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Full-Text Articles in Law

[2023 Honorable Mention] Coerced Removal Of Indigenous Children: The Past And Present Native Child Welfare In The United States, Mad Bolander, Emily Greaves, Amada Villa Nueva Lobato May 2023

[2023 Honorable Mention] Coerced Removal Of Indigenous Children: The Past And Present Native Child Welfare In The United States, Mad Bolander, Emily Greaves, Amada Villa Nueva Lobato

Ethnic Studies Research Paper Award

Our podcast attempts to convey indigenous healing efforts since the time of BIA schools in the United States. With the ICWA ruled unconstitutional, we ask what have the lived experiences been of native children who were forcibly removed from their families and tribes? And what does this mean for children who might now be taken away from their families again without the protection of the ICWA?


Toward Mutual Recognition: An Investigation Of Oral Tradition Evidence In The United States And Canada, Kalae Trask May 2023

Toward Mutual Recognition: An Investigation Of Oral Tradition Evidence In The United States And Canada, Kalae Trask

Washington Journal of Social & Environmental Justice

United States (“U.S.”) courts have long failed to recognize the value of oral traditional evidence (“OTE”) in the law. Yet, for Indigenous peoples, OTE forms the basis of many of their claims to place, property, and political power. In Canada, courts must examine Indigenous OTE on “equal footing” with other forms of admissible evidence. While legal scholars have suggested applying Canadian precedent to U.S. law regarding OTE, scholarship has generally failed to critically examine the underlying ethos of settler courts as a barrier to OTE admission and usefulness. This essay uses the work of political philosopher, James Tully, …


Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo V. Texas, Sawyer J. Connelly May 2023

Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo V. Texas, Sawyer J. Connelly

Public Land & Resources Law Review

The United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo and Alabama and Coushatta Indian Tribes. The Court’s decision settles a conflict around bingo stemming from a long series of conflicts between Ysleta del Sur Pueblo and Texas gaming officials dating back to the 1980s. The court held the Texas Restoration Act bans only gaming on tribal lands that is also banned in Texas. This decision upholds previous caselaw that states cannot bar tribes from gaming that is not categorically banned in the state.


Environmental Defense Center V. Bureau Of Ocean Energy Management, Eliot M. Thompson May 2023

Environmental Defense Center V. Bureau Of Ocean Energy Management, Eliot M. Thompson

Public Land & Resources Law Review

The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upheld the district court’s grants of summary judgment and injunctive relief against BOEM for violating the ESA and CZMA. The Ninth Circuit found BOEM violated NEPA, CZMA, and the APA by failing to adequately consider the environmental impacts of well stimulation treatments. The Ninth Circuit also reversed the lower court’s grant of summary judgment against the Environmental Defense Center for their NEPA claims.


Metlakatla Indian Community V. Dunleavy, Elizabeth L. Orvis May 2023

Metlakatla Indian Community V. Dunleavy, Elizabeth L. Orvis

Public Land & Resources Law Review

The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reversed the District Court of Alaska’s judgment that dismissed the Metlakatla Indian Community’s suit against Alaska’s limited entry program. On appeal, the Ninth Circuit addressed whether and to what extent the 1891 Act preserved an implied off-reservation fishing right for members of the Metlakatla Indian Community. The Ninth Circuit ruled in favor of the Metlakatla Indian Community but remanded to the district court to determine the boundaries of the traditional off-reservation fishing grounds. Motions for rehearing and rehearing en banc were denied.


Minnesota Dep’T Of Nat. Res. V. Manoomin, Anna Belinski May 2023

Minnesota Dep’T Of Nat. Res. V. Manoomin, Anna Belinski

Public Land & Resources Law Review

In 2021 manoomin (wild rice), a legally recognized person in White Earth Band tribal law, brought a case in White Earth Band of Ojibwe Tribal Court against the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Wild rice brought this case against the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources’ over its issuance of a water permit to Enbridge Inc. for the construction of the Line 3 oil pipeline. Though ultimately ruling that the Tribal Court did not have subject matter jurisdiction because the activity at issue occurred by non-Indians outside of the reservation boundaries, this case still brings a novel consideration in the tribal …


Black Lives Matter And The Push For Colonial-Era Cultural Heritage Restitution, Kathryn Speckart May 2023

Black Lives Matter And The Push For Colonial-Era Cultural Heritage Restitution, Kathryn Speckart

