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Full-Text Articles in Education

Fostering Engagement Through Inquiry-Based Learning, Lauren Zanoni Apr 2109

Fostering Engagement Through Inquiry-Based Learning, Lauren Zanoni

John Wesley Powell Student Research Conference

Inquiry-based learning (IBL) occurs when students engage in work that mirrors elements of the scientific process, such as conducting an investigation and communicating results (Martin-Hansen, 2002). Similar to the inquiry process, in Genius Hour students choose a topic they are passionate about, and engage in research and reflection as they create a finished project (Juliani, 2007). In my study, I determined how the incorporation of inquiry-based learning in a fifth grade classroom facilitates students’ cognitive, behavioral, and emotional engagement. Within this study, cognitive engagement refers to students’ investment and motivation to learn, behavioral engagement involves the positive conduct students show ...


Education Federalism And School Choice, Ann Pleinies May 2021

Education Federalism And School Choice, Ann Pleinies

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

Federalism is questioned in many public policy areas where the government imposes extensive regulations over state and local governments. In the field of education federalism specifically, the government has increasingly pushed boundaries both vertically with state and local governments over grant money and horizontally with the different branches of government. This paper will start by discussing the push and pull of education federalism when it comes to federal programs and the executive branch and their initiatives. This paper will also address school choice. School choice is a movement that is growing in momentum as educational needs are not being met ...


Where Are We With Education About Mental Health And Illness: A Survey Research, Symphony Williams May 2021

Where Are We With Education About Mental Health And Illness: A Survey Research, Symphony Williams

Symposium of Student Scholars

The purpose of my research is to investigate public awareness of mental health and illness. This study is paramount because of the mental health crisis our world faces today. I conducted a survey research in which I used Google Forms and asked a series of questions about the participants’ education, experiences, and opinions on mental health and illness. The total participants were 67. The analysis of survey responses resulted in several findings. First, 34.3% of the 67 participants had a diagnosed mental illness, and 72% of those participants suffer from some form of depression while 77.8% suffer from ...


Still A Forgotten War? Investigation Of College Students' Understanding Of The Korean War., Symphony Williams May 2021

Still A Forgotten War? Investigation Of College Students' Understanding Of The Korean War., Symphony Williams

Symposium of Student Scholars

The purpose of my research is to investigate how much and what knowledge college students have on the Korean War. This study is important because the Korean War is often referred to as a “forgotten war” but is a significant event in American history, as well as an ongoing issue in today’s world. Investigation into what college students know and believe about the Korean War, as well as, where and when they learned this information, is critical in evaluating and reforming how the Korean War is taught in US schools. I designed a survey using Google Forms, and gathered ...


Access To Higher Education: Do Schools “Grant” Success?, Nathaniel Jones May 2021

Access To Higher Education: Do Schools “Grant” Success?, Nathaniel Jones

Symposium of Student Scholars

University education can lead to upward income mobility for low-income students. Being exposed to other student’s life experiences that are different from their own may highlight activities and actions that they may want to consider aiding their success. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median weekly earnings in 2019 for all workers in the U.S. was $969. Of those, U.S. workers who held bachelor’s degrees earned $1,248. In 2016, the Brookings Institute found that Pell Grant recipients and first-generation student loan borrowers attended universities that had lower graduation rates and higher ...


Comparative Education Understanding Why The United States Underperforms In International Test Scores: Learning From China, Japan, Canada, And The United Kingdom, Mama Aye-Addo May 2021

Comparative Education Understanding Why The United States Underperforms In International Test Scores: Learning From China, Japan, Canada, And The United Kingdom, Mama Aye-Addo

Symposium of Student Scholars

The United States has slow but surely fallen in their standing in global education. Education affects everything from economic standing to innovation for the future and thus the decline in educational standing presents a problem for the U.S. This research uses the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development’s Programme for International Student Assessment as a baseline for where countries place relative to the United States. The study then uses Canada and England to represent nations with ideologies and economies most similar to the United States as well as China and Japan to represent countries that differ. Each nation ...


