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Articles 1 - 30 of 4169

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi Aug 2022

In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is a neurotropic nematode, and the leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. The parasite is usually contracted through ingestion of infected gastropods, often hidden in raw or partially cooked produce. Pharmaceutical grade pyrantel pamoate was evaluated as a post-exposure prophylactic against A. cantonensis. Pyrantel pamoate is readily available over-the-counter in most pharmacies in the USA and possesses anthelmintic activity exclusive to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Administering pyrantel pamoate immediately after exposure should theoretically paralyze the larvae in the GIT, causing the larvae to be expelled via peristalsis without entering the systemic circulation. In this study, pyrantel ...


Information And Communication Technology Applications And Use In Medical Records And Information Management In Selected Hospitals In Ijebu Ode Local Government Area, Ogun State., Aderonke Ogungbade Cln, Oluwatobi Abdul Mr May 2022

Information And Communication Technology Applications And Use In Medical Records And Information Management In Selected Hospitals In Ijebu Ode Local Government Area, Ogun State., Aderonke Ogungbade Cln, Oluwatobi Abdul Mr

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study investigated the information and communication technology application and use in medical records and information management in selected hospitals in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State. The Objectives of the study found out the level of application and compliance of ICT and also investigated the challenges facing the application. The survey research design was adopted while total enumeration sampling technique was used in the selection of samples. Questionnaire was used to gather data for this study while mean and standard deviation frequency counts and percentages was used in data analysis. Findings shows that the information and communication tools ...


Relative Palatability And Efficacy Of Brodifacoum-25d Conservation Rodenticide Pellets For Mouse Eradication On Midway Atoll, Peter J. Kappes, Shane R. Siers, Israel L. Leinbach, Robert T. Sugihara, Wesley J. Jolley, Jonathan H. Plissner, Elizabeth N. Flint, Kelly L. Goodale, Gregg R. Howald May 2022

Relative Palatability And Efficacy Of Brodifacoum-25d Conservation Rodenticide Pellets For Mouse Eradication On Midway Atoll, Peter J. Kappes, Shane R. Siers, Israel L. Leinbach, Robert T. Sugihara, Wesley J. Jolley, Jonathan H. Plissner, Elizabeth N. Flint, Kelly L. Goodale, Gregg R. Howald

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Invasive mice (Mus spp.) can negatively impact island species and ecosystems. Because fewer island rodent eradications have been attempted for mice compared to rats (Rattus spp.), less is known about efficacy and palatability of rodenticide baits for mouse eradications. We performed a series of bait acceptance and efficacy cage trials using a standard formulation of brodifacoum-based rodenticide on wild-caught mice from Sand Island, Midway Atoll, to help inform a proposed eradication there. Mice were offered ad libitum brodifacoum pellets along with various alternative food sources, and a “no choice” treatment group received only bait pellets. Mortality in the no choice ...


Evaluating The Microbial Quality And Use Of Antimicrobials In Raw Pet Foods, Leslie Pearl Cancio Apr 2022

Evaluating The Microbial Quality And Use Of Antimicrobials In Raw Pet Foods, Leslie Pearl Cancio

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Raw meat-based diets (RMBDs) are emerging pet foods that pose food safety risks because of the potential presence of pathogens that could cause illness to humans. In this research, the microbial quality of select RMBD products sold by pet food companies online and the use of chemical antimicrobials to reduce the microbial load in chicken liver, a common RMBD ingredient, were evaluated.

Ground meat blends and livers from four animal species (beef, pork, chicken, turkey) were purchased from four online companies that delivers directly to consumers through parcel businesses. Products were procured at three different times during one year and ...


Evaluation Of Protective Efficacy Of Viral Vector Based Swine Influenza Vaccine And A Method For B Cell Culture For Monoclonal Antibody Generation, Sushmita Kumari Apr 2022

Evaluation Of Protective Efficacy Of Viral Vector Based Swine Influenza Vaccine And A Method For B Cell Culture For Monoclonal Antibody Generation, Sushmita Kumari

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Influenza A virus of the swine (IAV-S) is an economically important swine pathogen that has the potential to spread to humans, thus posing an ongoing public health concern due to its zoonotic potential. Hemagglutinin (HA), the most abundant viral envelope protein, is known to be the key protective antigen. Anti-HA antibodies alone, have been shown to prevent IAV infection. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of a recombinant tri segmented Pichinde virus (PICV) as a viral vector to deliver IAV-S hemagglutinin antigen in pigs. Four groups of weaned pigs (T01-04) were immunized twice with PBS, rPICV-GFP as a vector ...