Catholic University Law Review

The influence of the Black Lives Matter movement extends into U.S. museums in the form of calls for “decolonization” of collections comprised of art and artifacts from Africa and other colonized areas. As a result, the accompanying legal and ethical questions surrounding these artifacts now figure prominently in the museum industry. This Comment analyzes why the current U.S. cultural heritage law framework does not accommodate colonial-era African artifacts. This is due to few of these artifacts being subject to legal claims under current laws, African artifacts not having protection as a special classification, and the lack of enforcement mechanisms in …


“The Past Got Broken Off”: Classifying “Indian” In The Indian Child Welfare Act, Lucia Kello May 2023

“The Past Got Broken Off”: Classifying “Indian” In The Indian Child Welfare Act, Lucia Kello

Journal of Civil Rights and Economic Development

(Excerpt)

In her 1993 novel, Pigs in Heaven, Barbara Kingsolver chronicles the story of an American Indian child, Turtle, and her young, white, adoptive mother, Taylor Greer. In what has been criticized as a controversial imagined fact pattern, Kingsolver writes that while stopped in a parking lot in the middle of the night, Taylor is approached by an American Indian woman holding a baby. Rather mysteriously, the woman informs Taylor that the baby’s mother died and the baby was being abused, upon which Taylor notes that “it looked like someone had been hurting [the woman] too.” After placing the …


Etuaptmumk: A Means To Advance Indigenous Economic Development “In A Good Way”, Frankie Young May 2023

Etuaptmumk: A Means To Advance Indigenous Economic Development “In A Good Way”, Frankie Young

Dalhousie Law Journal

A reckoning is required on how Eurocentric laws and economic systems are biased toward Western worldviews while not accounting for Indigenous realities, legal orders, or economic perspectives. Most notably, Eurocentric laws have been instrumental in advancing non-Indigenous economic interests to the detriment of Indigenous interests, largely because Indigenous laws have not been respected. The strengthening of certain Eurocentric property and contract laws have limited Indigenous peoples’ legal and economic interests and continues to constrain positive economic outcomes and advancement for Indigenous nations. This article argues that re-centering Indigenous legal traditions is a means to advance Indigenous economic interests. The principle …


Surviving Castro-Huerta: The Historical Perseverance Of The Basic Policy Of Worcester V. Georgia Protecting Tribal Autonomy, Notwithstanding One Supreme Court Opinion’S Errant Narrative To The Contrary, John P. Lavelle May 2023

Surviving Castro-Huerta: The Historical Perseverance Of The Basic Policy Of Worcester V. Georgia Protecting Tribal Autonomy, Notwithstanding One Supreme Court Opinion’S Errant Narrative To The Contrary, John P. Lavelle

Mercer Law Review

Oklahoma v. Castro-Huerta is an unprecedented attack on the autonomy of Native American nations in the United States. The Supreme Court held that Oklahoma had jurisdiction over a crime committed by a non-Indian perpetrator against an Indian victim within the Cherokee Reservation’s boundaries. The decision posits that states presumptively have jurisdiction, concurrent with the federal government, over crimes by non-Indians against Indians in Indian country. But this proposition is at war with a bedrock principle of Indian law, namely, that reservations are essentially “free from state jurisdiction and control,” a policy that “is deeply rooted in the Nation’s history.” That …


Burning Questions: Changing Legal Narratives On Cannabis In Indian Country, Sam J. Carter, Robin M. Rotman May 2023

Burning Questions: Changing Legal Narratives On Cannabis In Indian Country, Sam J. Carter, Robin M. Rotman

Mercer Law Review

In the not-so-distant past, thoughts of Cannabis legalization in the United States were radical. In the present day, the narratives around Cannabis are changing. The term “present day” affixes this Article to early 2023, a snapshot in time. To understand the current legal narratives surrounding Cannabis, and what they might become in the future, it is important to examine the history of Cannabis law and policy in United States. This Article begins by discussing Cannabis regulation in the United States, from the rise of federal regulation to the gradual deregulation by states with tacit federal consent. The Article then examines …


Critical Concerns In Indian Country: Arizona V. Navajo Nation, Monte Mills Apr 2023

Critical Concerns In Indian Country: Arizona V. Navajo Nation, Monte Mills

Presentations

No abstract provided.


