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Full-Text Articles in Education

Building Connections: The Power Of Embedding Literacy And Math Content Into Science And Social Studies Contexts, Rachel Hallett-Njuguna Edd Feb 2024

Building Connections: The Power Of Embedding Literacy And Math Content Into Science And Social Studies Contexts, Rachel Hallett-Njuguna Edd

Constellations: Online STEM Teacher Education Journal

Nationally, the lack of improvement in literacy scores continues to baffle experts. Instructional leaders from math, science, and social studies in one district knew the value of leveraging their subject areas to support literacy achievement in secondary students. Starting with an engaging STEM-related novel, the group of curriculum experts developed meaningful literacy connected tasks for their teacher and teacher leader participants. Working through the activities as their students would, the group found a new appreciation for the importance of leveraging the relevance of science and social studies content and the usefulness of math content when creating literacy lessons. The group’s …


Table Of Contents Feb 2024

Table Of Contents

Early College Folio

(2023) "Table of Contents," Early College Folio: Vol. 3: Iss. 1, Article 1. Available at: https://digitalcommons.bard.edu/earlycollegefolio/vol3/iss1/1


Place-Based Education: A Pedagogy Of Community Feb 2024

Place-Based Education: A Pedagogy Of Community

The International Journal of Ecopsychology (IJE)

Every place, no matter how seemingly mundane or described as ‘exotic,’ has a story—a human story involving culture (history, language, migration, etc.); a natural story involving land and water, plants and animals, and other natural phenomena; and a story that combines the two—humans in the natural space and their impact on that space. The degree to which we know the story of a place informs our connection to that place, be it positive, negative, or neutral. The incorporation of these stories—the cultural, historical, and ecological stories of a place—into school curricula is known as place-based education (PBE) and is the …


“It’S Just Lines”: A Qualitative Analysis Of Emergent Structures And Experiences Within Steam Education Initiatives For Secondary-Level Students, John O'Meara Feb 2024

“It’S Just Lines”: A Qualitative Analysis Of Emergent Structures And Experiences Within Steam Education Initiatives For Secondary-Level Students, John O'Meara

LASER Journal

This qualitative analysis is oriented around the experiences and discourse of high school students participating in LASER (Linking Art and Science through Education and Research), an initiative at Montclair State University in Montclair, NJ that seeks mathematics and physics education reform through an immersive and innovative approach to STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics) experiences. This work focuses on the concluding task of a one-day workshop wherein students are led on a campus walk to observe the local campus architecture, and then must recreate one of the observed structures within the Desmos graphing utility. Student approaches and narratives reveal …


Polygon Quadrature And Dodecagonal Tessellation With Pattern Blocks, Gunhan Caglayan, Ben Kamau Jan 2024

Polygon Quadrature And Dodecagonal Tessellation With Pattern Blocks, Gunhan Caglayan, Ben Kamau

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

The age-old challenge of polygon quadrature involves converting a polygon into a square of equal area. In this educational resource, we utilize pattern blocks, commonly employed instructional aids in K-12 education across the United States, to visually demonstrate the transformation of different equilateral and regular pattern block polygons into squares. This is achieved through the application of the area conservation principle and geometric congruence/similarity reasoning.


Seating Groups And 'What A Coincidence!': Mathematics In The Making And How It Gets Presented, Peter J. Rowlett Jan 2024

Seating Groups And 'What A Coincidence!': Mathematics In The Making And How It Gets Presented, Peter J. Rowlett

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

Mathematics is often presented as a neatly polished finished product, yet its development is messy and often full of mis-steps that could have been avoided with hindsight. An experience with a puzzle illustrates this conflict. The puzzle asks for the probability that a group of four and a group of two are seated adjacently within a hundred seats, and is solved using combinatorics techniques.


