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2015

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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Shifting The Load: Improving Bioscience Performance In Undergraduate Nurses Through Student Focused Learning, Angela Owens, Tracey Moroney May 2016

Shifting The Load: Improving Bioscience Performance In Undergraduate Nurses Through Student Focused Learning, Angela Owens, Tracey Moroney

Angela Owens

Background
Bioscience has a long history of being challenging to teach and learn within nursing courses and little has been published on new ways to assist students in their learning. The aim of this study was to determine which of three different interventions would assist student performance in a nursing bioscience unit.
Method
To begin, the contribution of recent prior learning in science was investigated by comparing the final exam marks of 182 students in the bioscience unit with the science marks they achieved at high (secondary) school. The effect of recent prior learning was then tested by investigating whether …


Nicotine-Induced Effects On Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors (Nachrs), Ca2+ And Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Bdnf) In Stc-1 Cells, Jie Qian, Shobha K. Mummalaneni, Reem M. Alkahtan, Sunila Mahavadi, Karnam S. Murthy, John R. Grider, Vijay Lyall Dec 2015

Nicotine-Induced Effects On Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors (Nachrs), Ca2+ And Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Bdnf) In Stc-1 Cells, Jie Qian, Shobha K. Mummalaneni, Reem M. Alkahtan, Sunila Mahavadi, Karnam S. Murthy, John R. Grider, Vijay Lyall

Physiology and Biophysics Publications

In addition to the T2R bitter taste receptors, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been shown to be involved in the bitter taste transduction of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. However, at present it is not clear if nAChRs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells other than beta cells of the pancreas and enterochromaffin cells, and if they play a role in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of nAChRs in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells. Our studies using RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blotting techniques demonstrate that STC-1 cells express several α and …


She's Having A Baby And Cancer, Ashley Lewis Dec 2015

She's Having A Baby And Cancer, Ashley Lewis

Capstones

In October 2011, Megan Harris, a 38-year-old high school teacher from Atlanta, Georgia, found out she was pregnant with a new addition to her happy family of three. But she didn’t know until three months later that she’d be planning a funeral rather than a nursery.


Battle Echoes Never Fade: Soldiers' Trauma At The End Of Life, John E. Eller Dec 2015

Battle Echoes Never Fade: Soldiers' Trauma At The End Of Life, John E. Eller

Capstones

Soldiers suffer moral injuries when wartime experiences go against their own moral compass, such as killing innocent civilians or mutilating the bodies of enemies. Many soldiers bury the shame and guilt leftover from battle for years or decades, but these memories can surface unbidden as veterans near death.


Neurologists Look At Causes Of Baffling Brain Condition, Maggie Freleng Dec 2015

Neurologists Look At Causes Of Baffling Brain Condition, Maggie Freleng

Capstones

It can be hard getting help for someone with mental illness, but almost impossible when that person doesn't think they are sick. At at least half of people with schizophrenia, for example, insist that the voices they hear are real. People who do not know they are ill often refuse therapy and medication -- and their symptoms can spiral out of control. Doctors call this lack of awareness anosognosia. Neurologists are trying to discover what causes this baffling condition--and how to treat it.


Special Muscles, Annamaria C. Scaccia Dec 2015

Special Muscles, Annamaria C. Scaccia

Capstones

Special Muscles is a documentary that explores living with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a fatal degenerative disease that weakens the muscles at an aggressive rate. The film will give an uncensored look at how one family copes with inevitability of the disease and their journey chasing a promising experimental cure.

Special Muscles follows 7-year-old Pietro Scarso and his family as they face the challenges, complications and promise of treating Pietro’s progressive muscle disorder. The film travels from New York to Los Angeles to Philadelphia to document the Scarso family’s race against time as Pietro undergoes a 96-week clinical trial for Eteplirsen, …


A Trial Of Wound Irrigation In The Initial Management Of Open Fracture Wounds, Mohit Bhandari, Kyle J. Jeray, Brad A. Petrisor, P. J. Devereaux, Diane Heels-Ansdell, Emil H. Schemitsch, Jeff Anglen, Gregory J. Della Rocca, Clifford Jones, Hans Kreder, Susan Liew, Paula Mckay, Steven Papp, Parag Sancheti, Sheila Sprague, Trevor B. Stone, Xin Sun, Stephanie L. Tanner, Paul Tornetta, Ted Tufescu, Stephen Walter, Gordon H. Guyatt Dec 2015

