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Master's Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Investigation Of Dead Ocean Quahogs (Arctica Islandica) Shells On The Mid-Atlantic Bight Continental Shelf, Alyssa Leclaire Aug 2022

Investigation Of Dead Ocean Quahogs (Arctica Islandica) Shells On The Mid-Atlantic Bight Continental Shelf, Alyssa Leclaire

Master's Theses

Ocean quahogs, Arctica islandica, are a long-lived, widely dispersed, biomass dominate in the Mid-Atlantic; therefore, quahog shells are valuable resources for studying climate change over time. Recently, dead ocean quahog shells were discovered south and inshore of the present biogeographic range of this animal. The presence of ocean quahog shells outside the current range is presumably a consequence of past regressions and transgressions of the Cold Pool, the bottom-trapped, cool body of water that allows boreal animals to live at lower latitudes. Dead ocean quahog shells were collected offshore of the DelMarVa Peninsula then radiocarbon-dated, evaluated for taphonomic condition, …


Efficacy Of Chemical And Biological Stump Treatments For The Control Of Heterobasidion Occidentale Infection Of California Abies Concolor, Adrian Luis Poloni Jun 2022

Efficacy Of Chemical And Biological Stump Treatments For The Control Of Heterobasidion Occidentale Infection Of California Abies Concolor, Adrian Luis Poloni

Master's Theses

We conducted an experimental evaluation of treatments to limit Heterobasidion occidentale infection of white fir (Abies concolor) stumps and wounds in California mixed conifer forests. We tested the efficacy of urea, borate, and a mixture of two locally collected Phlebiopsis gigantea strains in preventing pathogen colonization of fir stumps and separately, urea and borate as infection controls on experimental stem wounds. These were paired with a laboratory test on ~100 g wood blocks with and without a one-week delay between inoculation and treatment. Urea, borates, and Phlebiopsis treatments all significantly reduced the stump surface area that was colonized …


Distribution And Ecological Function Of Pacific Lamprey In The San Luis Obispo Creek Watershed, Parker Kalan Jun 2022

Distribution And Ecological Function Of Pacific Lamprey In The San Luis Obispo Creek Watershed, Parker Kalan

Master's Theses

Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) is an endemic species to coastal watersheds along the Pacific Rim in North America and Asia. The species' geographic distribution is retracting and has not been mapped precisely, and the ability for the species to provide ecosystem services, such as water filtration, for supporting watershed management has not been tested. The San Luis Obispo Creek watershed, California, USA is at the southern end of Pacific lamprey’s retracting distribution, and the San Luis Obispo watershed is impacted by degraded water quality, making investigation of Pacific lamprey in the San Luis Obispo Creek watershed of direct …


A Comparative Study Of The Effects Of Microalgae On Poultry Production, Taylor Kaitlyn O'Lear Reid Jun 2022

A Comparative Study Of The Effects Of Microalgae On Poultry Production, Taylor Kaitlyn O'Lear Reid

Master's Theses

Research has shown Spirulina to be a viable feedstuff in poultry production. Other species of microalgae are being studied to determine their effects on poultry production. This project compared four microalgaes: Hydrodictyon, Vaucheria, Uronema, and Spirulina and was broken down into three trials. The first experiment investigated the digestibility of an algae species, Spirulina, in broiler chicken diets. Eighty, 25-day-old Ross 708 broiler chicks were sorted into 20 metabolism cages and received one of two diets: Control Diet or Test Diet (75% basal diet + 25% Spirulina). The apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AIAAD) of lysine, methionine, cysteine, threonine, isoleucine, …


Specialized Named Entity Recognition For Breast Cancer Subtyping, Griffith Scheyer Hawblitzel Jun 2022

Specialized Named Entity Recognition For Breast Cancer Subtyping, Griffith Scheyer Hawblitzel

Master's Theses

The amount of data and analysis being published and archived in the biomedical research community is more than can feasibly be sifted through manually, which limits the information an individual or small group can synthesize and integrate into their own research. This presents an opportunity for using automated methods, including Natural Language Processing (NLP), to extract important information from text on various topics. Named Entity Recognition (NER), is one way to automate knowledge extraction of raw text. NER is defined as the task of identifying named entities from text using labels such as people, dates, locations, diseases, and proteins. There …