The Impact Of Afghan Opium Cultivation On The U.S. Opioid Epidemic, Zachary Wahab Cheek Apr 2022

The Impact Of Afghan Opium Cultivation On The U.S. Opioid Epidemic, Zachary Wahab Cheek

UNL Student Research Days Posters, Undergraduate

I argue here that increases in Afghan opium cultivation, the most prolific in the world, has depressed American prescription opioid and heroin prices, thereby increasing abuse risk in U.S. addict populations and increasing death rates. Utilizing a two-stage regression model with a sparse dataset from several national and international sources, I find evidence that a one percent increase in Afghan opium production is associated with a 0.122 percent increase in prescription opioid overdose deaths, and a 0.367 percent increase in heroin overdose deaths. Assessing the 2001-2002 Taliban opium ban with an identification strategy, I find that in ...


Peptidomics Analysis Reveals Changes In Small Urinary Peptides In Patients With Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome, Md Shadman Ridwan Abid, Haowen Qiu, Bridget A. Tripp, Aline De Lima Leite, Heidi Roth, Jiri Adamec, Robert Powers, James W. Checco Apr 2022

Peptidomics Analysis Reveals Changes In Small Urinary Peptides In Patients With Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome, Md Shadman Ridwan Abid, Haowen Qiu, Bridget A. Tripp, Aline De Lima Leite, Heidi Roth, Jiri Adamec, Robert Powers, James W. Checco

UNL Student Research Days Posters, Graduate

Interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic and debilitating pain disorder of the bladder and urinary tract with poorly understood etiology. Symptomatic criteria to aid in the diagnosis of IC/BPS includes bladder pain, an increase in urinary urgency or Hunner’s ulcers on the bladder wall.

Our study revealed differences in the profiles of small urinary peptides for IC/BPS patients compared to age-matched controls which is consistent with increased protease activity in IC/BPS. Our study also enabled the direct measurement of APF peptide abundance in IC/BPS and control urine. Our results indicate ...


Antibody Dependent Enhancement Of Infectious Bronchitis Virus In Poultry, Zachary Hamilton, Barry Simpson Dr., Donald L. Reynolds, Dvm, Dr. Apr 2022

Antibody Dependent Enhancement Of Infectious Bronchitis Virus In Poultry, Zachary Hamilton, Barry Simpson Dr., Donald L. Reynolds, Dvm, Dr.

UCARE Research Products

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a coronavirus infection of chickens that causes respiratory disease and reproductive problems in chickens. Currently, there are vaccines that are effective against IB. However, new variants and strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) routinely emerge. A vaccine that is not the same strain as the virus is not completely effective in protecting against other variants because the vaccine will not allow the host antibodies to completely neutralize the strain. This is a problem because it makes IB difficult to control and diagnose.

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a phenomenon whereby non-neutralizing antibodies, or low levels ...


Understanding Continent-Wide Variation In Vulture Ranging Behavior To Assess Feasibility Of Vulture Safe Zones In Africa: Challenges And Possibilities, Adam Kane, Ara Monadjem, H. K.Ortwin Aschenborn, Keith Bildstein, André Botha, Claire Bracebridge, Evan R. Buechley, Ralph Buij, John P. Davies, Maria Diekmann, Colleen T. Downs, Nina Farwig, Toby Galligan, Gregory Kaltenecker, Chris Kelly, Ryno Kemp, Holger Kolberg, Monique L. Mackenzie, John Mendelsohn, Msafiri Mgumba, Ran Nathan, Aaron Nicholas, Darcy Ogada, Morgan Pfeiffer, W. Louis Phipps, Matteuns D. Pretorius, Sascha Rösner, Dana G. Schabo, Gabriel Lita Shatumbu, Orr Spiegel, Lindy J. Thompson, Jan A. Venter, Munir Virani, Kerri Wolter, Corinne J. Kendall Apr 2022