Modeling Functions: Modified Falling Ladder Task, Nakia Salam May 2021

Modeling Functions: Modified Falling Ladder Task, Nakia Salam

Symposium of Student Scholars

Modeling Functions: Modified Falling Ladder Task

By the time students graduate from high school, the knowledge of functions has shifted from a conceptual understanding to a procedural approach, where the understanding of functions is based upon memorized computational steps that can’t be modeled. A focus on the computational aspect of functions can have a long-term effect on students’ ability to understand the meaning of functional relationships, negatively affecting their overall ability to reason mathematically. Without educators making a conscious decision to recognize the value of modeling and force its’ inclusion, there are few opportunities to experience the application of ...


Use Of Artificial Intelligence To Identify Predictors Of Functional Outcomes In Patients With Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy, Natalie K. Katz May 2021

Use Of Artificial Intelligence To Identify Predictors Of Functional Outcomes In Patients With Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy, Natalie K. Katz

Research Days

Background: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common forms of muscular dystrophy characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness. Symptoms initially involve the facial and shoulder girdle muscles, with later involvement of the distal lower extremities, pelvic girdle and proximal lower extremities. FSHD type 1 (FHSD1) is the most common form (~95% of individuals) and is caused by deletion of microsatellite repeats in the D4Z4 region on chromosome 4 (4q35). Normal individuals have >10 repeats whereas individuals with FSHD1 have 1-10 repeats. There is significant variability in regards to disease severity, rates of progression and functional outcomes, but ...


Prevalence Of Adolescent Sexual Health Outcomes At Children’S Hospitals During Covid-19, Margarita Abella May 2021

Prevalence Of Adolescent Sexual Health Outcomes At Children’S Hospitals During Covid-19, Margarita Abella

Research Days

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic mitigation strategies, including social distancing, decreased structured environments, and decreased sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care access, could negatively impact adolescent SRH behaviors and related outcomes. To date, little is known regarding changes in adolescent SRH outcomes during COVID-19.

Objectives/Goal: Our goals were to assess changes in adolescent SRH outcomes, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pregnancy, and sexual assault in the hospital (emergency department [ED] and inpatient [IP]) during COVID-19 compared to pre-COVID-19.

Methods/Design: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adolescent (11-18 years old) IP or ED hospital visits using ...


Effectiveness And Safety Of Repeat Dexamethasone For Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, Christian Oliveros May 2021

Effectiveness And Safety Of Repeat Dexamethasone For Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, Christian Oliveros

Research Days

Background: Although a short course of steroids maybe beneficial in infants at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, response to treatment is variable. In infants with persistent lung disease despite initial treatment, repeat courses of steroids have been described but not well-studied. This 10-year observational study from a single tertiary referral center evaluates the effectiveness and safety of repeat steroid treatment for bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Objectives/Goal: To describe effectiveness of repeat dexamethasone treatment for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and to evaluate potential detrimental effects on growth and neurodevelopment.

Methods/Design: This was a 10-year single-center observational study of infants <30 >weeks’ gestational age ...


Variability In Blood Gas Levels During Non-Invasive Ventilatory Support Following Planned Extubation And Association To 36-Week Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia In Preterm Neonates, Michelle Klueppelberg May 2021

Variability In Blood Gas Levels During Non-Invasive Ventilatory Support Following Planned Extubation And Association To 36-Week Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia In Preterm Neonates, Michelle Klueppelberg

Research Days

Background: Despite shifts to non-invasive support, as of 2012, 87% of preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) continued to receive some form of invasive mechanical ventilation1 . As a result, research around how prolonged respiratory support may impact the development of chronic lung disease, specifically bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has flourished. To date, literature has established associations between the time on invasive mechanical ventilation and incidence BPD2,3. Resulting in the development of standardized extubation strategies and bringing with them objective measures of extubation readiness4,5. Yet, due to their volatile conditions, some neonates will inevitably need to ...