Understanding Rare Species In California: An Assessment Of Camatta Canyon Amole (Hooveria Purpurea Var. Reducta) And A Meta-Analysis Of California Rare Plants In Literature, Kieran N. Althaus, Kieran N. Althaus Jun 2022

Understanding Rare Species In California: An Assessment Of Camatta Canyon Amole (Hooveria Purpurea Var. Reducta) And A Meta-Analysis Of California Rare Plants In Literature, Kieran N. Althaus, Kieran N. Althaus

Master's Theses

California is currently in the midst of a biodiversity crisis. There are approximately 5,000 native species of plants in California, a quarter of which are considered rare. Determining threats to these rare plants is often times difficult. Despite California's botanical resources, we still know very little about much of California’s rare plants. San Luis Obispo County is home to 2,000 of California’s native plant taxa, one- third of which are rare or endemic to the county. These species are of great local and environmental concern.

In Chapter 1, we attempted to assess the impact of non native species on a …


Investigation Of Dna Variability And Phylogenetic Relationships Of Perlesta (Plecoptera: Perlidae) In Mississippi, James C. Valentine, Mac H. Alford May 2022

Investigation Of Dna Variability And Phylogenetic Relationships Of Perlesta (Plecoptera: Perlidae) In Mississippi, James C. Valentine, Mac H. Alford

Master's Theses

The genus Perlesta Banks, 1906 (Plecoptera: Perlidae) consists of 35 species, 33 native to the United States and Canada and two native to China. For over a century these small, brown stonefly adults and freckled yellow nymphs have gone by the name of the type species of the genus, Perlesta placida, but taxonomic work in the genus since 1989 has resulted in the recognition of additional species. These species were mostly recognized and described using morphological characteristics, but two areas that are lacking include (1) linking nymphs to adults and (2) phylogenetic analysis of all species occurring in Mississippi …


The Validity Of The Vmaxpro During Countermovement Jump And Back Squat Performance, Hunter Haynes May 2022

The Validity Of The Vmaxpro During Countermovement Jump And Back Squat Performance, Hunter Haynes

Master's Theses

Background: Advances in technology have resulted in an increase in the utilization of velocity-based training in the strength and conditioning field while utilization of inertia measurement units (IMUs) shows promise. Methods: Recreationally trained participants (N=25, 28.3 ± 2.9 years) were recruited to determine the validity of the VmaxPro device for measuring performance variables in the back squat and countermovement jump (CMJ) against a gold standard force plate. Squat variables assessed included mean concentric velocity (MCV), mean concentric power (MCP), depth, and duration while CMJ variables assessed included MCV, MCP, depth, duration, and jump height. Squat variables were assessed across 3 …


An Exploration Of Postural Control In Young Adults, Paul Franzese May 2022

An Exploration Of Postural Control In Young Adults, Paul Franzese

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to identify any differences in time to boundary (TTB) among collegiate baseball players and a control group during quiet standing. Participants were 64 apparently healthy men, including 23 position players, 22 pitchers, and 19 control subjects. Testing consisted of two, individually randomized 3-minute quiet standing trials on a force plate, one with eyes open, and one with eyes closed. Average time to boundary values in anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions were calculated and a series of 2x3 (vision, group) repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Results include a difference in TTB in all groups …


Ankle Dorsiflexion Range Of Motion, Dynamic Balance, And Static Balance In Division Iii Collegiate Gymnasts, Emily Sabo May 2022

Ankle Dorsiflexion Range Of Motion, Dynamic Balance, And Static Balance In Division Iii Collegiate Gymnasts, Emily Sabo

Master's Theses

Introduction: Artistic gymnastics is a demanding sport composed of high intensity activities. Decreased range of motion can increase the risk of lower extremity injury due to the inability to disperse forces properly upon landing. Landing from a height demands dynamic balance, which may be influenced by ankle range of motion. Due to the complexity of the sport, identifying potential deficits at the ankle could lead to the development of injury prevention programs. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate if correlations exist between active ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (AROM) and static balance and/or AROM and dynamic balance …