A Trial Of Wound Irrigation In The Initial Management Of Open Fracture Wounds, Mohit Bhandari, Kyle J. Jeray, Brad A. Petrisor, P. J. Devereaux, Diane Heels-Ansdell, Emil H. Schemitsch, Jeff Anglen, Gregory J. Della Rocca, Clifford Jones, Hans Kreder, Susan Liew, Paula Mckay, Steven Papp, Parag Sancheti, Sheila Sprague, Trevor B. Stone, Xin Sun, Stephanie L. Tanner, Paul Tornetta, Ted Tufescu, Stephen Walter, Gordon H. Guyatt

Bone and Joint Institute

Copyright © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society. BACKGROUND The management of open fractures requires wound irrigation and dridement to remove contaminants, but the effectiveness of various pressures and solutions for irrigation remains controversial. We investigated the effects of castile soap versus normal saline irrigation delivered by means of high, low, or very low irrigation pressure. METHODS In this study with a 2-by-3 factorial design, conducted at 41 clinical centers, we randomly assigned patients who had an open fracture of an extremity to undergo irrigation with one of three irrigation pressures (high pressure [>20 psi], low pressure [5 to 10 psi], …


Rapamycin Rescues Vascular, Metabolic And Learning Deficits In Apolipoprotein E4 Transgenic Mice With Pre-Symptomatic Alzheimer’S Disease, Ai-Ling Lin, Jordan B. Jahrling, Wei Zhang, Nicholas Derosa, Vikas Bakshi, Peter Romero, Veronica Galvan, Arlan Richardson Dec 2015

Rapamycin Rescues Vascular, Metabolic And Learning Deficits In Apolipoprotein E4 Transgenic Mice With Pre-Symptomatic Alzheimer’S Disease, Ai-Ling Lin, Jordan B. Jahrling, Wei Zhang, Nicholas Derosa, Vikas Bakshi, Peter Romero, Veronica Galvan, Arlan Richardson

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Apolipoprotein E ɛ4 allele is a common susceptibility gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Brain vascular and metabolic deficits can occur in cognitively normal apolipoprotein E ɛ4 carriers decades before the onset of Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to determine whether early intervention using rapamycin could restore neurovascular and neurometabolic functions, and thus impede pathological progression of Alzheimer's disease-like symptoms in pre-symptomatic Apolipoprotein E ɛ4 transgenic mice. Using in vivo, multimodal neuroimaging, we found that apolipoprotein E ɛ4 mice treated with rapamycin had restored cerebral blood flow, blood–brain barrier integrity and glucose metabolism, compared …


How N.Y.’S Biggest For-Profit Nursing Home Group Flourishes Despite A Record Of Patient Harm, Jennifer Lehman Dec 2015

How N.Y.’S Biggest For-Profit Nursing Home Group Flourishes Despite A Record Of Patient Harm, Jennifer Lehman

Capstones

How N.Y.'s Biggest For-Profit Nursing Home Group Flourishes Despite a Record of Patient Harm

The state’s “character-and-competence” reviews are supposed to weed out operators with histories of violations and fines— but regulators don’t always act on the full story.


When Birth Control Hurts You: An Essure Investigation, Mia A. Garchitorena Dec 2015

When Birth Control Hurts You: An Essure Investigation, Mia A. Garchitorena

Capstones

Thousands of women report having suffered from injuries and malfunctions related to Essure permanent birth control, including chronic pain, heavy bleeding, migration, or perforation. Many of these women also claim that Essure has caused nickel allergies, hair loss, bloating, rashes, unintended pregnancies, and death. What was promised to be an easy solution has become a life-altering problem.

