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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A Fractal Art Approach To The Three-Body Problem, Charles F. Babbs Feb 2024

A Fractal Art Approach To The Three-Body Problem, Charles F. Babbs

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering Faculty Working Papers

This preliminary study explores a new search strategy for identifying relatively stable vs. unstable solutions to the planar three-body problem in astrophysics, starting from the perspective of computer-generated art. Here classical Newtonian accelerations, speeds, and positions of all three bodies in a fixed plane are calculated. All three bodies are stationary at time zero, and the fate of the system is classified as reflecting either a bound stable orbit, a likely collision, or the ejection of one body. The initial position of one of the three bodies is varied in the image plane, and the outcome coded as one of …


Tree Localization In A Plantation Using Ultra Wideband Signals, Akshat Verma Jan 2024

Tree Localization In A Plantation Using Ultra Wideband Signals, Akshat Verma

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Design And Development Of An Inert Controlled Environmental Chamber For Evaluation Of Contaminant Mass Transfer, Brian Magnuson, Zachary Limaye Jan 2024

Design And Development Of An Inert Controlled Environmental Chamber For Evaluation Of Contaminant Mass Transfer, Brian Magnuson, Zachary Limaye

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Smartphone Color Error Analysis, Mackenna Hawes Jan 2024

Smartphone Color Error Analysis, Mackenna Hawes

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Liquid Nitrogen Shrink-Fitting Process, Natalie Harvey Jan 2024

Liquid Nitrogen Shrink-Fitting Process, Natalie Harvey

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Biodiesel Transesterification Of Spent Coffee Grounds Using Dbu As A Catalyst: Using Dbu To Make Biodiesel From Coffee Grounds, Christopher Stepherson, Pericles Karras, Amy Ha, Phuc Tan Nguyen, Abigail Pati, Jacob Hejazi, Soheil Hussain, Elizabeth De Young, Shuaicheng Fu Jan 2024

Biodiesel Transesterification Of Spent Coffee Grounds Using Dbu As A Catalyst: Using Dbu To Make Biodiesel From Coffee Grounds, Christopher Stepherson, Pericles Karras, Amy Ha, Phuc Tan Nguyen, Abigail Pati, Jacob Hejazi, Soheil Hussain, Elizabeth De Young, Shuaicheng Fu

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Coffee is one of the most universally consumed beverages. The world produces 60 million tons of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) as waste per year. Biodiesel made from SCGs is an eco-friendly alternative fuel but proves difficult to produce. 1,8-Diazabicyclo[ 5.4.0]undec-7- ene (DBU) was used as both a solvent and a catalyst with methanol to determine the efficiency of biodiesel production from SCGs. The process was completed by extracting coffee oil from acid-washed spent coffee grounds (AWSCGs) using hexane. The two extraction methods that were explored were Soxhlet and agitation. DBU is an interesting choice as a solvent and a catalyst …


Impact Of Weather Factors On Airport Arrival Rates: Application Of Machine Learning In Air Transportation, Robert W. Maxson, Dothang Truong, Woojin Choi Jan 2024

Impact Of Weather Factors On Airport Arrival Rates: Application Of Machine Learning In Air Transportation, Robert W. Maxson, Dothang Truong, Woojin Choi

Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering

Weather is responsible for approximately 70% of air transportation delays in the National Airspace System, and delays resulting from convective weather alone cost airlines and passengers millions of dollars each year due to delays that could be avoided. This research sought to establish relationships between environmental variables and airport efficiency estimates by data mining archived weather and airport performance data at ten geographically and climatologically different airports. Several meaningful relationships were discovered from six out of ten airports using various machine learning methods within an overarching data mining protocol, and the developed models were tested using historical data.