Undergraduate Mathematics Students Question And Critique Society Through Mathematical Modeling, Will Tidwell, Amy Bennett Jan 2024

Undergraduate Mathematics Students Question And Critique Society Through Mathematical Modeling, Will Tidwell, Amy Bennett

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

Mathematics can be used as a tool to question and critique society and, in doing so, give us more information about the world around us and how it operates. This however, is not a common perspective that is conveyed to students during their undergraduate mathematics coursework. This paper contributes to the understanding of how undergraduate mathematics students question and critique society via mathematical modeling tasks. In two courses at two universities, 27 mathematics majors and secondary preservice teachers engaged in the modeling process situated in authentic contexts to learn specific concepts and make mathematical connections across domains and disciplines. Both …


Sharing Four Biscuits Between Three People: An Illustrative Example Of How Mathematics Is Intertwined With Human Values, Lovisa Sumpter, David Sumpter Jan 2024

Sharing Four Biscuits Between Three People: An Illustrative Example Of How Mathematics Is Intertwined With Human Values, Lovisa Sumpter, David Sumpter

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

Despite convincing arguments by mathematicians, philosophers, sociologists and machine learning practitioners to the contrary, there remains a widespread notion amongst many members of the general public (and some practitioners) that mathematics is neutral, that it is free from human values. One reason why this notion persists is that we lack clear-cut examples that demonstrate how mathematics and values are intertwined. In this paper, we offer one such example. In particular, we show that when sharing four biscuits between three people, several possible mathematical and ethical frameworks can be used. We demon- strate that different solutions—hiding one biscuit, arbitrarily sharing the …


Gödel's Theorem In The Continuing Education Of Mathematics Teachers, Ana J. Lemes Jan 2024

Gödel's Theorem In The Continuing Education Of Mathematics Teachers, Ana J. Lemes

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

The notion of dépaysement épistémologique (epistemological disorientation) aims to capture the sense of disorientation when a learner is led to question their prior assumptions and understandings, generating uncertainty in a context in which they thought they had certain knowledge. This article describes an activity used with a group of practicing mathematics teachers in Uruguay that integrates elements of the history of mathematics related to Gödel’s incompleteness theorem, with the aim of provoking in the participants the experience of dépaysement épistémologique. Results show that several of the teachers participating in the activity felt dépaysement épistémologique, and this feeling triggered …


Finding Your Mathematical Roots: Inclusion And Identity Development In Mathematics, Linda Mcguire Jan 2024

Finding Your Mathematical Roots: Inclusion And Identity Development In Mathematics, Linda Mcguire

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

This paper details a semester-long course project that has been successfully adapted for use in mathematics courses ranging from introductory level, general-education classes to advanced courses in the mathematics major. Through creating aspirational mathematical family trees and writing mathematical autobiographies, this assignment is designed to help battle belonging uncertainty, to challenge students to self-situate in relation to the history of mathematical and scientific knowledge, and to make visible a student’s developing identity in mathematics and, more broadly, in STEM.

The construction and scaffolding of the project, assignments, examples of student work, foundational readings, assessment and outcomes, and adaptation strategies for …


Numeracy Tasks: Inspiring Transfer Between Concrete And Abstract Thinking Spaces, Taras Gula, Miroslav Lovric Jan 2024

Numeracy Tasks: Inspiring Transfer Between Concrete And Abstract Thinking Spaces, Taras Gula, Miroslav Lovric

Numeracy

In our paper we build a case for conceptualizing numeracy tasks as distinct from mathematical tasks (or at least as a special type of mathematical task), and for abstraction and interpretation as a set of key activities necessary for designating a numeracy task as being high-quality. We start with an attempt to tame the fuzziness of numeracy and its family members (including quantitative reasoning, quantitative literacy, mathematical literacy, and the word problem cousins) by outlining six areas of consensus gleaned from literature. These provide the foundation for a core mandate of numeracy. We then build our case for the distinctness …


The Effectiveness Of An Educational Program In Developing Mathematical Achievement As Well As Developing Productive Struggle Among Students Of Intermediate Stage, Ibrahim A. Khalil Ph.D. Jan 2024

The Effectiveness Of An Educational Program In Developing Mathematical Achievement As Well As Developing Productive Struggle Among Students Of Intermediate Stage, Ibrahim A. Khalil Ph.D.

