Hydration Site Analysis was used to ...


Charge Transport And Spin Dynamics Of Color Centers In Diamond, Damon Daw Feb 2022

Charge Transport And Spin Dynamics Of Color Centers In Diamond, Damon Daw

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Solid state defects in diamond are promising candidates for room temperature quantum information processors (1, 3, 5). Chief among these defects is the nitrogen vacancy center (‘NV center’ or ‘NV’). The NV has long coherence times (at 300K) and its state is easily initialized, manipulated and read out (5). However, the outstanding issue of entangling NV centers in a scalable fashion, at room temperature remains a challenge. This thesis presents experimental and theoretical work aimed at achieving this goal by developing the ‘flying qubit’ framework in (1). This method for remote entanglement utilizes a charge carrier (initialized into a definite ...


A Call For The Library Community To Deploy Best Practices Toward A Database For Biocultural Knowledge Relating To Climate Change, Martha B. Lerski Jan 2022

A Call For The Library Community To Deploy Best Practices Toward A Database For Biocultural Knowledge Relating To Climate Change, Martha B. Lerski

Publications and Research

Abstract

Purpose – In this paper, a call to the library and information science community to support documentation and conservation of cultural and biocultural heritage has been presented.

Design/methodology/approach – Based in existing Literature, this proposal is generative and descriptive— rather than prescriptive—regarding precisely how libraries should collaborate to employ technical and ethical best practices to provide access to vital data, research and cultural narratives relating to climate.

Findings – COVID-19 and climate destruction signal urgent global challenges. Library best practices are positioned to respond to climate change. Literature indicates how libraries preserve, share and cross-link cultural and scientific knowledge ...


A Monolithic 3d Printed Axisymmetric Co-Flow Single And Compound Emulsion Generator, Amirreza Ghaznavi, Yang Lin, Mark Douvidzon, Adam Szmelter, Alannah Rodrigues, Malik Blackman, David Eddington, Tal Carmon, Lev Deych, Lan Yang, Jie Xu Jan 2022

A Monolithic 3d Printed Axisymmetric Co-Flow Single And Compound Emulsion Generator, Amirreza Ghaznavi, Yang Lin, Mark Douvidzon, Adam Szmelter, Alannah Rodrigues, Malik Blackman, David Eddington, Tal Carmon, Lev Deych, Lan Yang, Jie Xu

Publications and Research

We report a microfluidic droplet generator which can produce single and compound droplets using a 3D axisymmetric co-flow structure. The design considered for the fabrication of the device integrated a user-friendly and cost-effective 3D printing process. To verify the performance of the device, single and compound emulsions of deionized water and mineral oil were generated and their features such as size, generation frequency, and emulsion structures were successfully characterized. In addition, the generation of bio emulsions such as alginate and collagen aqueous droplets in mineral oil was demonstrated in this study. Overall, the monolithic 3D printed axisymmetric droplet generator could ...


Trapped Surfaces, Topology Of Black Holes, And The Positive Mass Theorem, Lan-Hsuan Huang, Dan A. Lee Jan 2022

Trapped Surfaces, Topology Of Black Holes, And The Positive Mass Theorem, Lan-Hsuan Huang, Dan A. Lee

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Satellite Evidence Of Canopy-Height Dependence Of Forest Drought Resistance In Southwestern China, Peipei Xu, Wei Fang, Tao Zhou, Hu Li, Xiang Zhao, Spencer Berman, Ting Zhang, Chuixiang Yi Jan 2022

Satellite Evidence Of Canopy-Height Dependence Of Forest Drought Resistance In Southwestern China, Peipei Xu, Wei Fang, Tao Zhou, Hu Li, Xiang Zhao, Spencer Berman, Ting Zhang, Chuixiang Yi

Publications and Research

The frequency and intensity of drought events are increasing with warming climate, which has resulted in worldwide forest mortality. Previous studies have reached a general consensus on the size-dependency of forest resistance to drought, but further understanding at a local scale remains ambiguous with conflicting evidence. In this study, we assessed the impact of canopy height on forest drought resistance in the broadleaf deciduous forest of southwestern China for the 2010 extreme drought event using linear regression and a random forest (RF) model. Drought condition was quantified with standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and drought resistance was measured with the ...


Combinatorial Optimization With Photonics-Inspired Clock Models, Mostafa Honari-Latifpour, Matthew S. Mills, Mohammad-Ali Miri Jan 2022

Combinatorial Optimization With Photonics-Inspired Clock Models, Mostafa Honari-Latifpour, Matthew S. Mills, Mohammad-Ali Miri

Publications and Research

NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems are in general hard problems that their computational complexity grows faster than polynomial scaling with the size of the problem. Thus, over the years there has been a great interest in developing unconventional methods and algorithms for solving such problems. Here, inspired by the nonlinear optical process of q-photon down-conversion, in which a photon is converted into q degenerate lower energy photons, we introduce a nonlinear dynamical model that builds on coupled single-variable phase oscillators and allows for efficiently approximating the ground state of the classical q-state planar Potts Hamiltonian. This reduces the exhaustive search in ...


Topics In Analytic Number Theory And Consecutive Primitive Roots, Nelson Carella Dec 2021

Topics In Analytic Number Theory And Consecutive Primitive Roots, Nelson Carella

Publications and Research

This monograph proves the existence of various configurations of $(k+1)$-tuples of consecutive and quasi consecutive primitive roots $n+a_0, n+a_1, n+a_2, ,,,, n+a_k$ in the finite field $\F_p$, where $a_0,a_1, \ldots, a_k$ is a fixed $(k+1)$-tuples of distinct integers.


Cuny York College–Hosted Nasa Stem Outreach Program Graduates Over 30,000 Students – The Legacy Continues Amidst The Covid-19 Pandemic, Nazrul I. Khandaker Dec 2021

Cuny York College–Hosted Nasa Stem Outreach Program Graduates Over 30,000 Students – The Legacy Continues Amidst The Covid-19 Pandemic, Nazrul I. Khandaker

Publications and Research

The NASA MUREP (Minority University Research and Education Project) and SEMAA (Science, Engineering, Mathematics and Aerospace Academy) at York College CUNY (City University of New York), borough of Queens, New York City, recently earned a distinction by graduating over 30,000 underrepresented minority students since 1999 with the culmination of the fall 2021 session! African American students are leading the graduates, followed by Hispanic and Asian students being almost equal in proportion. The primary objective of both MAA (MUREP Aerospace Academy) and SEMAA is getting underrepresented minority students exposure to innovative STEM content and prepare many of them to enter ...