Utilizing Culturally Responsive Strategies To Inspire African American Female Participation In Cybersecurity, Deanna Bailey, Michel Kornegay, Ladawn Partlow, Charnee Bowens, Karen Gareis, Kevin Kornegay Jan 2024

Utilizing Culturally Responsive Strategies To Inspire African American Female Participation In Cybersecurity, Deanna Bailey, Michel Kornegay, Ladawn Partlow, Charnee Bowens, Karen Gareis, Kevin Kornegay

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

The number of African American females participating in cyber fields is significantly low. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education requires a new approach to student engagement to increase African American female participation in cybersecurity. The most common approach to engaging more African American females in STEM is to provide students access to professional images or role models active in STEM; however, more is needed. More race-centered strategies beyond role modeling are necessary to attract and retain African American females in STEM. Research studies show that integrating personal experiences and making cultural connections can help improve student participation in STEM …


Proceedings Of The Ninth Annual Indiana Stem Education Conference: Resourcing Stem Education, William S. Walker Iii, Lynn A. Bryan, S. Selcen Guzey Jan 2024

Proceedings Of The Ninth Annual Indiana Stem Education Conference: Resourcing Stem Education, William S. Walker Iii, Lynn A. Bryan, S. Selcen Guzey

Indiana STEM Education Conference

The Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Indiana STEM Education Conference are edited by the Center for Advancing the Teaching and Learning of STEM (CATALYST, https://www.education.purdue.edu/catalyst/) at Purdue University. The theme for the 2024 conference is Resourcing STEM Education. This year’s Indiana STEM Education Conference provides opportunities to learn about effective STEM education strategies, curriculum, and resources to engage students in integrated STEM learning opportunities and address the recently updated Indiana Academic Standards for Science and Computer Science, Indiana Academic Standards for Mathematics, and Indiana Academic Standards for Integrated STEM (https://www.in.gov/doe/students/indiana-academic-standards/).


The Impact Of Geospatial Contexts And Out-Of-School Experiences On Students' Stem Identity Formation, Hillary Ongoyo Omoze, Abigail Erskine, Asenath Odondi Jan 2024

The Impact Of Geospatial Contexts And Out-Of-School Experiences On Students' Stem Identity Formation, Hillary Ongoyo Omoze, Abigail Erskine, Asenath Odondi

Indiana STEM Education Conference

STEM teaching faces challenges in varied geospatial contexts (Mulvey et al., 2023), where place and space factors play a significant role. This research brief explores the influence of place and space in shaping students' STEM identities throughout their educational journey, with a specific emphasis on the role of out-of-school experiences in fostering student learning and interest in STEM careers, particularly among middle school students.


The Future Of Future City: A Stem Program, Jeffrey A. Nowak, Shelby Werling Jan 2024

The Future Of Future City: A Stem Program, Jeffrey A. Nowak, Shelby Werling

Indiana STEM Education Conference

The idea of integrating science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is still an enigma for many educators (Dare et al, 2021). Recent academic standards favor curricula that interweave the principles of integrated STEM into all content areas. Finding a “one size fits all” curriculum is challenging, perhaps even impossible. Future City is a national program that specializes in hands-on cross-curricular STEM education. Students work collaboratively using an engineering and design process to showcase their solutions to citywide sustainability issues. This research brief examines how educators can utilize the Future City program as the cornerstone of their STEM curriculum.


Implementing Integrated Stem Forensic And Soil Sciences Lab Activities To Promote Interest In Stem Careers, Mariah K. Stollar Awan, Caroline J. Rakowski Jan 2024

Implementing Integrated Stem Forensic And Soil Sciences Lab Activities To Promote Interest In Stem Careers, Mariah K. Stollar Awan, Caroline J. Rakowski

Indiana STEM Education Conference

We implemented forensic and soil science integrated STEM lab activities with 11 middle school youth at a 4-H day camp at Purdue University. STEM perceived knowledge increased overall for participants. However, the pre- and post-assessments did not show a statistically significant difference. More students also indicated STEM career interest after participating. Because this study was exploratory and had a small sample size, more research on these integrated STEM lab activities should be conducted with larger samples.