International Journal for Research in Education

This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of an educational program in developing Mathematical Achievement and productive struggle among students of intermediate stage. To fulfil its goals the study used the quasi-experimental approach, based on the design of two equivalent groups. It also used the Teacher's Guide - an activity booklet as study material, in addition to the use of two tools to collect data. One of them is an achievement test that included (three levels of mathematical knowledge related to equation and inequalities) and the other is a productive struggle scale (divided into three axes). The study sample consisted …


“That Cross-Curricular Business”: The Engineering Design Process In Mathematics And Science Classrooms, Eugenia Vomvoridi-Ivanovic, Tonisha B. Lane, Leia K. Cain, Salam Ahmad, Selene Willis, Jonathan E. Gaines Jan 2024

“That Cross-Curricular Business”: The Engineering Design Process In Mathematics And Science Classrooms, Eugenia Vomvoridi-Ivanovic, Tonisha B. Lane, Leia K. Cain, Salam Ahmad, Selene Willis, Jonathan E. Gaines

The Qualitative Report

The engineering design process (EDP) is one tool teachers can use to facilitate STEM integration. As part of a larger three-year longitudinal research project regarding engineering identity development among middle school youth in a summer robotics outreach program, this study aims to understand teachers’ willingness to incorporate engineering design in their classrooms through an exploration of their perceptions of the EDP, its applications to their subject matter and classroom context, methods of enacting the EDP, and perceived challenges to and supports for doing so. We conducted a qualitative case study and drew our results from focus groups and semi-structured interviews …


Full Issue - Engaging The World: Differential Equations Can Influence Public Policies Jan 2024

Full Issue - Engaging The World: Differential Equations Can Influence Public Policies

CODEE Journal

This is the full issue (front matter and all papers) of the Third CODEE Special Issue, with the theme, "Engaging the World: Differential Equations can Influence Public Policies."


Special Issue On Public Policy: Front Matter Jan 2024

Special Issue On Public Policy: Front Matter

CODEE Journal

The Front Matter contains the Editor-in-Chief's Foreword, a Dedicatory by Associate Editor Douglas Meade, a Preface by the Special Editors Bev West and Samer Habre, and the Table of Contents.


Seeing Eye To Eye? Comparing Faculty And Student Perceptions Of Biomolecular Visualization Assessments, Josh T. Beckham, Daniel R. Dries, Bonnie L. Hall, Rarchel M. Mitton-Fry, Shelly Engelman, Charmita Burch, Roderico Acevedo, Pamela S. Mertz, Didem Vardar-Ulu, Swati Agrawal, Kristin M. Fox, Shane Austin, Margaret A. Franzen, Henry V. Jakubowski, Walter R. P. Novak, Rebecca Roberts, Alberto I. Roca, Kristen Procko Jan 2024

Seeing Eye To Eye? Comparing Faculty And Student Perceptions Of Biomolecular Visualization Assessments, Josh T. Beckham, Daniel R. Dries, Bonnie L. Hall, Rarchel M. Mitton-Fry, Shelly Engelman, Charmita Burch, Roderico Acevedo, Pamela S. Mertz, Didem Vardar-Ulu, Swati Agrawal, Kristin M. Fox, Shane Austin, Margaret A. Franzen, Henry V. Jakubowski, Walter R. P. Novak, Rebecca Roberts, Alberto I. Roca, Kristen Procko

Chemistry Faculty Publications

While visual literacy has been identified as a foundational skill in life science education, there are many challenges in teaching and assessing biomolecular visualization skills. Among these are the lack of consensus about what constitutes competence and limited understanding of student and instructor perceptions of visual literacy tasks. In this study, we administered a set of biomolecular visualization assessments, developed as part of the BioMolViz project, to both students and instructors at multiple institutions and compared their perceptions of task difficulty. We then analyzed our findings using a mixed-methods approach. Quantitative analysis was used to answer the following research questions: …