Understanding Continent-Wide Variation In Vulture Ranging Behavior To Assess Feasibility Of Vulture Safe Zones In Africa: Challenges And Possibilities, Adam Kane, Ara Monadjem, H. K.Ortwin Aschenborn, Keith Bildstein, André Botha, Claire Bracebridge, Evan R. Buechley, Ralph Buij, John P. Davies, Maria Diekmann, Colleen T. Downs, Nina Farwig, Toby Galligan, Gregory Kaltenecker, Chris Kelly, Ryno Kemp, Holger Kolberg, Monique L. Mackenzie, John Mendelsohn, Msafiri Mgumba, Ran Nathan, Aaron Nicholas, Darcy Ogada, Morgan Pfeiffer, W. Louis Phipps, Matteuns D. Pretorius, Sascha Rösner, Dana G. Schabo, Gabriel Lita Shatumbu, Orr Spiegel, Lindy J. Thompson, Jan A. Venter, Munir Virani, Kerri Wolter, Corinne J. Kendall

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Protected areas are intended as tools in reducing threats to wildlife and preserving habitat for their long-term population persistence. Studies on ranging behavior provide insight into the utility of protected areas. Vultures are one of the fastest declining groups of birds globally and are popular subjects for telemetry studies, but continent-wide studies are lacking. To address how vultures use space and identify the areas and location of possible vulture safe zones, we assess home range size and their overlap with protected areas by species, age, breeding status, season, and region using a large continent-wide telemetry datasets that includes 163 individuals ...


Livestock Performance In Response To High Intensity Rotational Grazing System, Austin Kennedy Mar 2022

Livestock Performance In Response To High Intensity Rotational Grazing System, Austin Kennedy

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The production of livestock is composed of a variety of factors all effecting the outcome. For grazing livestock, a key factor in production is the grazing management system. Two of the most common grazing management systems are continuous grazing and rotational grazing. There has been evidence found proving benefits of rotational grazing in regard to vegetation productivity, and prevention and restoration of degraded rangeland. However, there is a lack of clear evidence on the relationship between grazing system and production metrics of livestock. Understanding this relationship can provide the necessary information for livestock producers in order to increase their production ...


Creation Of An Influenza A Virus Neuraminidase Consensus Vaccine In An Adenoviral Vector, Leigh Jahnke Mar 2022

Creation Of An Influenza A Virus Neuraminidase Consensus Vaccine In An Adenoviral Vector, Leigh Jahnke

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

In the last decade, the estimated annual burden of the flu includes 12,000-52,000 deaths, 140,000-710,000 hospitalizations, and 9 million – 41 million illnesses (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Disease burden of the flu). Influenza A virus can mutate and infect a variety of different hosts, which results in frequent antigenic changes and even pandemics. This has led to increased attention on the creation of a universal Influenza A vaccine containing broader immunogenic coverage than current vaccines. Our research involved detailing the steps of the cloning process utilizing a consensus neuraminidase antigen. We utilized the pAdEasy Adenoviral ...


Predicting Autism From Infant Characteristics: A Systematic Review, Alysha Y. Henrichs, Cynthia Cress Ph.D. Mar 2022

Predicting Autism From Infant Characteristics: A Systematic Review, Alysha Y. Henrichs, Cynthia Cress Ph.D.

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A literature review was conducted of 73 articles to explore 12-month-old characteristics in infants that predicted later diagnosis with autism (ASD). Articles were reviewed if they discussed ASD, infants with siblings diagnosed with autism (high-risk) and/or infants later diagnosed with autism without known family history of ASD (low risk). Articles were not reviewed if the participants were 36 months or older at the start of the study. More factors were identified that discriminate characteristics associated with later ASD diagnosis in infants between 12-24 months compared to characteristics of infants below 12 months. Characteristics of infants under 12 months that ...


A Guide To Common Nutrition, Troy Scheer Mar 2022

A Guide To Common Nutrition, Troy Scheer

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The purpose of this project was to use the knowledge I have gained through my undergraduate courses and apply it in a format that would be beneficial for the average consumer. This project was researched, written, and designed to be accessible by someone without a background in science or nutrition with the goal of educating the reader of some basic nutrition principles. With this knowledge, it is my hope that the reader will be able to make better nutritional choices and liver a longer and healthier lifestyle by first learning how to choose the right foods. While putting this project ...