As patient complaints have increased, experts have gone back and studied the science behind the approval of the Essure device. Their findings are startling: There were flaws with the studies that supported the Food and Drug Administration’s approval of the device, the experts …


Beyond The Ring: Vegan Fighter, Bianca Silva Dec 2015

Beyond The Ring: Vegan Fighter, Bianca Silva

Capstones

Omowale Adewale, an amateur MMA fighter and boxer, spends his time outside the ring as director of Grassroots Artists MovEment (G.A.ME), an organization in the Bronx dedicated to provide resources to low-income residents like healthcare, access to healthy foods via means of gardening and youth incarceration prevention programs. He has been the director of G.A.ME since 2001 and routinely visits classrooms where he provides lectures on how to eat healthy foods-even incorporating vegan foods and implement after school physical programs like boxing where he occasionally serves as a trainer.


The War At Home, Joseph A. Altobelli Mr. Dec 2015

The War At Home, Joseph A. Altobelli Mr.

Capstones

This site was made to show how the cuts to and politics behind the Veterans Affairs Hospital in New York affects the veterans it is set up to care for.


Suppression Of F1 Male-Specific Lethality In Caenorhabditis Hybrids By Cbr-Him-8, Vaishnavi Ragavapuram, Emily Elaine King, Scott Everet Baird Dec 2015

Suppression Of F1 Male-Specific Lethality In Caenorhabditis Hybrids By Cbr-Him-8, Vaishnavi Ragavapuram, Emily Elaine King, Scott Everet Baird

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Haldane's Rule and Darwin's Corollary to Haldane's Rule are the observations that heterogametic F1 hybrids frequently are less fit than their homogametic siblings and that asymmetric results often are obtained from reciprocal hybrid crosses. In Caenorhabditis, Haldane's Rule and Darwin's Corollary have been observed in several hybrid crosses, including crosses of Caenorhabditis briggsae and Caenorhabditis nigoni. Fertile F1 females are obtained from reciprocal crosses. However, F1 males obtained from C. nigoni mothers are sterile and F1 males obtained from C. briggsae die during embryogenesis. We have identified cbr-him-8 as a recessive maternal-effect suppressor of F1 hybrid male-specific lethality …


Effects Of Melatonin On Heartbeat And Possible Identification Of A Melatonin Receptor In Drosophila Melanogaster, Tricia L. Vankirk Dec 2015

Effects Of Melatonin On Heartbeat And Possible Identification Of A Melatonin Receptor In Drosophila Melanogaster, Tricia L. Vankirk

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chapter 1 of this manuscript is a literature review that serves as an introduction to the entire dissertation. Chapter 2 examines the effects of the melatonin injection on heart rate and rhythmicity in Drosophila melanogaster Canton-S (wild-type) pupae and pupae bearing a variety of heart mutations. Chapter 3 investigates further the possible mechanisms of melatonin’s ability to increase heart rhythmicity without significantly affecting heart rate. A melatonin antagonist, luzindole; a high-affinity melatonin agonist, 2-iodomelatonin and RNAi techniques are used to identify a possible melatonin receptor in Drosophila melanogaster.

An appendix contains a previously published manuscript detailing experiments performed at the …


Byrd, Maya Dangerfield Dec 2015

Byrd, Maya Dangerfield

Capstones

In April 2015, William Byrd Wilkins or ‘Byrd’, 50, a theatre and television actor, was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. In August, his friends crowd-funded an all expense paid trip to New York for Byrd who wasundergoing chemotherapy in his rural hometown of Louisburg, North Carolina. Originally described as ‘an opportunity to reconnect’ the trip soon developed into a ‘living funeral’ as Byrd and his friends grappled with Byrd’s terminal prognosis. As he visited his favorite New York haunts and met with friends, Byrd wrestled with the decision to end his chemotherapy upon his return home.