The Food Distribution Program On Indian Reservations: Past, Present, And Future, Samantha Doss Apr 2023

The Food Distribution Program On Indian Reservations: Past, Present, And Future, Samantha Doss

Arkansas Law Review

In 2018, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proposed replacing much of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) with “America’s Harvest Box,” a program that would directly distribute a package of non-perishable food items to low-income families. The proposal was met with intense controversy. Many hunger advocates, grocery retailers, and former government officials spurned the idea, citing logistics challenges, nutrition concerns, and stigmatization associated with a direct distribution system. However, a few Indigenous advocates were quick to point out that a direct commodity distribution system has been in place in the United States for generations, often overlooked due to …


Combating Climate Change And Increasing Tribal Co-Management, Monte Mills Apr 2023

Combating Climate Change And Increasing Tribal Co-Management, Monte Mills

Presentations

This concurrent session provided an overview of how Tribes are working to combat the ever present threat of climate change and the move toward increasing Tribal-co management of lands and waters throughout the country. The session included a discussion of the Department of the Interior’s work to implement Secretarial Order 3403 on Fulfilling the Trust Responsibility to Indian Tribes in the Stewardship of Federal Lands and Waters.


Ctr. For Biological Diversity V. United States Fish & Wildlife Serv., Ali Stapleton Apr 2023

Ctr. For Biological Diversity V. United States Fish & Wildlife Serv., Ali Stapleton

Public Land & Resources Law Review

The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the District Court of Arizona’s decision to deny a proposed mining plan becuase the operations exceeded the boundaries of a valid mining claim. The issue the court addressed is whether a permanent occupancy of waste rock and tailings on land, absent the discovery of valuable minerals, is a reasonable use related to mining activities. The Ninth Circuit decision effectively prevented mining companies from amending the 1872 Mining Law on the administrative record. Motions for a rehearing and a rehearing en banc were denied.


Dual Taxation - Unbalanced And Arbitrary, Benjamin M. Simon Apr 2023

Dual Taxation - Unbalanced And Arbitrary, Benjamin M. Simon

American Indian Law Journal

"Dual Taxation" in Indian Country happens when a state assesses taxes on private, non-tribal activities or transactions on tribal land in addition to taxes assessed by a tribe. Some analysts suggest that dual (or double) taxation puts tribal governments and citizens at a disadvantage, but the situation may be more nuanced. While dual taxation has been analyzed in depth from a legal perspective, this paper analyzes its economic consequences. With taxation, the stakes can be high. State tax revenues generated on tribal lands are revenues that tribes forgo collecting, limiting the tribal resources available for economic development and social programs. …


Case Law On American Indians, Thomas P. Schlosser Apr 2023

Case Law On American Indians, Thomas P. Schlosser

American Indian Law Journal

An update on American Indian case law from September 2021-October 2022.


Surviving Castro-Huerta: The Historical Perseverance Of The Basic Policy Of Worcester V. Georgia Protecting Tribal Autonomy, Notwithstanding One Supreme Court Opinion's Errant Narrative To The Contrary, John P. Lavelle Apr 2023

Surviving Castro-Huerta: The Historical Perseverance Of The Basic Policy Of Worcester V. Georgia Protecting Tribal Autonomy, Notwithstanding One Supreme Court Opinion's Errant Narrative To The Contrary, John P. Lavelle

Faculty Scholarship

Oklahoma v. Castro‑Huerta is an unprecedented attack on the autonomy of Native American nations in the United States. The Supreme Court held that Oklahoma had jurisdiction over a crime committed by a non‑Indian perpetrator against an Indian victim within the Cherokee Reservation’s boundaries. The decision posits that states presumptively have jurisdiction, concurrent with the federal government, over crimes by non‑Indians against Indians in Indian country. But this proposition is at war with a bedrock principle of Indian law, namely, that reservations are essentially “free from state jurisdiction and control,” a policy that “is deeply rooted in the Nation’s history.” That …


Toward A Tribal Role In Groundwater Management, Alexandra Fay Apr 2023

Toward A Tribal Role In Groundwater Management, Alexandra Fay

American Indian Law Journal

This Article considers the Agua Caliente groundwater litigation a decade since its inception. It recounts the most recent developments in the case, notably the move to mediation and the strategic work that brought the water districts to the table. The Article places this monumental case in context: in the history of colonization and tribal-state relations, the present climate crisis, and the State of California’s groundwater management regime. The Article ultimately outlines the present opportunity to reimagine the role of tribes in groundwater management.