Impact Of Movement Breaks On Student Focus, Marissa Malyszek May 2022

Impact Of Movement Breaks On Student Focus, Marissa Malyszek

Master's Theses

This action research study focused on the impacts that movement breaks had on student focus during math lessons. This was a mixed-methods study with data collection occurring over a time period of three weeks while in a third grade classroom. Students were given 60-180 second movement breaks during math lessons over the course of the study. Movement breaks were classified in this study as any activity that required movement of one or more parts of the body. Data was collected in the form of observational analysis as well as through the use of student surveys. The findings of this study …


Sensitivity Of A Lamp Assay For Detection Of The Dinoflagellate Amyloodinium Ocellatum In Simulated Field Conditions And Freeze Tolerance Of The Parasite, Robert Gonzales Apr 2022

Sensitivity Of A Lamp Assay For Detection Of The Dinoflagellate Amyloodinium Ocellatum In Simulated Field Conditions And Freeze Tolerance Of The Parasite, Robert Gonzales

Master's Theses

The obligate parasitic dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum causes amyloodiniosis in warm water marine fishes. The prolific parasite, which has a direct, three-stage life cycle, is highly infectious and can cause heavy losses in aquaculture. Prevention, biosecurity, and early detection are vital for control. In this work, microscopy and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay were compared for early diagnosis of A. ocellatum in cultured stocks, and the freeze tolerance of tomonts was assessed to determine if frozen wild fish used as fish food can serve as a potential vector for the parasite.

The lowest dinospore concentration that could be detected by …


Using Deep Learning And Uav Imagery To Detect Elkhorn Coral In St. Croix’S East End Marine Park, Samuel Wyatt Apr 2022

Using Deep Learning And Uav Imagery To Detect Elkhorn Coral In St. Croix’S East End Marine Park, Samuel Wyatt

Master's Theses

Elkhorn coral, or Acropora palmata, is an important reef building species that promotes species abundance and other ecological services to the communities in the US Virgin Islands. We captured high resolution imagery of a reef in St. Croix’s East End Marine Park using a Wingtra One UAV. We then used deep learning techniques to detect individual coral colonies. We compared two deep learning models, FasterRCNN and MaskRCNN, and found that the models achieved accuracy shores up to 0.78. These scores improved when examining only larger corals in shallow waters. The model was able to both detect Elkhorn coral and …


A Comparison Of Natural, Living, And Hardened Shorelines Ability To Prevent Coastal Erosion And Maintain A Healthy Ecosystem, Gabrielle Spellmann Mar 2022

A Comparison Of Natural, Living, And Hardened Shorelines Ability To Prevent Coastal Erosion And Maintain A Healthy Ecosystem, Gabrielle Spellmann

Master's Theses

It is important to find a suitable method to protect the U.S. Gulf Coast shoreline, since its’ low elevation and the Loop current make it vulnerable to sea level rise. I focused on two manmade methods, hardened, and living shorelines, of coastal protection for when the natural marsh suffers excess erosion rates. Living shorelines are a suite of shoreline conservation and restoration techniques that usually involve some sort of hardened structure that dampens wave energy so that the native vegetation behind it can take root and stabilize the shoreline. This study looked at six different sites, all containing a natural, …


Lytic Bacteriophages And Lactic Acid As Processing Aids Against Salmonella Spp. And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 On Marinated And Tenderized Pork Loins, Sherita Li Mar 2022

Lytic Bacteriophages And Lactic Acid As Processing Aids Against Salmonella Spp. And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 On Marinated And Tenderized Pork Loins, Sherita Li

Master's Theses

Within the last decade, pork consumption has steadily increased and continues to be the most consumed meat globally. However, pathogenic bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics have also been increasingly found in pig farms, animals, and the environment. Bacterial food poisoning cases due to Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 appear to be linked with a variety of pork products. The meat industry has recognized that research is needed to combat the multi-drug resistance in foodborne pathogens with alternative methods of control. This study evaluated the effects of both E. coli- and Salmonella-specific lytic bacteriophages and …


Effects Of Intertidal Position On The Capacity For Anaerobic Metabolism And Thermal Stress Response In The Common Acorn Barnacle, Balanus Glandula, Kyra Anderson Feb 2022