Portable Low Field Strength Mri: Preliminary Experience In Neonates And Children, Johnston Fite May 2021

Portable Low Field Strength Mri: Preliminary Experience In Neonates And Children, Johnston Fite

Research Days

Background: High field strength MRI (HF-MRI) is a pediatric imaging staple. However, HF-MRI access is limited by strong (1.5 – 3.0 T) magnetic fields with associated safety concerns, space requirements, and cost. To address these limitations, Hyperfine (Guilford, CT) developed a low magnetic field (0.064 T) portable MRI device, named Swoop. Preliminary data in adults shows benefits despite decreased image quality. In this study, initial evaluation of Swoop’s image quality in pediatric patients was assessed.

Objectives/Goal: The objective in this study was the initial evaluation of Swoop’s image quality in pediatric patients to serve as ...


Attitudes Of Pediatric Residents In The Care Of Transgender Youth, Michelle Knoll May 2021

Attitudes Of Pediatric Residents In The Care Of Transgender Youth, Michelle Knoll

Research Days

Background: Transgender individuals have health disparities compared to the general population and face several barriers to medical care. Prior studies indicate physician knowledge on transgender topics is poor and that transphobia is associated with poor knowledge even after educational interventions. Objectives/Goal: We sought to examine pediatric residents’ attitudes about transgender individuals and assess concerns related to the treatment of transgender youth. Methods: A survey was sent to 89 US Pediatric and combined (e.g. Med-Peds) residency programs and advertised on social media. Approximately 32 programs forwarded the survey to an estimated 1325 residents; 138 residents completed it. The survey ...


Characterization Of Comorbidities In Patients With A Dual Diagnosis Of Down Syndrome And Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Cerner Health Facts, Michael Slogic May 2021

Characterization Of Comorbidities In Patients With A Dual Diagnosis Of Down Syndrome And Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Cerner Health Facts, Michael Slogic

Research Days

Background: Up to 19% of patients with Down syndrome (DS) meet diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Channell, et al, 2019). While the medical and psychological comorbidities for patients with DS or ASD are well characterized, comorbidities and outcomes for patients with a dual diagnosis (DS-ASD) are poorly understood. A large cohort of patients with DS-ASD, as well as those with ASD and DS alone, are needed to better understand this. Methods for grouping and analyzing complex diagnostic phenotypes are also needed.

Objectives/Goal: Our objective is to utilize Cerner Health Facts, a multi-institutional healthcare database, to identify large ...


Antibiotic Durations For Skin And Soft Tissue Infections In Pediatric Urgent Care Clinics, Megan Hamner May 2021

Antibiotic Durations For Skin And Soft Tissue Infections In Pediatric Urgent Care Clinics, Megan Hamner

Research Days

Background: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are the second most common diagnosis leading to pediatric antibiotic prescriptions in the outpatient setting after respiratory diagnoses. However, most antibiotic stewardship programs have mainly focused on the latter. Children seen in the ambulatory setting for SSTIs often receive >7 days of antibiotics, although current society guidelines recommend 5-7 days for most diagnoses.

Objectives/Goal: To determine the baseline percentage of patients receiving antibiotic prescriptions for >7 days for SSTIs in Children’s Mercy urgent care clinics (UCC)s and to evaluate factors that influence providers towards longer durations.

Methods/Design: We built ...


A Study Examining The Safety And Efficacy Of Ferric Carboxymaltose In A Large Pediatric Cohort, Chandni Dargan Md, David Simon Do May 2021

A Study Examining The Safety And Efficacy Of Ferric Carboxymaltose In A Large Pediatric Cohort, Chandni Dargan Md, David Simon Do

Research Days

Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common in the pediatric population with varying high-risk factors. Intravenous (IV) iron supplementation has become more desirable in patients with moderate to severe anemia and in patients who are either unresponsive to or have adverse side-effects secondary to oral iron. Iron sucrose and Iron dextran have been traditionally used in pediatrics while ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) has only been FDA approved in adults. One of the major advantages of FCM is the ease of dosing and efficacy. Though FCM was approved for adults in 2013 and there have been no safety concerns, it is not ...