The Nexus Of Ideation And Engagement Through Tower Crane Construction, Abigail Erskine, Hillary Ongoyo Omoze Jan 2024

The Nexus Of Ideation And Engagement Through Tower Crane Construction, Abigail Erskine, Hillary Ongoyo Omoze

Indiana STEM Education Conference

In this study, we investigate how the integration of collaborative design activities during group-based ideation influences middle school students’ engagement in STEM education. Central to this inquiry is a hands-on activity focused on the construction of a tower crane with a suspended bucket. Students developed a plan for the tower crane construction through collaborative sketches and discussion of ideas with teammates. This research brief provides implications for the impact of collaborative ideas generated by students in groups and choices in designs on student engagement.


Integrated Stem Education And Students' 21st Century Skills, Jung Han, Yunjin Lim, Woongbin Park, Kyongson Park Jan 2024

Integrated Stem Education And Students' 21st Century Skills, Jung Han, Yunjin Lim, Woongbin Park, Kyongson Park

Indiana STEM Education Conference

This research investigates the impact of integrated STEM education on students' 21st century competencies, aiming to enhance science and engineering design teaching within a local design-based context. Specifically, the project targets high school students in a rural area and utilizes local contexts, including local rural knowledge and indigenous science knowledge, to facilitate STEM learning. The collaborative effort involves partnering high school environmental science and Technology and Engineering Educators, leveraging their diverse content expertise to teach students collaboratively as a science-technology and engineering teacher pair. Furthermore, university faculty members and industry partners provided support to create a STEM community of practice. …


Biowall Development For The West Lafayette Public Library, Dhanurja De Silva, Yalin Lu, Siqi He, Ajay Dalal, Bill Hutzel Dec 2023

Biowall Development For The West Lafayette Public Library, Dhanurja De Silva, Yalin Lu, Siqi He, Ajay Dalal, Bill Hutzel

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

A group of multidisciplinary Purdue students are working together to design, assemble, and install a Biowall in the Children’s section of the West Lafayette Public Library. A Biowall is a plant-based filter that improves Indoor Environmental Quality by cleaning indoor air and adding a natural aesthetic to the building space. Purdue has been developing Biowall technology since 2012, and this project involves redesigning it to fit into the available space at the library. The new Biowall design incorporates a watering mechanism that allows for children to get actively involved in maintaining the Biowall and learning about sustainability. This project also …


Library Steam Kits: Developing Circulatable Curriculum For Community Steam Learning, Daphne Fauber, Ashley Fletcher Dec 2023

Library Steam Kits: Developing Circulatable Curriculum For Community Steam Learning, Daphne Fauber, Ashley Fletcher

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Public libraries serve as repositories for a movement described as cultivation of the Library of Things. In the wake of COVID-19, the West Lafayette Public Library enhanced its existing Library of Things collection through the creation of science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics (STEAM) kits. Since 2017, the West Lafayette Public Library has held regular free STEAM programs for the community; those programs were put on hold during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, which concurred with a library renovation. These kits provide the community with the ability to learn STEAM concepts at home engaging, hands-on activities that may otherwise …


The Complexities Of Green Infrastructure, Troy Weber Dec 2023

The Complexities Of Green Infrastructure, Troy Weber

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

The Wabash River is the most extensive river system in Indiana. The river drains two-thirds of Indiana’s 92 counties, which can have issues associated with stormwater runoff (Weist, 1981). As precipitation runs off impervious surfaces, it can carry high concentrations of pollutants, such as excess nitrogen and phosphorus, pet waste, and automobile fuel. Prior to impervious runoff entering the river, preexisting contaminants include industrial waste (acid mine drainage and oil field brines), municipal waste, and sediment (Weist, 1981). Thus, stormwater runoff can negatively impact the Wabash River watershed. On top of this pollution, Lafayette and West Lafayette have combined sewer …