The Fight For Zadroga, Naeisha Rose Dec 2015

The Fight For Zadroga, Naeisha Rose

Capstones

The attack on the World Trade Center cost many first responders and volunteers, like Ken George, a retired highway crewmember who was part of the search and rescue, to lose their health. Ken had needs a respirator for his restricted airway disease, he is o n 33 medications and five years ago he had a heart attack. Bi- =weekly or monthly, he visits a doctor for his PTSD, his heart, his lungs and general healthcare. After seeing the devastating conditions that the responders like Ken worked in, Congresswoman C arolyn Maloney (D-12) worked tirelessly with many politicians, both Democrats and …


Cystic Fibrosis Lung Infections: Polymicrobial, Complex, And Hard To Treat, Laura M. Filkins, George A. O’Toole Dec 2015

Cystic Fibrosis Lung Infections: Polymicrobial, Complex, And Hard To Treat, Laura M. Filkins, George A. O’Toole

Dartmouth Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Using Detection Dogs And Rspf Models To Assess Habitat Suitability For Bears In Greater Yellowstone, Jon P. Beckmann, Lisette P. Waits, Aimee Hurt, Alice Whitelaw, Scott Bergen Dec 2015

Using Detection Dogs And Rspf Models To Assess Habitat Suitability For Bears In Greater Yellowstone, Jon P. Beckmann, Lisette P. Waits, Aimee Hurt, Alice Whitelaw, Scott Bergen

Western North American Naturalist

In the northern U.S. Rockies, including the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), connectivity is a concern because large carnivores have difficulties dispersing successfully between protected areas. One area of high conservation value because of its importance for connecting the GYE to wilderness areas of central Idaho is the Centennial Mountains and surrounding valleys (2500 km2) along the Idaho–Montana border just west of Yellowstone National Park. The current expansion of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and other large carnivore populations outside protected areas of Yellowstone National Park and Grand Teton National Park has placed a greater emphasis on potential linkage zones …


Research News. Publications, 2015. Volume 2, University Of Mississippi. School Of Pharmacy, Soumyajit Majumdar Dec 2015

Research News. Publications, 2015. Volume 2, University Of Mississippi. School Of Pharmacy, Soumyajit Majumdar

Publications (2015-)

Publications that appeared during the period July 1 through December 15, 2015


Impact Of Parental Stress On Asthma Management Behaviors And Health Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis Of Inner City School-Aged Children, Amanda Constance Green Dec 2015

Impact Of Parental Stress On Asthma Management Behaviors And Health Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis Of Inner City School-Aged Children, Amanda Constance Green

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Background. Asthma is a prevalent chronic condition with excess disease burden in school-aged, minority children from low income inner-city communities. Conceptualized within a nursing and socio-ecological framework, the purpose of this secondary analysis of a prospective study of inner-city school-aged children with asthma (School Inner-City Asthma Study [SICAS]) was to examine associations between characteristics of children and parents, parents stress, parent asthma management behaviors (AMB) and child asthma outcomes, including emergency (ED) visits for asthma, missed school and asthma control.

Methods. The sample included 351 school-aged children (7.9 years old, SD= 1.9 years; 53.0% male; 95.7% minority). Parents reported their …


Association Between Depression And Aggression In Rural Women, Laetitia Meyrueix, Gabriel Durham, Jasmine Miller, K. Bryant Smalley Phd, Psyd, Jacob C. Warren Phd Dec 2015

Association Between Depression And Aggression In Rural Women, Laetitia Meyrueix, Gabriel Durham, Jasmine Miller, K. Bryant Smalley Phd, Psyd, Jacob C. Warren Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Rural women represent approximately 20% of women living in the United States, yet research on the specific mental health needs of rural women is limited. Given the well-recognized gender-linked disparity in depression, its correlated symptoms in women still need much investigation. While emerging notions of depression in men embrace potential symptoms related to irritability and aggression, less research has focused on the potential role of aggression in depressed women. This connection may be particularly relevant for rural women who face unique mental health stressors in comparison to their urban counterparts. The purpose of this study was to examine if aggression …


Attitudes Toward Breast Cancer Genetic Testing In Five Special Population Groups, Amelie G. Ramirez, Patricia Chalela, Kipling J. Gallion, Edgar Muñoz, Alan E. Holden, Linda Burhansstipanov, Selina A. Smith, Evaon Wong-Kim, Stephen W. Wyatt, Lucina Suarez Dec 2015

Attitudes Toward Breast Cancer Genetic Testing In Five Special Population Groups, Amelie G. Ramirez, Patricia Chalela, Kipling J. Gallion, Edgar Muñoz, Alan E. Holden, Linda Burhansstipanov, Selina A. Smith, Evaon Wong-Kim, Stephen W. Wyatt, Lucina Suarez

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Purpose: This study examined interest in and attitudes toward genetic testing in 5 different population groups.