Change By Drips And Drabs Or No Change At All: The Coming Undrip Battles In Canadian Courts, Kevin Gray Apr 2023

Change By Drips And Drabs Or No Change At All: The Coming Undrip Battles In Canadian Courts, Kevin Gray

American Indian Law Journal

The enactment of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Persons (“UNDRIP”) into Canadian law has long been a goal for Indigenous groups in Canada. Its enactment has been entailed as potentially game changing. Commentators have argued that the incorporation of UNDRIP into Canadian law will produce a wholesale transformation of Canadian law, including providing a veto to Indigenous groups to development on their traditional lands and eliminating the doctrine of discovery. In this paper, I consider various arguments that have been advanced as to how UNDRIP may require changes to Canadian law. I argue, conversely, …


Native American Intellectual Property Protection: Altering Federal Ip Law And The Indian Arts And Crafts Act To Aid Tribal Economic Development, Trey V. Perez Apr 2023

Native American Intellectual Property Protection: Altering Federal Ip Law And The Indian Arts And Crafts Act To Aid Tribal Economic Development, Trey V. Perez

American Indian Law Journal

Native Americans tribes remain subject to an epidemic of poverty. Although tribal gaming has provided relief and a method of economic development for some groups, other tribes are unable to employ gaming to bring in revenue and grow out of poverty. One method to assist tribes that cannot use tribal gaming could be amending federal intellectual property law to better suit tribes needs and allowing them to better exploit the billion-dollar Native American arts and crafts industry.

Moreover, tribes are able to determine which artists qualify as “Indian” under the Indian Arts and Crafts Act, which leaves individual artists subject …


Oil, Indifference, And Displacement: An Indigenous Community Submerged And Tribal Relocation In The 21st Century, Jared Munster Apr 2023

Oil, Indifference, And Displacement: An Indigenous Community Submerged And Tribal Relocation In The 21st Century, Jared Munster

American Indian Law Journal

Coastal land loss driven by erosion and subsidence, and amplified by climate change, has forced the abandonment and resettlement of the remote Louisiana Indigenous community of Isle de Jean Charles. This relocation, to a relatively ‘safer’ site inland has led to division among the residents and will inevitably cause irreparable damage to the culture and traditions of the Houma and Biloxi Chitimacha Confederation of Muskogees peoples who called this small, isolated island home. Driven to the water’s edge by European colonization of south Louisiana, this community developed a dynamic subsistence lifestyle based on agriculture, hunting, and fishing which survived undisturbed …


Tribal Sovereignty And Native American Women’S Rights In The Wake Of Castro-Huerta, Erin Geraldine Demarco Apr 2023

Tribal Sovereignty And Native American Women’S Rights In The Wake Of Castro-Huerta, Erin Geraldine Demarco

Senior Theses and Projects

This thesis will primarily examine the sexual assault crisis Native American women face and the jurisdictional issues that influence whether and how tribes prosecute and punish perpetrators. Federal Indian policy and various Supreme Court cases have increasingly undermined tribal sovereignty over the past few centuries, resulting in tribal governments lacking the ability to respond to sexual violence against their members. Native women who experience sexual violence often find themselves entangled in a complex web of jurisdictional issues, resulting in a lack of clarity about which government body has authority. As a result, their cases are frequently left unprosecuted, denying them …


Adat Sebagai Strategi Perjuangan Dan Mobilisasi Hukum (Adat As Strategy For Legal Struggle And Legal Mobilization), Yance Arizona Mar 2023

Adat Sebagai Strategi Perjuangan Dan Mobilisasi Hukum (Adat As Strategy For Legal Struggle And Legal Mobilization), Yance Arizona

The Indonesian Journal of Socio-Legal Studies

The word "adat" has several different meanings in Indonesia. Adat can be used to describe informal dispute settlement procedures, a habit that keeps repeating itself, or a norm that develops into a code of behavior. Adat is perceived in this article as a narrative and a strategy employed by oppressed groups to fight against various forms of exclusion, particularly in relation to land grabbing for resource extraction and conservation carried out by the state and private sectors. This article will analyze the evolution and distinctions of Adat-based studies and movements in Indonesia during the colonial and national periods. Using existing …


Brief Of Amici Curiae Law Professors & Indian Law Experts In Support Of Petition For A Writ Of Certiorari, Smith V. United States, Barbara L. Creel, Verónica Gonzales-Zamora, Marc-Tizoc Gonzaléz Mar 2023