Understanding Queer Women’S Satisfaction With Healthcare Providers: The Role Of Positive Lgb Identity And Communication, Maddie Luebe Mar 2022

Understanding Queer Women’S Satisfaction With Healthcare Providers: The Role Of Positive Lgb Identity And Communication, Maddie Luebe

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Much research has explored the negative effects of having a queer identity in healthcare, such as stigmatization and discrimination, but little research examined the potential benefits of a positive LGBTQ identity in healthcare. This study investigated the relationship between having a positive LGBTQ identity and provider satisfaction through comfort communicating with a provider. This study also considered the potential effect of participants’ fear of provider heterosexism in this relationship. Survey data were collected from 506 queer-identified women in the United States. Using moderated mediation, results found that more positive feelings associated with one’s queer identity was associated with increased ...


An Overlooked Epidemic: Pediatric Oral Health Concerns On The Rise In Rural Communities, Emma Verbrugge Mar 2022

An Overlooked Epidemic: Pediatric Oral Health Concerns On The Rise In Rural Communities, Emma Verbrugge

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Pediatric oral health is a concern for many dentists and parents as they lay the foundation for long-term proper hygiene in children. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a disease of chronic tooth decay marked as the most common chronic disease of childhood in the world. Children living in rural areas are even more susceptible to this disease and thus significant attention is needed to curve these numbers. The consequences of ECC are much more than just cosmetic, but include heightened risk of gingivitis, periodontal disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and much more. A foundational cause of poor dental hygiene lies with ...


Harm Reduction In The Heartland: Public Knowledge And Beliefs About Naloxone In Nebraska, Usa, Allison Schlosser, Patrick Habecker, Rick A. Bevins Mar 2022

Harm Reduction In The Heartland: Public Knowledge And Beliefs About Naloxone In Nebraska, Usa, Allison Schlosser, Patrick Habecker, Rick A. Bevins

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Background: Opioid-related overdose deaths have been increasing in the United States (U.S.) in the last twenty years, creating a public health challenge. Take-home naloxone is an effective strategy for preventing opioid-related overdose death, but its widespread use is particularly challenging in smaller cities, towns, and rural areas where it may be stigmatized and/or poorly understood.

Methods: We analyzed data on knowledge and beliefs about drug use and naloxone among the general public in Nebraska, a largely rural state in the Great Plains region of the U.S., drawing on the 2020 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey.

Results: Respondents ...


Use Of A Direct, Rapid Immunohistochemical Test For Diagnosis Of Rabies Virus In Bats, Charles E. Rupprecht, Lolita Van Pelt, April D. Davis, Richard B. Chipman, David L. Bergman Feb 2022

Use Of A Direct, Rapid Immunohistochemical Test For Diagnosis Of Rabies Virus In Bats, Charles E. Rupprecht, Lolita Van Pelt, April D. Davis, Richard B. Chipman, David L. Bergman

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rabies, a zoonotic encephalitis due to transmission of a lyssavirus, such as rabies virus (RABV), has the highest case fatality of any infectious disease. A global program for the elimination of human rabies caused by dogs is proposed for realization by 2030. Sensitive, specific, and inexpensive diagnostic tests are necessary for enhanced surveillance to detect infection, inform public health and veterinary professionals during risk assessments of exposure, and support overall programmatic goals. Multiple laboratory techniques are used to confirm a suspect case of rabies. One method for the detection of lyssavirus antigens within the brain is the direct rapid immunohistochemical ...


2022 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report Jan 2022

2022 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

The purpose of beef cattle and beef product research at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln is to provide reference information that represents the various populations (cows, calves, heifers, feeders, carcasses, retail products, etc.) of beef production.

Dedicated in memory of Dr. Terry Klopfenstein (March 10, 1939-April 30, 2021), Professor Emeritus, Animal Science Department, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Cow-Calf Nutrition and Management

Impact of Cow Size on Economic Profitability in the Cow-Calf and Feedlot Production Systems

Comparison of Partially Confined and Traditional Cow-Calf Systems

Concepts in Stress Physiology

Inflammatory Modulators Improve Daily Gain of Heat-Stressed Wethers

Zilpaterol Supplementation Improved Indicators of Well-Being, but ...