Methods: The survey included African American, Asian American, Latina, Native American, and Appalachian women with varying familial histories of breast cancer. A total of 49 women were interviewed in person. Descriptive and nonparametric statistical techniques were used to assess ethnic group differences.

Results: Overall, interest in testing was high. All groups endorsed more benefits than risks. There were group differences regarding endorsement of specific benefits and risks: testing to “follow doctor recommendations” (p=0.017), “concern for effects on family” (p=0.044), “distrust of modern medicine” (p=0.036), …


Hawai‘I’S Caring Communities Initiative: Mobilizing Rural And Ethnic Minority Communities For Youth Suicide Prevention, Jane J. Chung-Do, Deborah A. Goebert, Kris Bifulco, Tasha Tydingco, Antonia Alvarez, Davis Rehuher, Jeanelle Sugimoto-Matsuda, Bridget Arume, Pohai Wilcox Dec 2015

Hawai‘I’S Caring Communities Initiative: Mobilizing Rural And Ethnic Minority Communities For Youth Suicide Prevention, Jane J. Chung-Do, Deborah A. Goebert, Kris Bifulco, Tasha Tydingco, Antonia Alvarez, Davis Rehuher, Jeanelle Sugimoto-Matsuda, Bridget Arume, Pohai Wilcox

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Youth suicide is a serious, yet preventable, public health concern for ethnic minorities and rural communities. This paper describes the youth leadership model utilized by Hawai‘i’s Caring Communities Initiative (HCCI) and provides reflections on the important factors for success in implementing a youth and community advocacy project for youth suicide prevention. HCCI partnered with six youth and community organizations who serve ethnic minority and rural communities across the State of Hawai‘i to train youth leaders and community members in suicide prevention, in order to develop community awareness activities that are grounded in each community’s strengths and needs. The work of …


Epidemiology Of Hiv Among American Indians And Alaska Natives – United States, 2008-2011, Frances J. Walker, Jane M. Kelly, Mona Doshani, Neeraja Saduvala, Joseph Prejean Dec 2015

Epidemiology Of Hiv Among American Indians And Alaska Natives – United States, 2008-2011, Frances J. Walker, Jane M. Kelly, Mona Doshani, Neeraja Saduvala, Joseph Prejean

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) diagnosed with HIV infection have poorer survivorship and a higher percentage of Stage 3 (AIDS] diagnoses within one year of HIV diagnosis, compared to most race/ethnicity groups. National HIV surveillance data for 2008-2011 were used to determine diagnosis rates of HIV infection, persons living with HIV, and persons with a late diagnosis (Stage 3 within three months of HIV diagnosis) by selected characteristics for AI/AN and a combined other race/ethnicity group. The highest percentages of 862 AI/AN diagnosed with HIV infection were among males (75.7%), AI/AN aged 25-34 years (32.9%), persons living in large metropolitan areas …


Racial Disparities In The Association Between Stress And Preterm Birth, Saba W. Masho, Sarah Kye Price, Patricia Anne Kinser, Nancy Jallo Dec 2015

Racial Disparities In The Association Between Stress And Preterm Birth, Saba W. Masho, Sarah Kye Price, Patricia Anne Kinser, Nancy Jallo

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Background: High levels of maternal stress have been linked to preterm births. However, findings from previous studies are inconsistent due to the varied use of stress measures. This study examined the effect of maternal stress on preterm birth, using both psychosocial and physiological measures.