Brief Of Amici Curiae Law Professors & Indian Law Experts In Support Of Petition For A Writ Of Certiorari, Smith V. United States, Barbara L. Creel, Verónica Gonzales-Zamora, Marc-Tizoc Gonzaléz

Faculty Scholarship

The decision reached by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, permitting the application of state criminal law to punish a tribal member whose alleged criminal conduct occurred on an Indian reservation and caused no harm to another person—solely based on the Assimilative Crimes Act (ACA), 18 U.S.C. § 13 is contrary to numerous treaties, acts of Congress, and foundational principles
of tribal sovereignty as construed and upheld by this Court’s federal Indian law jurisprudence. Allowing the Ninth Circuit decision to stand renders express
congressional authorizations and limitations on federal and state criminal jurisdiction over Indians in …


Indigenous Self-Government And Criminal Law: The Path Towards Concurrent Jurisdiction In Canada, Michael Michel Mar 2023

Indigenous Self-Government And Criminal Law: The Path Towards Concurrent Jurisdiction In Canada, Michael Michel

Dalhousie Law Journal

The past few decades have seen an increase in culturally responsive policies and programs aimed at ameliorating the hardship and disadvantage faced by Indigenous peoples in the Canadian criminal justice system. These policies and programs, however, operate within a criminal justice system that consistently fails Indigenous peoples. What has yet to be tried is a nation-to-nation approach to criminal law jurisdiction where Indigenous peoples have legislative authority to enact and administer their own criminal laws. This paper shows that Indigenous jurisdiction over criminal law is possible within Canada’s constitutional framework.

In Part I, I outline the current state of Indigenous …


Brief For Amici Curiae Prof. Daniel Mccool, Prof. Ezra Rosser And Prof. David E. Wilkins, In Support Of Respondents, Ezra Rosser, David E. Wilkins Feb 2023

Brief For Amici Curiae Prof. Daniel Mccool, Prof. Ezra Rosser And Prof. David E. Wilkins, In Support Of Respondents, Ezra Rosser, David E. Wilkins

Amicus Briefs

No abstract provided.


Brief Of Tribal Nations And Indian Organizations As Amici Curiae In Support Of The Navajo Nation, U.S. Supreme Court Docket No. 21-1484, Monte Mills, Heather D. Whiteman Runs Him, Dylan R. Hedden-Nicely, John E. Echohawk, Steven C. Moore, David L. Gover, Joe M. Tenorio, Ada Montague Stepleton, Morgan E. Saunders, Wesley James Furlong, Sydney Tarzwell Feb 2023

Brief Of Tribal Nations And Indian Organizations As Amici Curiae In Support Of The Navajo Nation, U.S. Supreme Court Docket No. 21-1484, Monte Mills, Heather D. Whiteman Runs Him, Dylan R. Hedden-Nicely, John E. Echohawk, Steven C. Moore, David L. Gover, Joe M. Tenorio, Ada Montague Stepleton, Morgan E. Saunders, Wesley James Furlong, Sydney Tarzwell

Court Briefs

SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT: The Winters Doctrine recognizes and gives effect to the promises made by the United States in treaties, congressionally ratified agreements, and executive orders that Tribal Nations would retain permanent and viable homelands. These promises, made in exchange for the Tribal Nations’ cession of billions of acres of land, paved the way for the non-Indian settlement of the West. Although every tribal homeland is unique, invariably, each requires water to be livable. Applying the canons of construction this Court has developed as part of its federal Indian law jurisprudence, as well as the history and circumstances surrounding the …


Westerners Hung Out To Dry: A Review Of The Prior Appropriation Doctrine Amidst A Drying Climate And A Patchwork Of Water Claims, Madelyn M. Vandorpe Feb 2023

Westerners Hung Out To Dry: A Review Of The Prior Appropriation Doctrine Amidst A Drying Climate And A Patchwork Of Water Claims, Madelyn M. Vandorpe

Villanova Environmental Law Journal

No abstract provided.


An Expedition To Public Lands, Matthew B. Olsen Feb 2023

An Expedition To Public Lands, Matthew B. Olsen

CAFE Symposium 2023

A look into common ideas appearing in the US public land system. These ideas include "nature as commodity," "nature as unpeopled," and "nature as pristine." The specific areas looked into are Havasu National Wildlife Refuge, Prescott National Forest, Grand Canyon National Park, Gold Butte National Monument, and Death Valley National Park.