Writing Equitable Test Questions, Michelle Huss May 2021

Writing Equitable Test Questions, Michelle Huss

Open Educational Resources Symposium

Generating test questions can be a challenging and ominous task. What if we could generate relevant questions that also allowed space for the diverse voice of the student response? Several strategies for building questions that are equitable and towards higher levels on Bloom's taxonomy are shared. Further, we can empower our students to take responsibility of their own learning by generating their own tests using Open Pedagogy.

Equity in Open STEM Courses (Google Doc)
- Generating High Level Assessment Questions that Allow Student Voice

Writing Assessment Questions (YouTube) - that foster critical thinking - that allow the student to use their own ...


Oregon Open Learning: Oregon’S K-12 Oer Hub, Susan Payne, Vanessa Clark May 2021

Oregon Open Learning: Oregon’S K-12 Oer Hub, Susan Payne, Vanessa Clark

Open Educational Resources Symposium

A brief introduction to the Oregon Open Learning Hub and its potential to impact K-12 education, including how it can be a powerful tool utilized by pre-service educators.

OER Symposium Asynchronous Materials:

  1. Video introduction to the Oregon Open Learning Hub (10 mins.)
  2. Activity: Guided exploration of the Hub
  3. Video: Story of a Resource (4 mins.)
  4. More to Explore: User Guide for Oregon Open Learning

Birds of a Feather Session 2: May 14, 1-2

Room 2: OER in Oregon’s K-12

Zoom Link: https://lanecc.zoom.us/j/92705512361


Envisioning Open Pedagogy In Graduate Book Marketing, Corinne Gould May 2021

Envisioning Open Pedagogy In Graduate Book Marketing, Corinne Gould

Open Educational Resources Symposium

This short presentation will outline an assignment for adoption in the Fall 2021 graduate-level Book Marketing course at Portland State University. Students will collaboratively develop an OER best practices guide to empower and support OER creators in marketing, advertising, amplifying, and making more discoverable their OER to an audience of faculty, librarians, and other stakeholders who influence OER adoption. Sample marketing plans and case studies will be designed in partnership with Open Oregon and PDXOPEN. The idea for this assignment comes from Amy Hofer (Statewide Open Education Library Services) with support from Karen Bjork (Digital Initiatives and Scholarly Publishing at ...


A New Paradigm: Ecmo Therapy In Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Patients, Igor Areinamo May 2021

A New Paradigm: Ecmo Therapy In Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Patients, Igor Areinamo

Research Days

Background: The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for support of pediatric patients has significantly increased in the past years. Patients with known oncologic diseases, immunodeficiencies, or bone marrow transplants (BMT) have traditionally not been considered candidates for Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to perceived high risk for mortality. Ongoing advances have continued to push the boundaries of ECMO use and we report our recent experience with this patient population

Objectives/Goal: To evaluate survival to discharge of pediatric patients who require ECMO support and who also have an underlying hematologic or oncologic disease process. To determine specific patient characteristics ...


Low Dose Doxorubicin Inhibits Immune Checkpoint Upregulation In Acute Leukemias, Bradley C. Stockard May 2021

Low Dose Doxorubicin Inhibits Immune Checkpoint Upregulation In Acute Leukemias, Bradley C. Stockard

Research Days

Background: Evasion of drug and immune response in therapy-resistant leukemic stem cells (LSCs) is a major cause of relapse. A previous study has identified an alternative mechanism of action for low-dose doxorubicin (DXR) that inhibits upregulation of immune checkpoints (IC) in LSCs.

Objectives/Goal: The objective of this study is to establish the DXR dose range that will achieve the inhibition of immune checkpoint expression in leukemic cell lines.

Methods/Design: Cells were analyzed for expression of CTLA-4, LAG-3, PD-1, TIGIT, and TIM-3 via flow cytometry. Analysis was performed on days 3, 5, and 8 of treatment at concentrations identified ...