Methods: This study was conducted among 231 pregnant women enrolled during their first prenatal care visit. Presence of stress was assessed at enrollment using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Stressful Life Events Inventory (SLEI). Samples of maternal salivary cortisol were obtained during the first trimester and birth outcomes were ascertained at delivery. Multiple …


"There’S More To Us Than This:" A Qualitative Study Of Black Young Adults’ Perceptions Of Media Portrayals Of Hiv, Maya Corneille, Anna Lee, Roseina Britton, Judith C. Barker Dec 2015

"There’S More To Us Than This:" A Qualitative Study Of Black Young Adults’ Perceptions Of Media Portrayals Of Hiv, Maya Corneille, Anna Lee, Roseina Britton, Judith C. Barker

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The extent to which the targeted group attends to and is engaged by HIV/STI prevention messages is one component of effective health communication. Through an empirical examination of the cumulative perceptions of HIV/STI prevention media messages targeted to Black youth and young adults, this qualitative study privileges the voices of Black/ African American young adults as a group that is frequently targeted in HIV prevention campaigns. Semi-structured interviews with 23 Black/African American young adults yielded key themes that suggest barriers to effective health communication. Traditionally, health promotion has advocated for targeted messages as a means to increase risk perception and …


Community Based Participatory Research: The Application And Lessons Learned From A Study With Lgb College Students, Caitlin M. Stover Dec 2015

Community Based Participatory Research: The Application And Lessons Learned From A Study With Lgb College Students, Caitlin M. Stover

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are members of a vulnerable group where health disparities have been identified. To gain a better understanding of the LGB college student healthcare experience and its contribution to the healthcare disparities found in LGB population, a community based participatory research (CBPR) approach was used to fill the gap. This paper will outline the CBPR process with an emphasis on how the principle investigator applied the tenets of CBPR when working with a local LGB college community. Several lessons learned from the research process are also shared in this paper.


The Role Of Trauma In Disparities For Cancer-Related Health: A Call To Action, Megan Bair-Merritt Dec 2015

The Role Of Trauma In Disparities For Cancer-Related Health: A Call To Action, Megan Bair-Merritt

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. In this brief report, we describe the current literature on interpersonal trauma (i.e., sexual abuse and intimate partner violence) and cancer. Concordant with the general population, between 20% and 50% of cancer patients have experienced interpersonal trauma. Experiences with interpersonal trauma not only appear to increase risk for developing cancer, but may also act as a roadblock to accessing appropriate preventive testing and to receiving adequate support during cancer care. Healthcare providers can play an important role in making cancer-related care more trauma-informed.


Understanding How Components Of Black Racial Identity And Racial Realities May Impact Healthcare Utilization: A Randomized Study, Alexander M. Chaitoff, Thomas Wickizer, Ismail White Dec 2015

Understanding How Components Of Black Racial Identity And Racial Realities May Impact Healthcare Utilization: A Randomized Study, Alexander M. Chaitoff, Thomas Wickizer, Ismail White

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Purpose: Studies have suggested that even when minority groups have potential access to healthcare, they may have inadequate utilization (realized access). This study explores the application of a theory from the social psychology and political science literatures concerning how racial centrality and racial realities, specifically amongst Blacks, may influence patients’ healthcare utilization preferences.

Methods: We created a survey with two (pseudo) randomized, controlled experimental treatments designed to assess whether racialized hospital and physician characteristics elicited a preference from Black or White respondents, as well as questions aimed at understanding participants’ different beliefs and levels of knowledge about past and current …


Social Determinants Of Late Stage Hiv Diagnosis And Its Distributions Among African Americans And Latinos: A Critical Literature Review, Alison M. Chopel, Meredith Minkler, Amani Nuru-Jeter, Megan Dunbar Dec 2015

Social Determinants Of Late Stage Hiv Diagnosis And Its Distributions Among African Americans And Latinos: A Critical Literature Review, Alison M. Chopel, Meredith Minkler, Amani Nuru-Jeter, Megan Dunbar

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

ABSTRACT

This critical literature review was conducted to identify both individual- and environmental-level social determinants of health using an ecological framework as a way to contextualize risk for, and distributions of, late HIV diagnosis among African Americans and Latinos in the United States.

Background: Late diagnosis, defined as a diagnosis of AIDS simultaneously with or within one year of an initial HIV diagnosis,1 disproportionately affects African American and Latino communities;2,3 disparities in this health problem thus represent a preventable inequity. Such disparities affect not only late diagnosed individuals but also population levels of HIV incidence, as transmission is …