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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Dendrimer-Based Antibiotics For The Treatment Of Bacterial Biofilm In Cystic Fibrosis (Cf), Younan Ma Jan 2021

Dendrimer-Based Antibiotics For The Treatment Of Bacterial Biofilm In Cystic Fibrosis (Cf), Younan Ma

Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the predominant pathogen in chronic lung infections of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The most important mechanism of adaptation of PA to host defense and antibiotic treatment is the formation of biofilms within the mucus layer covering the lung bronchi. The effectiveness of antibiotics such as aminoglycosides is significantly attenuated by their limited penetration through thick mucus and embedded biofilm matrix in patients’ lung. Inhaled tobramycin (Tobra), which is the most commonly used antibiotics in the treatment of PA infections for CF patients, is usually found to be in very high concentration in patients’ lung, and yet …


Prevalence Of The Hypervirulent Nap1/Bi/027 Strain Of C. Difficile In Southwestern Virginia And Risk Factors Associated With Infection, Andrew O. Hanna, Anthony Baffoe-Bonnie, Shikha Vasudeva Jan 2020

Prevalence Of The Hypervirulent Nap1/Bi/027 Strain Of C. Difficile In Southwestern Virginia And Risk Factors Associated With Infection, Andrew O. Hanna, Anthony Baffoe-Bonnie, Shikha Vasudeva

Graduate Medical Education (GME) Resident and Fellow Research Day Posters

C. difficile infection (CDI) incidence has increased over the last several decades. The BI/NAP1/027 ribotype was discovered in 2005 and has since been responsible for multiple outbreaks in the US and Canada. This subtype of C. Difficile is known to be more virulent in vivo and produce more severe disease. Limited regional data of the prevalence of this ribotype is available, which could help guide treatment. Using infection control data from a large regional hospital and a VA medical center, this study documented the prevalence of the 027 ribotype in Southwest Virginia. Patients were included if they were tested at …


Characterization Of The Gonococcal Calprotectin Zn-Acquisition System, Tdfh, And The Efficacy Of Metal Starvation For Treating Gonococcal Disease, Michael T. Kammerman Jan 2020

Characterization Of The Gonococcal Calprotectin Zn-Acquisition System, Tdfh, And The Efficacy Of Metal Starvation For Treating Gonococcal Disease, Michael T. Kammerman

Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Characterization of the Gonococcal Calprotectin Zn-Acquisition System, TdfH, and the Efficacy of Metal Starvation for Treating Gonococcal Disease.

By Michael T. Kammerman, B.S.

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Virginia Commonwealth University

Virginia Commonwealth University, 2020

Major Director: Cynthia Nau Cornelissen, Ph.D.

Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology

Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacterial agent that is responsible for the human disease gonorrhea, has had a steady increase in the number of infections per year. In 2018 the WHO estimated over 87 million infections occurred world-wide, and the CDC …


Prediction Of The Vaginal Microbiome Using Urine Samples, Christopher R. Diachok Jan 2020

Prediction Of The Vaginal Microbiome Using Urine Samples, Christopher R. Diachok

Theses and Dissertations

The vaginal microbiome is associated with women’s health, including but not limited to the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis, adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth and sexually transmitted infections. However, there has been very limited research on the urinary microbiome and its relationship to the vaginal microbiome. We sought to predict the vaginal microbiome profile using clean catch urine samples from the same person. Here, paired vaginal and urine samples were collected and sequenced by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Alpha and beta diversity analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the paired vaginal and urine microbiomes. In fact, a …


The Role Of Manganese In Streptococcus Sanguinis, Tanya M. Puccio Jan 2020

The Role Of Manganese In Streptococcus Sanguinis, Tanya M. Puccio

Theses and Dissertations

Streptococcus sanguinis is primarily associated with oral health as a commensal bacterium. As an opportunistic pathogen, S. sanguinis is capable of colonizing heart valve vegetations, leading to the disease infective endocarditis. Previous studies from our lab have identified the high-affinity manganese transporter SsaACB as important for endocarditis virulence. The impact that manganese depletion has on S. sanguinis had never been evaluated and a secondary manganese transporter has not been identified. Thus, we employed the use of a fermentor to control large-scale growth over time and depleted manganese in an ΔssaACB mutant using a metal chelator, EDTA. The changes in …