Service-Learning In Action: Lafayette, Indiana, Rain Garden Installation, Elizabeth Mccleery Dec 2023

Service-Learning In Action: Lafayette, Indiana, Rain Garden Installation, Elizabeth Mccleery

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Indiana’s Wabash River is being polluted with contaminated water runoff from precipitation events. A lack of pervious land cover has led to an accumulation of fertilizer, sediment, and waste in the river. Green infrastructure, a stormwater management practice that mimics the natural ecosystem, is one of the most effective ways to prevent pollution from stormwater runoff and benefit the community. This project consisted of a rain garden installation at the Lafayette Fueling Station, a site where frequent water drainage and water runoff into the Wabash occurs. The rain garden will allow on-site water infiltration during rain events and promote natural …


Getting Off On The Right Foot: Addressing Severe Lymphedema Through A Novel Shoe Design, Carl R. Russell Iii, Anjollie M. Ramakrishna, Christopher H. Johns Iii, Alana V. Van Wijnen Dec 2023

Getting Off On The Right Foot: Addressing Severe Lymphedema Through A Novel Shoe Design, Carl R. Russell Iii, Anjollie M. Ramakrishna, Christopher H. Johns Iii, Alana V. Van Wijnen

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Engineering Projects in Community Service (EPICS) is a service-learning design program run by the College of Engineering at Purdue University. EPICS teaches students design skills by providing solutions for individuals, communities, and organizations in the surrounding area while mirroring engineering industry standards. Biomedical Engineering is a team within EPICS that strives to serve community partners through biomedical applications. HR is a patient who suffers from severe lymphedema. This condition results in her foot swelling three times its original size and requires her to utilize weekly leg compression therapy. Prescription shoes are slightly adequate. However, they lead to sores and pain …


Socially Engaged Engineering: A Framework For K-8 Education, Christine M. Cunningham, Gregory J. Kelly, Ashwin Mohan Dec 2023

Socially Engaged Engineering: A Framework For K-8 Education, Christine M. Cunningham, Gregory J. Kelly, Ashwin Mohan

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

Socially engaged engineering provides for student learning of the design, analysis, and practices of engineering as well as the ways that engineering is situated in sociocultural contexts. This paper provides a conceptual framework regarding socially engaged engineering for K-8 educators, researchers, and curriculum designers. The framework identifies ways to support youth learning of engineering and considerations of technical, social, environmental, and ethical dimensions of engineering. As engineering enters K-8 educational settings, it is important to introduce the discipline in equity-oriented ways. We draw from the field of engineering for social justice to build this framework for examining engineering at the …


Quantification Of Intervertebral Disc Strain From High-Resolution Ultrasound Imaging During Dynamic Loading, Diya Sakhrani Dec 2023

Quantification Of Intervertebral Disc Strain From High-Resolution Ultrasound Imaging During Dynamic Loading, Diya Sakhrani

Discovery Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Research Internship

High-resolution ultrasound imaging employs high-frequency sound waves that can be used to noninvasively visualize the structures within the body, facilitating medical diagnosis without the need for open surgery. The widespread utilization of ultrasound is attributed to its affordability, non-invasive characteristics, and use of non-ionizing radiation. Nevertheless, ultrasound is prone to artifacts originating from the surrounding environment, gas-liquid interfaces, or dense tissue. These artifacts are common in ultrasound images and can cause dropout, noise, and degraded resolution. In this study we analyzed intervertebral disc (IVD) strain during two axial compression testing cycles of bovine intervertebral discs with a 2-dimensional direct deformation …


Characterizing Intervertebral Disc Strain Under Dynamic Loading Conditions Using Ultrasound Texture Analysis, Radhika Kulkarni Nov 2023

Characterizing Intervertebral Disc Strain Under Dynamic Loading Conditions Using Ultrasound Texture Analysis, Radhika Kulkarni

Discovery Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Research Internship

Herniated discs in the spine are a significant patient burden, with potential links to lower back and leg discomfort and a considerable impact on daily life. These discs, located between spinal vertebrae, are comprised of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and the nucleus pulposus (NP). Herniations happen when the NP protrudes through a full-thickness annular tear, possibly compressing spinal nerves. The mechanical factors underlying herniated discs are poorly understood, necessitating research into these mechanisms and accessible diagnostic techniques. Our study employs high-resolution ultrasound and texture correlation to quantify strain patterns in intervertebral discs during dynamic loading.