Effects Of Intertidal Position On The Capacity For Anaerobic Metabolism And Thermal Stress Response In The Common Acorn Barnacle, Balanus Glandula, Kyra Anderson

Master's Theses

Intertidal habitats are characterized by dynamic, tidally-driven fluctuations in abiotic and biotic factors. Many of the environmental stressors that vary across the intertidal (e.g., temperature, oxygen, food availability, predation pressure) are strong drivers of metabolic rate in ectotherms. As such, we predicted that there may be pronounced differences in the metabolic and stress physiology of conspecific sessile invertebrates occupying at different relative tidal heights. The common acorn barnacle Balanus glandula represents an ideal model organism in which to investigate the possibility of tidal height-dependent physiological differences, owing to their wide distribution in the intertidal zone and their eurytolerant nature. In …


The Role Of Ly49 Receptors In Maintaining Healthy Murine Pregnancy, Michelle Belmont Jan 2022

The Role Of Ly49 Receptors In Maintaining Healthy Murine Pregnancy, Michelle Belmont

Master's Theses

Natural Killer (NK) cells are abundant in pregnancy and contribute to the health of the fetus. Uterine NK (uNK) cells provide less cytotoxic function than their conventional NK (cNK) cell counterparts. Various combinations of Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR)- Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) on maternal NK and fetally derived cells, respectively, can have different effects on the health of pregnancy in humans. Murine NK cells contain Ly49 receptors, an equivalent to KIRs. Therefore, Ly49 receptor interactions with fetally-derived MHC-I molecules can be a valuable model for studying the role of NK cells in pregnancy. The process of spiral artery remodeling can …


Development And Characterization Of A Tissue-Specific Reporter Line For Monitoring Circadian Clock Transcriptional Activity, Lilyan Mather Jan 2022

Development And Characterization Of A Tissue-Specific Reporter Line For Monitoring Circadian Clock Transcriptional Activity, Lilyan Mather

Master's Theses

Daily rhythms in physiology and behavior are produced by a circadian system consisting of a central clock located in the brain and peripheral clocks located in various peripheral tissues. Circadian clocks track time of day through the presence of a molecular clock that functions as a transcriptional-translational feedback loop. In the nucleus, the transcription factors CLOCK (CLK) and CYCLE (CYC) activate transcription of clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim). PER and TIM proteins slowly accumulate in the cytoplasm before entering the nucleus, where they inhibit CLK and CYC, and therefore repress their own transcription. Degradation of nuclear PER and …


Phenotypic Analysis Of Murine Gut Associated Lymphocytes, Madison Flood Jan 2022

Phenotypic Analysis Of Murine Gut Associated Lymphocytes, Madison Flood

Master's Theses

γδ T cells are important in the role of immune homeostasis, especially in relation to the gut. It has been shown that there is a higher proportion of γδ T cells in the intestines than in circulation. With this knowledge, our lab focused on understanding the mechanisms of these cells, specifically regarding immune tolerance. In our preliminary research, we identified a subset of γδ T cells that express Foxp3, a transcription factor essential for the functioning of regulatory T cells, in the neonatal (5 day old) intestine. We hypothesized that these Foxp3+ γδ T cells have immunosuppressive functions upon exposure …


Comparison Of Feeding Functional Morphology Development In North American Esocids, Cheryl Theile Jan 2022

Comparison Of Feeding Functional Morphology Development In North American Esocids, Cheryl Theile

Master's Theses

Esocidae is a family of freshwater fishes within order Esociformes known for its long, cylindrical bodies, duck-bill snouts, and an impressive number of sharp teeth. There are four species, including two subspecies, in North America with areas of overlap of their geographic distribution. These ambush predators change diets from invertebrate prey to vertebrate prey during their first year of life, and the timing of this shift varies between species. In particular, the sister species Esox lucius (Northern Pike) and Esox masquinongy (Muskellunge) overlap in the upper Midwest, but E. masquinongy transitions to a vertebrate diet sooner in its development than …