The Application Of The Skin Virome For Human Identification, Ema H. Graham, Jennifer Clarke, Samodha Fernando, Joshua Herr, Michael Adamowicz Jan 2022

The Application Of The Skin Virome For Human Identification, Ema H. Graham, Jennifer Clarke, Samodha Fernando, Joshua Herr, Michael Adamowicz

Virology Papers

The use of skin virome offers a unique approach for human identification purposes in instances where a viable and statistically relevant human DNA profile is unavailable. The skin virome may act as an alternative DNA profile and/or an additional form of probative genetic material. To date, no study has attempted to investigate the human virome over a time series across various physical locations of the body to identify its diagnostic potential as a tool for human identification. For this study, we set out to evaluate the stability, diversity, and individualization of the human skin virome. An additional goal was ...


The Perspectives Of Augmentative And Alternative Communication Experts On The Clinical Integration Of Non-Invasive Brain-Computer Interfaces, Kevin Pitt, Miechelle L. Mckelvey, Kristy Weissling Jan 2022

The Perspectives Of Augmentative And Alternative Communication Experts On The Clinical Integration Of Non-Invasive Brain-Computer Interfaces, Kevin Pitt, Miechelle L. Mckelvey, Kristy Weissling

Special Education and Communication Disorders Faculty Publications

As brain-computer interface for augmentative and alternative communication access (BCI-AAC) development continues to consider avenues for translation into the clinical setting, the perspectives of clinician experts in AAC should be considered. Therefore, 11 USA-based speech-language pathologists who are experts in AAC completed a semistructured interview along with Likert scale measures to assess their perspectives on BCI-AAC. The interviews and scales explored the potential impact of BCI-AAC, along with barriers and solutions to BCI-AAC implementation. Speech-language pathologists estimated that 1.5% to 50% of their caseload may benefit from BCI-AAC across various settings. Further, identified barriers and solutions included (a) BCI-AAC ...


Effects Of Hearing Aid Amplification On The Ability Of Individuals With Hearing Loss To Perceive Spectral Information, Angela Huebert, Marc Brennan Jan 2022

Effects Of Hearing Aid Amplification On The Ability Of Individuals With Hearing Loss To Perceive Spectral Information, Angela Huebert, Marc Brennan

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss often struggle to understand speech even with the use of hearing aids; simply making sounds louder is not enough. Listeners decode various speech sounds with the help of spectral information, but how hearing aid amplification affects individuals’ ability to perceive those cues is not currently well understood. Altering the way hearing aids are programmed to provide amplification can potentially improve the ability of listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to access spectral information. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects that hearing aid amplification has on the perception of spectral cues. Outcomes could ...


Progression Through Return-To-Sport And Return-To-Academics Guidelines For Concussion Management And Recovery In Collegiate Student Athletes: Findings From The Ivy League–Big Ten Epidemiology Of Concussion Study, Douglas J. Wiebe, Abigail C. Bretzin, Bernadette A. D'Alonzo, Ivy League–Big Ten Epidemiology Of Concussion Study Investigators, Arthur C. Maerlender Jan 2022

Progression Through Return-To-Sport And Return-To-Academics Guidelines For Concussion Management And Recovery In Collegiate Student Athletes: Findings From The Ivy League–Big Ten Epidemiology Of Concussion Study, Douglas J. Wiebe, Abigail C. Bretzin, Bernadette A. D'Alonzo, Ivy League–Big Ten Epidemiology Of Concussion Study Investigators, Arthur C. Maerlender

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Objective To examine the progression of collegiate student athletes through five stages of a return-to- activity protocol following sport-related concussion (SRC).

Methods In a multisite prospective cohort study, we identified the frequency of initial 24–48 hours physical and cognitive rest, and the sequence of (1) symptom resolution and return to (2) exertion activity, (3) limited sport, (4) full sport and (5) full academics. In resulting profiles we estimated the likelihood of return to full sport ≤14 days or prolonged >28 days and tested for variability based on timing of the stages.

Results Among 1715 athletes with SRC (31.6 ...