A motion segment from the …


Closing The Gap: Leveraging Aes-Ni To Balance Adversarial Advantage And Honest User Performance In Argon2i, Nicholas Harrell, Nathaniel Krakauer Nov 2023

Closing The Gap: Leveraging Aes-Ni To Balance Adversarial Advantage And Honest User Performance In Argon2i, Nicholas Harrell, Nathaniel Krakauer

CERIAS Technical Reports

The challenge of providing data privacy and integrity while maintaining efficient performance for honest users is a persistent concern in cryptography. Attackers exploit advances in parallel hardware and custom circuit hardware to gain an advantage over regular users. One such method is the use of Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) to optimize key derivation function (KDF) algorithms, giving adversaries a significant advantage in password guessing and recovery attacks. Other examples include using graphical processing units (GPUs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). We propose a focused approach to close the gap between adversarial advantage and honest user performance by leveraging the …


The Effects Of Engineering Summer Camps On Middle And High School Students’ Engineering Interest And Identity Formation: A Multi-Methods Study, Timothy Robinson, Adam Kirn, Jenny Amos, Indira Chatterjee Nov 2023

The Effects Of Engineering Summer Camps On Middle And High School Students’ Engineering Interest And Identity Formation: A Multi-Methods Study, Timothy Robinson, Adam Kirn, Jenny Amos, Indira Chatterjee

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

This multi-methods study explores changes in engineering interest and identity of middle and high school students (n = 79) attending introductory-level engineering summer camps at a large western land grant university. Middle school is a critical time when student interest, identity, and subsequently career choice begin to emerge and hence it is important that at this age students are given accurate information about engineering majors in college and future career opportunities in engineering. Data were collected over a period of two years in six summer camps. Three separate populations of middle and high school students participated in the summer …


Comparative Evaluation Of Investigation Methods For Estimating The Load-Dependent State Of Charge And End Of Discharge Of A Multirotor Uav Battery, Hanna Dibbern, Morten Roßberg, Claudia Werner Nov 2023

Comparative Evaluation Of Investigation Methods For Estimating The Load-Dependent State Of Charge And End Of Discharge Of A Multirotor Uav Battery, Hanna Dibbern, Morten Roßberg, Claudia Werner

Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering

As the scope of multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications increases, more attention is being paid to UAV energy requirements, which vary depending on the mission profile. To obtain accurate information about the UAV battery during flight, the idea of a digital twin including a battery state estimation model is promising. For battery state estimation, a Kalman filter combination is the preferred approach in the literature. Comparing different Kalman filters, the unscented Kalman filter has a more accurate estimation for nonlinear systems compared to the extended Kalman filter. In the application of UAV flight with load-dependent flight missions, the comparison …


Challenging The Notion Of Role Models In Engineering Outreach Programs For Youth, Kelli M. Paul, Karen Miel, Merredith D. Portsmore, Adam Maltese Oct 2023

Challenging The Notion Of Role Models In Engineering Outreach Programs For Youth, Kelli M. Paul, Karen Miel, Merredith D. Portsmore, Adam Maltese

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

Engineering outreach programs often portray outreach educators as role models for youth. It is widely believed that introducing youth, especially girls, to potential engineering role models will broaden participation in engineering majors and careers. Based on interviews with and surveys of fourth- and fifth-grade girls participating in an engineering outreach program, we question whether youth are looking for career role models, and we challenge the assumption that youth will take up an adult as a role model simply because the adult is presented as such. We question what role these ‘‘models’’ play in the minds and lives of youth and …