Three-Dimensional Staging Series Of Anolis Sagrei, Lilian Epperlein Jan 2022

Three-Dimensional Staging Series Of Anolis Sagrei, Lilian Epperlein

Master's Theses

With the rapid rise of Evo-devo and the concurrent development of new imaging techniques, comparative studies of development have accelerated over the last decade. Squamates, lizards and snakes, lack a traditional experimental model species for developmental investigations, yet are important for understanding fundamental evolutionary questions because of their remarkable diversity. However, several squamate species have growing communities of biologists building new resources for comparative and experimental studies of lizard development. Creation of detailed embryological atlases for these species will help promote their advancement. In the past, scientists have had to rely on destructive methods to take apart biological samples which …


Calcium-Mediated Induction Of Vibrio Fischeri Es114 Biofilms, Katia Elizabeth Semenchuk Jan 2022

Calcium-Mediated Induction Of Vibrio Fischeri Es114 Biofilms, Katia Elizabeth Semenchuk

Master's Theses

Vibrio fischeri bacteria form biofilms that facilitate symbiotic colonization of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. These host-associated biofilms require production of the SYP polysaccharide. However, it has been difficult to observe robust biofilm formation in vitro in a laboratory setting using wild-type strain ES114; instead, most work investigating syp-dependent biofilm formation has relied on genetically altered strains. Guided by recent findings that increasing calcium induces c-di-GMP (Tischler et al., 2021), a molecule known in other systems to promote biofilm formation, the question was posed as to whether high levels of calcium alone could promote syp-dependent biofilm formation by ES114. …


Bisacodyl Limits Chikungunya Virus In Vitro And Is Broadly Antiviral, Natalie June Lomascolo Jan 2022

Bisacodyl Limits Chikungunya Virus In Vitro And Is Broadly Antiviral, Natalie June Lomascolo

Master's Theses

Identifying novel antivirals requires significant time and resource investment, and the continuous threat of viruses to human health necessitates commitment to antiviral identification and development. Developing antivirals requires years of research and validation, and recent outbreaks have highlighted the need for preparedness in counteracting pandemics. One way to facilitate development is to repurpose molecules already used clinically. By screening such compounds, we can accelerate antiviral development. Here, we screened compounds from the National Institutes of Health’s Developmental Therapeutic Program for activity against chikungunya virus, an alphavirus that is responsible for a significant outbreak in the Americas in 2013. Using this …


Temozolomide-Nsaid Mixtures And Novel Diclofenac-Purine Hybrids As Potential Antiglioblastoma Agents, Joshua Rotich Jan 2022

Temozolomide-Nsaid Mixtures And Novel Diclofenac-Purine Hybrids As Potential Antiglioblastoma Agents, Joshua Rotich

Master's Theses

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common, lethal and aggressive brain tumor in adults. Standard treatment involves surgery, radiation therapy and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. However, GBM recurs and the average survival rate is between 12 to 18 months with 25% 1-year survival rate and 9% 5 years survival rate. Treatment options and advancement is limited by the blood brain barrier (BBB) which restricts drug entry into the brain and the immense heterogeneity of the tumor which limit adequate control of the entire tumor using one drug. In this research, we explored whether a combination mixture of TMZ and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs …


A Comparison Of Impa2 & Isyna1 Gene Expression And Intracelular Myo-Inositol Levels In Bipolar And Non-Bipolar Disorder Derived Human Lymphoblasts, Christina Rosette Jan 2022

A Comparison Of Impa2 & Isyna1 Gene Expression And Intracelular Myo-Inositol Levels In Bipolar And Non-Bipolar Disorder Derived Human Lymphoblasts, Christina Rosette

Master's Theses

The thesis objective was to determine if myo-inositol concentration levels and the gene expression of IMPA2 & ISYNA1 differ among bipolar disorder types 1 and 2 compared to healthy controls (non-bipolar disorder). Previous studies have correlated different myo-inositol concentration levels with specific phases of bipolar and pharmaceutical treatments. Two genes, inositol monophosphatase 2 (IMPA2) and inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1 (ISYNA1), involved in de novo myo-inositol biosynthesis have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar. In this study, differences in myo-inositol concentration and IMPA2 & ISYNA1 gene expression in lymphoblasts derived from subjects with bipolar types 1, 2, and healthy control were …


Peruvian Mammals Collected By The Andrews University. Department Of Biology : Expeditions & Patterns Of Diversity, Kieran M. Taylor Jan 2022