Outcomes Of Infants With Severe Rop At Risk Of Treatment With Avastin Compared To Laser Surgery, Stephen Doxey May 2021

Outcomes Of Infants With Severe Rop At Risk Of Treatment With Avastin Compared To Laser Surgery, Stephen Doxey

Research Days

Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a well-known complication occurring in the most premature infants leading to visual impairment and in the most severe cases associated with retinal detachment and childhood blindness. Factors contributing the development of ROP include chronic hypoxia and disordered vascular genesis primarily through the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway. Infants at risk of developing ROP are screened with serial eye exam and treated with either laser surgery or intraocular injects of bevacizumab (Avastin) to prevent progression of ROP and preserve vision. Bevacizumab, an inhibitor of VEGF signaling, may have positive effects on preventing ROP ...


Levofloxacin Versus Ciprofloxacin Prophylaxis In Pediatric Cancer Patients At High Risk Of Infection, Chandni Dargan Md, Amy Johnson Md, Mba May 2021

Levofloxacin Versus Ciprofloxacin Prophylaxis In Pediatric Cancer Patients At High Risk Of Infection, Chandni Dargan Md, Amy Johnson Md, Mba

Research Days

Background: Patients with cancer and those undergoing chemotherapy are at risk of developing bacterial infections due to myelosuppression. Patients undergoing the most intensive chemotherapy regimens are at a higher risk for morbidity and mortality due to profound neutropenia. Antibacterial prophylaxis is given to reduce the incidence of infection in those at highest risk. Starting March 1, 2016 our institution used ciprofloxacin for antibacterial prophylaxis however recent literature, including the COG trial ACCL0934, supports using levofloxacin in certain high risk (HR) populations due to greater efficacy in reducing neutropenic fever (NF) and bacteremia. Therefore, we switched to this April 1, 2019 ...


A Pediatric Case Of Treatment-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome While On Therapy For Pre-B All, Sara Mcelroy May 2021

A Pediatric Case Of Treatment-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome While On Therapy For Pre-B All, Sara Mcelroy

Research Days

Background: Treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) is a known, but rare, late effect of cancer therapy, specifically radiation, alkylating agents or topoisomerase II inhibitors. When secondary to treatment with alkylating agents, t-MDS typically occurs 4 to 7 years after therapy, and common cytogenetics include chromosomes 5 and 7 abnormalities. Treatment in children with t-MDS is typically allogeneic stem cell transplant, but the prognosis remains poor.

Objectives/Goal: To describe a rare case of a pediatric patient who developed t-MDS while receiving treatment for Pre-B Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (pre-B ALL) and to outline the treatment regimen that he received.

Methods/Design ...


Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome After Dinutuximab, Kayeleigh Higgerson Do, Chandni Dargan Md May 2021

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome After Dinutuximab, Kayeleigh Higgerson Do, Chandni Dargan Md

Research Days

Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a reversible disorder associated with edema of subcortical white matter and cortical gray matter that usually involves the occipital and parietal lobes. Endothelial injury secondary to abrupt blood pressure changes breaks down the blood brain barrier leading to brain edema. Per the ANBL0032 Fall 2015 Study Progress Report, Dinutuximab was the probable cause of PRES in two patients. There have been published reports of PRES with other anti-GD2 antibody therapies but very few reports of Dinutuximab as the causative agent.

Objectives/Goal: To report a case of PRES after Dinutuximab

Methods/Design: Case ...


Therapeutic Plasma Exchange In Critically Ill Pediatric Patients With Leukemia, Sarah E. Mc Dermott, Chandni Dargan May 2021

Therapeutic Plasma Exchange In Critically Ill Pediatric Patients With Leukemia, Sarah E. Mc Dermott, Chandni Dargan

Research Days

Background: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has well-documented applications in the adult population, outlined by the American Society of Apheresis (ASFA) 2019 guidelines. Limited data exists regarding the use of TPE in critically ill pediatric patients, however these reports rarely include patients with oncological diseases. Care for these patients poses certain clinical considerations including the safety of continuing chemotherapy, delayed clearance of chemotherapy secondary to end organ damage and mechanical clearance (i.e., continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) circuitry), and ability to tolerate chemotherapy once recovered. We aim to highlight the potential benefits of TPE in their acute management, so that ...