A Positioning Theory Analysis Of Interaction Surrounding Design Failures In An Elementary Engineering Club, Katarina N. Silvestri, Mary B. Mcvee, Lynn E. Shanahan, Kenneth English Oct 2023

A Positioning Theory Analysis Of Interaction Surrounding Design Failures In An Elementary Engineering Club, Katarina N. Silvestri, Mary B. Mcvee, Lynn E. Shanahan, Kenneth English

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

This qualitative study applies Positioning Theory to identify positions that mediate the experiences of design failure within the context of an afterschool engineering club (EC) with elementary students diverse in language, race, ethnicity, gender, and academic abilities. We ask: (1) What kinds of structural design failure and failure responses did participants in EC experience? and (2) What are students’ and teachers’ positions in relation to responses to design failure? Types of positions (e.g., builder, tinkerer, idea-elicitor, director, observer) were identified in relation to children’s and teachers’ actions and speech in response to structural design failure during EC. Participants included 12 …


Streamlined Hpc Environments With Cvmfs And Cybergis-Compute, Alexander C. Michels, Mit Kotak, Anand Padmanabhan, Shaowen Wang Oct 2023

Streamlined Hpc Environments With Cvmfs And Cybergis-Compute, Alexander C. Michels, Mit Kotak, Anand Padmanabhan, Shaowen Wang

I-GUIDE Forum

High-Performance Computing (HPC) resources provide the potential for complex, large-scale modeling and analysis, fueling scientific progress over the last few decades, but these advances are not equally distributed across disciplines. Those in computational disciplines are often trained to have the necessary technical skills to utilize HPC (e.g. familiarity with the terminal), but many disciplines face technical hurdles when trying to apply HPC resources to their work. This unequal familiarity with HPC is increasingly a problem as cross-discipline teams work to tackle critical interdisciplinary issues like climate change and sustainability. CyberGIS-Compute is middle-ware designed to democratize to HPC services with the …


Towards Carbon-Aware Spatial Computing: Challenges And Opportunities, Bharat Jayaprakash, Matthew Eagon, Mingzhou Yang, William F. Northrop, Shashi Shekhar Oct 2023

Towards Carbon-Aware Spatial Computing: Challenges And Opportunities, Bharat Jayaprakash, Matthew Eagon, Mingzhou Yang, William F. Northrop, Shashi Shekhar

I-GUIDE Forum

Carbon-aware spatial computing (CASC) is focused on reducing the carbon footprint of spatial computing itself and leveraging spatial computing techniques to minimize carbon emissions in other domains. The significance of CASC lies in its potential to mitigate anthropogenic climate change by offering numerous societal applications, such as carbon-aware supply chain development and carbon-aware site selection. CASC is challenging because of the spatiotemporal variability and the high dimensionality of carbon emissions data, involving spatial coordinates and timestamps. Related work, known as carbon-aware computing, mostly focuses on job scheduling of cloud computing, and there is a lack of surveys and review papers …


Fine Tuning Mobilenet Neural Networks For Oil Spill Detection, Caixia Wang, Andrew Coulson Oct 2023

Fine Tuning Mobilenet Neural Networks For Oil Spill Detection, Caixia Wang, Andrew Coulson

I-GUIDE Forum

The monitoring of open water and early identification of oil spills in the Alaska Arctic has become increasingly critical due to the rise in oil and gas exploration and shipping activities, facilitated by the increasing number of ice-free days resulting from global warming. This escalating risk of oil spills is further compounded by potential accidents in offshore operations, illicit oil discharges, and knowledge gaps in Arctic coastlines, rapidly changing due to rising seas, permafrost melting, and coastal erosion. To address these pressing challenges, we propose a deep learning model based on MobileNet neural networks to detect oil spills in remotely …