Head Impact Exposure In Youth And Collegiate American Football, Grace B. Choi, Eric P. Smith, Stefan M. Duma, Steven Rowson, Eamon Campolettano, Mireille E. Kelley, Derek A. Jones, Joel D. Stitzel, Jillian E. Urban, Amaris Genemaras, Jonathan G. Beckwith, Richard M. Greenwald, Arthur C. Maerlender, Joseph J. Crisco Jan 2022

Head Impact Exposure In Youth And Collegiate American Football, Grace B. Choi, Eric P. Smith, Stefan M. Duma, Steven Rowson, Eamon Campolettano, Mireille E. Kelley, Derek A. Jones, Joel D. Stitzel, Jillian E. Urban, Amaris Genemaras, Jonathan G. Beckwith, Richard M. Greenwald, Arthur C. Maerlender, Joseph J. Crisco

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The relationship between head impact and subsequent brain injury for American football players is not well defined, especially for youth. The objective of this study is to quantify and assess Head Impact Exposure (HIE) metrics among youth and collegiate football players. This multiseason study enrolled 639 unique athletes (354 collegiate; 285 youth, ages 9–14), recording 476,209 head impacts (367,337 collegiate; 108,872 youth) over 971 sessions (480 collegiate; 491 youth). Youth players experienced 43 and 65% fewer impacts per competition and practice, respectively, and lower impact magnitudes compared to collegiate players (95th percentile peak linear acceleration (PLA ...


Foot Injuries In Michigan, Usa, Gray Wolves (Canis Lupus), 1992–2014, Daniel J. O'Brien, Dean E. Beyer Jr., Erin Largent, Julie R. Melotti, Caitlin N. Ott-Conn, Donald H. Lonsway, Thomas M. Cooley, Robert Atkinson, Michelle Clayson, Kelly A. Straka Jan 2022

Foot Injuries In Michigan, Usa, Gray Wolves (Canis Lupus), 1992–2014, Daniel J. O'Brien, Dean E. Beyer Jr., Erin Largent, Julie R. Melotti, Caitlin N. Ott-Conn, Donald H. Lonsway, Thomas M. Cooley, Robert Atkinson, Michelle Clayson, Kelly A. Straka

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

The range of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in the contiguous US is expanding. Research and monitoring to support population recovery and management often involves capture via foothold traps. A population-level epidemiologic assessment of the effect of trap injuries on wolf survival remains needed to inform management. We describe the baseline rate, type, and severity of foot injuries of wolves born 1992–2013 in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, evaluate the reliability of field-scoring trap-related injuries, and the effect of injuries on wolf survival. We assessed foot injuries by physical and radiographic exam at postmortem and/or time of capture for 351 ...


Longevity Of An Immunocontraceptive Vaccine Effect On Fecundity In Rats, Rebecca Pinkham, Douglas C. Eckery, Richard E. Mauldin, M. Gomm, F. Hill, F. Vial, G. Massei Jan 2022

Longevity Of An Immunocontraceptive Vaccine Effect On Fecundity In Rats, Rebecca Pinkham, Douglas C. Eckery, Richard E. Mauldin, M. Gomm, F. Hill, F. Vial, G. Massei

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Increases in human-wildlife conflicts alongside cultural shifts against lethal control methods are driving the need for alternative wildlife management tools such as fertility control. Contraceptive formulations suitable for oral delivery would permit broader remote application in wildlife species.

This study evaluated the contraceptive effect and immune response to two novel injectable immunocontraceptive formulations targeting the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH): MAF-IMX294 and MAF-IMX294P conjugates, both identified as having potential as oral contraceptives. The study also explored whether in multiparous species immunocontraceptives may either totally prevent reproduction or also affect litter size.

Female rats, chosen as a model species, were given three ...


Rapid Changes In Public Perception Toward A Conservation Initiative, Rebecca Niemiec, Richard E.W. Berl, Mireille Gonzalez, Tara L. Teel, Jonathan Salerno, Stewart Breck, Cassiopeia Camara, Matthew Collins, Courtney Scholtz, Dana Hoag, Kevin R. Crooks Jan 2022

Rapid Changes In Public Perception Toward A Conservation Initiative, Rebecca Niemiec, Richard E.W. Berl, Mireille Gonzalez, Tara L. Teel, Jonathan Salerno, Stewart Breck, Cassiopeia Camara, Matthew Collins, Courtney Scholtz, Dana Hoag, Kevin R. Crooks

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rapid, widespread changes in public perceptions and behaviors have the potential to influence conservation outcomes. However, few studies have documented whether and how such shifts occur throughout the span of a conservation initiative. We examined the 2020 ballot initiative to reintroduce wolves into Colorado, which passed with less support than prior surveys had estimated. We conducted a postelection survey of Colorado residents using the same methods as our preelection survey to compare responses between surveys and to official election results. Reported voting in favor of wolf reintroduction in the postelection survey decreased in comparison to voting intentions shared in the ...