Examination Of Strain-Dependent Differences In S. Sanguinis Virulence And Growth, Shannon Baker Jan 2019

Examination Of Strain-Dependent Differences In S. Sanguinis Virulence And Growth, Shannon Baker

Theses and Dissertations

Streptococcus sanguinis, an abundant and benign inhabitant of the oral cavity, is an important etiologic agent of infective endocarditis, particularly in people with pre-disposing cardiac valvular damage. Although commonly isolated from patients with IE, little is known about the factors that make any particular S. sanguinis isolate more virulent than another or, indeed, whether significant differences in virulence exist among isolates. To investigate the virulence of multiple isolates, a variation of the Bar-seq (barcode sequencing) method was employed. A conserved chromosomal site was identified for subsequent insertion of a barcode identifier, unique for each strain. Barcode insertion did not …


Usefulness Of The Captia Syphilis Igg Eia Test Method And Reverse Algorithm For Detection Of Syphilis Infection In A Public Health Setting, Patricia Armour Jan 2018

Usefulness Of The Captia Syphilis Igg Eia Test Method And Reverse Algorithm For Detection Of Syphilis Infection In A Public Health Setting, Patricia Armour

Theses and Dissertations

Syphilis, a systemic sexually transmitted disease, is on the rise in the US, with infection rates the highest recorded since 1994 according to the CDC. Useful laboratory testing is an important diagnostic tool for determining individual syphilis infection and preventing community-wide disease spread.

The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a specific automated treponemal test method, the CaptiaTM Syphilis IgG EIA, and the syphilis reverse algorithm interpretation for detecting syphilis infection among patients seeking care in a public health clinic. The study employed a retrospective, nonexperimental descriptive correlational design with data collected between 2012-2013 from …


A Systems Biology Approach For Predicting Essential Genes And Deciphering Their Dynamics Under Stress In Streptococcus Sanguinis, Fadi El-Rami Jan 2017

A Systems Biology Approach For Predicting Essential Genes And Deciphering Their Dynamics Under Stress In Streptococcus Sanguinis, Fadi El-Rami

Theses and Dissertations

Infectious diseases are the top leading cause of death worldwide. Identifying essential genes, genes indispensable for survival, has been proven indispensable in defining new therapeutic targets against pathogens, major elements of the minimal set genome to be harnessed in synthetic biology, and determinants of evolutionary relationships of phylogenetically distant species. Thus, essentiality studies promise valuable revenues that can decipher much of biological complexities.

Taking advantage of the available microbial sequences and the essentiality studies conducted in various microbial models, we proposed a framework for the prediction of essential genes based on our experimentally verified knowledge of the pathways involved in …


Characterization Of A Novel Protease In Staphylococcus Aureus, Adam L. Johnson Jan 2015

Characterization Of A Novel Protease In Staphylococcus Aureus, Adam L. Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

A newly discovered cysteine protease, Prp, has been shown to perform an essential, site-specific cleavage of ribosomal protein L27 in Staphylococcus aureus. In Firmicutes and related bacteria, ribosomal protein L27 is encoded with a conserved N-terminal extension that must be removed to expose residues critical for ribosome function. Uncleavable and pre-cleaved variants were unable to complement an L27 deletion in S. aureus, indicating that this N-terminal processing event is essential and likely plays an important regulatory role. The gene encoding the responsible protease (prp) has been shown to be essential, and is found in all organisms …


Integrating Phage Therapy Into Western Medicine, Jacob B. Jaminet Jan 2014

Integrating Phage Therapy Into Western Medicine, Jacob B. Jaminet

Undergraduate Research Posters

The World Health Organization has described the rise of antibiotic use as a “global heath security emergency” (who.int). With the growing concern about antibiotic resistant bacteria, there has been an increased interest in bacteriophages. Bacteriophages are high-specific viruses that only infect bacteria. The use of bacteriophages medicinally to treat bacteria is called phage therapy. Research in phage therapy gained momentum until the introduction of antibiotics. While the USA and other Western countries accepted antibiotics, the Soviet Union and their satellite nations still continued to research phages. Since the funding for research was supplied by the Soviet military, the results of …