Long-Term Outcomes And Satisfaction Rates After Costal Cartilage Resection For Slipping Rib Syndrome, James Fraser May 2021

Long-Term Outcomes And Satisfaction Rates After Costal Cartilage Resection For Slipping Rib Syndrome, James Fraser

Research Days

Background/Objectives/Goal: Slipping rib syndrome (SRS) is a challenging and underdiagnosed condition that has proven to be an elusive diagnosis due to an extensive differential with presenting symptoms that mimic a myriad of alternative diagnoses of both thoracic and abdominal pathology. The diagnosis of SRS is recognized in a patient with consistent, progressive, often debilitating unilateral or bilateral chest wall and/or upper abdominal pain with intermittent clicking or rib slipping. SRS frequently does not resolve with conservative management, including physical therapy, rest, and NSAIDs, as well as intercostal injections, and even opioid medications. Workup can be extensive including ...


Multimodal Pain Control In Common Neonatal Surgeries: Post-Operative Pain Protocol Reduces Opiate Exposure And Side Effects, Jamesia Donato May 2021

Multimodal Pain Control In Common Neonatal Surgeries: Post-Operative Pain Protocol Reduces Opiate Exposure And Side Effects, Jamesia Donato

Research Days

Background: Opioids are the primary post-operative (post-op) analgesic in neonates. Side effects include hypotension, apnea and ileus. Previous studies show IV acetaminophen decreases opiate need in specific populations including cleft palate repair, cardiac surgery. The effect of IV acetaminophen as part of a post-op pain algorithm is not known in common neonatal surgical procedures.

Objectives/Goal: To determine if (a) a post-op pain algorithm including IV acetaminophen and (b) IV acetaminophen exposure reduces cumulative opioid requirements in neonates undergoing common surgeries in the NICU.

Methods/Design: This is a retrospective cohort study comparing cumulative post-operative opiate exposure between infants with ...


The Impact Of Early Tracheostomy On Neurodevelopmental Outcome Of Infants With Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Exposed To Postnatal Steroids, Amjad Taha May 2021

The Impact Of Early Tracheostomy On Neurodevelopmental Outcome Of Infants With Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Exposed To Postnatal Steroids, Amjad Taha

Research Days

Background: BPD is associated with long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. Tracheostomy is performed in 5-12% of severe BPD for prolonged ventilation. There is evidence that chronic ventilation with tracheostomy in severe BPD may facilitate neurodevelopment and lead to improved outcome. However, there is no consensus on the optimal timing of tracheostomy. A large multicenter study of infants with tracheostomy performed at <120 days of life had better neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-22 months of age. Use of steroids postnatally to ameliorate the severity of BPD had been controversial due to its negative effect on neurodevelopment. To date, no data has specifically evaluated the impact of early tracheostomy on neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with severe BPD who are exposed to postnatal steroids.

Objectives/Goal: To compare the cognitive, language and motor scores among 3 groups of severe BPD infants who received early vs late vs no tracheostomy. Secondly, evaluate if postnatal steroids had an additive negative effect on neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Methods/Design: IRB ...


Online Echocardiography Modules For Pediatric Cardiology Fellows, Sarah Studyvin, Doaa Aly, Tyler Johnson, Laura Kuzava, Alison Samrany, Nitin Madan, Sanket Shah May 2021

Online Echocardiography Modules For Pediatric Cardiology Fellows, Sarah Studyvin, Doaa Aly, Tyler Johnson, Laura Kuzava, Alison Samrany, Nitin Madan, Sanket Shah

Research Days

Background: Adequate echocardiographic (echo) education is integral to successful cardiology training. Online education is proven to be effective in other specialties, but pediatric echo training data are lacking.

Objectives/Goal: Our aim was to design and assess the role of a novel online module-based curriculum to enhance pediatric cardiology fellows’ echo education.

Methods/Design: Four interactive modules, focused on principles and interpretation of a normal echo, were delivered to fellows. Content included high quality 2D and 3D echo clips as well as interactive quizzes and could be accessed from a phone, tablet, or computer. All fellows completed pre- and post-tests ...