Aboveground Carbon Responses To Experimental And Natural Hurricane Impacts In A Subtropical Wet Forest In Puerto Rico, Hervé Chevalier, Nicholas V.L. Brokaw, Sheila E. Ward, Jess K. Zimmerman, Aaron B. Shiels, John Bithorn, Samuel Matta Carmona Jan 2022

Aboveground Carbon Responses To Experimental And Natural Hurricane Impacts In A Subtropical Wet Forest In Puerto Rico, Hervé Chevalier, Nicholas V.L. Brokaw, Sheila E. Ward, Jess K. Zimmerman, Aaron B. Shiels, John Bithorn, Samuel Matta Carmona

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Climate change and disturbance make it difficult to project long-term patterns of carbon sequestration in tropical forests, but large ecosystem experiments in these forests can inform predictions. The Canopy Trimming Experiment (CTE) manipulates two key components of hurricane disturbance, canopy openness and detritus deposition, in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico. We documented how the CTE and a real hurricane affected tree recruitment, biomass, and aboveground carbon storage over 15 years. In the CTE treatments, we trimmed branches, but we did not fell trees. We expected that during the 14-year period after initial canopy trimming, regrowth of branches and stems ...


Wild Pig Removal Reduces Pathogenic Bacteria In Low-Order Streams, Sara A. Bolds, B. Graeme Lockaby, Latif Kalin, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Mark D. Smith, Kurt Vercauteren Jan 2022

Wild Pig Removal Reduces Pathogenic Bacteria In Low-Order Streams, Sara A. Bolds, B. Graeme Lockaby, Latif Kalin, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Mark D. Smith, Kurt Vercauteren

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Invasive wild pig populations have undergone enormous increases in the United States and particularly across the southern U.S. in recent years. High fecundity rates and abilities to adapt quickly to varied habitats have enabled pig populations to become entrenched and difficult to eliminate. The pigs cause many negative impacts on ecosystems including degradation of water quality through infusion of fecal contamination and other non-point source pollutants. Our goal was to determine the effects of pig removal on water quality in streams that were known to be significantly polluted by pig activity Bolds (J Environ Qual 50: 441–453, 2021 ...


Relationship Between Reproductive Hormones And Migration Distance In A Polygynous Songbird, The Red‑Winged Blackbird (Agelaius Phoeniceus), Michelle A. Eshleman, Page E. Klug, Esther Morales‑Vega, Björn Wissel, Timothy J. Grelves Jan 2022

Relationship Between Reproductive Hormones And Migration Distance In A Polygynous Songbird, The Red‑Winged Blackbird (Agelaius Phoeniceus), Michelle A. Eshleman, Page E. Klug, Esther Morales‑Vega, Björn Wissel, Timothy J. Grelves

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Many bird species migrate to southern overwintering locations to avoid harsh conditions at their breeding grounds, but at the cost of an energetically demanding migration that may delay their spring reproductive development. Previous work on the relationship between migration distance and reproductive readiness has primarily focused on early season baseline testosterone in both males and females. However, for females, testosterone alone may not be the appropriate measurement of reproductive development. Estradiol, a metabolite of testosterone that is essential for breeding behaviors and reproduction, should also be measured. Furthermore, baseline testosterone varies throughout the day and may change due to social ...


Behavioral States In Space And Time: Understanding Landscape Use By An Invasive Mammal, Steven M. Gray, John M. Humphreys, Robert A. Montgomery, Dwayne R. Etter, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Daniel B. Kramer, Gary J. Roloff Jan 2022

Behavioral States In Space And Time: Understanding Landscape Use By An Invasive Mammal, Steven M. Gray, John M. Humphreys, Robert A. Montgomery, Dwayne R. Etter, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Daniel B. Kramer, Gary J. Roloff

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Animal movement models can be used to understand species behavior and assist with implementation of management activities. We explored behavioral states of an invasive wild pig (Sus scrofa) population that recently colonized central Michigan, USA, 2014–2018. To quantify environmental factors related to wild pig movement ecology and spatio‐temporal landscape use, we predicted wild pig behavioral states relative to land cover type, landscape structure (i.e., edge and patch cohesion), and weather conditions. We used global positioning system (GPS)‐collars and monitored 8 wild pigs from 2014–2018. We fit local convex hulls and calculated movement metrics revealing 3 ...