Peruvian Mammals Collected By The Andrews University. Department Of Biology : Expeditions & Patterns Of Diversity, Kieran M. Taylor

Master's Theses

The Department of Biology at Andrews University conducted three expeditions to Peru in 1964, 1965, and 1968. During the expeditions, thousands of specimens were collected of several taxa, including mammals. As far as we know, no complete summary of the expeditions and the mammals collected has been created. Knowledge of the expeditions and evaluation of the mammals collected compared to current literature could have conservation implications. My purpose was to recreate the story of the expeditions and use this contextual information to catalog and identify the number of mammal species collected and evaluate the mammal diversity collected according to current …


Increasing Detection Sensitivity For Rare And Endangered Species In Kansas Through Development Of An Aquatic Environmental Dna Sampling Protocol, Sarah Hallyburton Jan 2022

Increasing Detection Sensitivity For Rare And Endangered Species In Kansas Through Development Of An Aquatic Environmental Dna Sampling Protocol, Sarah Hallyburton

Master's Theses

Anthropogenic global climate change is forcing the mass extinction of wildlife across the globe. Humans depend on freshwater ecosystems for many aspects of life including agricultural production, sanitation, and recreation. Healthy levels of biodiversity in freshwater environments ensure economically beneficial ecosystem services are maintained. Freshwater ecosystems are hotspots for biodiversity and have higher levels of imperiled organisms compared to terrestrial and marine systems. Within freshwater systems, freshwater mussels (Family: Unionidae) are the most imperiled with over 70% of North American species assigned to a conservation class as judged by state or federal management agencies. The objective of this study was …


Influences Of Grazing On Habitat Characteristics, Avian Community Composition And Nesting Bird Abundance Within Cheyenne Bottoms, Ks, Kirsten Granstrom-Arndt Jan 2022

Influences Of Grazing On Habitat Characteristics, Avian Community Composition And Nesting Bird Abundance Within Cheyenne Bottoms, Ks, Kirsten Granstrom-Arndt

Master's Theses

Cheyenne Bottoms is a 41,000-acre prairie-marsh ecosystem in central Kansas. Approximately 8,000 acres of mixed grassland are dedicated for the conservation of bird populations, but little is known about the status of bird communities within these areas. This study took place within grassland areas of Cheyenne Bottoms from May – July 2021. I investigated bird community composition, relative abundance of frequently observed bird species, vegetative characteristics, and similarity of sites across different grazing intensities (continuous, rotational, and non-grazed). The four most common bird species observed were dickcissel (Spiza americana), grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), meadowlark species ( …


A 16s & Its Soil Microbiome Analysis Of Native & Old-World Bluestem Invaded Soils Of Kansas Grasslands, Zachary Nelson Jan 2022

A 16s & Its Soil Microbiome Analysis Of Native & Old-World Bluestem Invaded Soils Of Kansas Grasslands, Zachary Nelson

Master's Theses

Invasive species are becoming an increasing problem throughout the world. Their effect on local ecosystems is detrimental and widespread, harming productive efforts such as biomass accumulation, forcing native species (plant, animals, microbes) out, and ultimately, reducing biodiversity. Investigations of how invasive plants spread are widely studied; however, there has been little to no examination of how native plants influence the microbiome in the surrounding soil. In this study, I performed a fungal and bacterial metagenomic analysis of the soil and root microbiomes of both native grasslands and grasslands invaded by Old-World Bluestem Grasses to help determine if they influence the …


Effects Of Aggressive Reed (Phragmites Australis) On Aquatic Communities In A Kansas Reservoir, Allison Pardis Jan 2022

Effects Of Aggressive Reed (Phragmites Australis) On Aquatic Communities In A Kansas Reservoir, Allison Pardis

Master's Theses

Phragmites australis is an Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) in Kansas, a non-native reed that threatens lake and river ecology, displaces desirable species, impedes movement of wildlife and humans, that can have detrimental economic effects on communities. The majority of Phragmites research is in brackish ecosystems and the effects of Phragmites in freshwater systems and especially on fishes is undocumented, even as many states and agencies invest substantial resources in management. As freshwater systems face a biodiversity crisis, prevention and control of invasive species is critical. Effective management therefore requires a thorough understanding of the effects these invaders have on ecosystems …