How Mathematicians Characterize And Attempt To Develop Understanding Of Concepts And Definitions In Proof-Based Courses, Rachel Rupnow, Timothy Fukawa-Connelly Jan 2024

How Mathematicians Characterize And Attempt To Develop Understanding Of Concepts And Definitions In Proof-Based Courses, Rachel Rupnow, Timothy Fukawa-Connelly

Faculty Peer-Reviewed Publications

Mathematics education research has long focused on students’ conceptual understanding, including highlighting conceptions viewed as problematic and looking for ways to develop more desirable conceptions. Nevertheless, limited research has examined how mathematicians characterize understanding of concepts and definitions or promote activities beneficial for students. Based on interviews with 13 mathematicians, we present thematic characterizations of what it means to understand a concept and definition, highlight activities mathematicians believe assist students’ learning, and examine their reasons for promoting these activities.

Results include mathematically grounded descriptions of what it means to understand a concept but general descriptions of approaching and supporting learning. …


Instructional Decision Making In A Gateway Quantitative Reasoning Course, Deependra Budhathoki, Gregory D. Foley, Stephen Shadik Jan 2024

Instructional Decision Making In A Gateway Quantitative Reasoning Course, Deependra Budhathoki, Gregory D. Foley, Stephen Shadik

Numeracy

Many educators and professional organizations recommend Quantitative Reasoning as the best entry-level postsecondary mathematics course for non-STEM majors. However, novice and veteran instructors who have no prior experience in teaching a QR course often express their ignorance of the content to choose for this course, the instruction to offer students, and the assessments to measure student learning. We conducted a case study to investigate the initial implementation of an entry-level university quantitative reasoning course during fall semester, 2018. The participants were the course instructor and students. We examined the instructor’s motives and actions and the students’ responses to the course. …


Nonlinear Dynamics Of Mountain Pine Beetle Populations: Discussion Of Forestry Policy, A Survey Of Existing Mathematical Models, And Code Base Demonstration, Scott A. Strong, Maya Maes-Johnson Jan 2024

Nonlinear Dynamics Of Mountain Pine Beetle Populations: Discussion Of Forestry Policy, A Survey Of Existing Mathematical Models, And Code Base Demonstration, Scott A. Strong, Maya Maes-Johnson

CODEE Journal

This article presents existing mathematical models associated with mountain pine beetle populations in lodgepole pine forests, whose reproductive cycle requires the destruction of colonized host trees, decreasing timber availability/quality, and providing fuel sources for wildfires. With the existence of a positive-feedback loop with environmental warming, the need for intervention and management is clear. However, the legislative responses to the focusing events from our 2000-2010 North American epidemics are characterized as under-leveraged. While the reasons for this are multifaceted, increasing the capacity of STEM-informed individuals to take part in quantitative modeling of the underlying ecosystem generates awareness and provides pathways connecting …


Solar Panels, Euler’S Method And Community-Based Projects: Connecting Differential Equations With Climate Change, Victor J. Donnay Jan 2024

Solar Panels, Euler’S Method And Community-Based Projects: Connecting Differential Equations With Climate Change, Victor J. Donnay

CODEE Journal

How does mathematics connect with the search for solutions to the climate emergency? One simple connection, which can be explored in an introductory differential equations course, can be found by analyzing the energy generated by solar panels or wind turbines. The power generated by these devices is typically recorded at standard time intervals producing a data set which gives a discrete approximation to the power function $P(t)$. Using numerical techniques such as Euler’s method, one can determine the energy generated. Here we describe how we introduce the topic of solar power, apply Euler’s method to determine the energy generated, and …


Blue Whale And Krill Populations Modeling, Li Zhang Jan 2024

Blue Whale And Krill Populations Modeling, Li Zhang

CODEE Journal

We present an intriguing topic in an undergraduate mathematical modeling course where predator-prey models are taught to our students. We describe modeling activities and the use of technology that can be implemented in teaching this topic. Through modeling activities, students are expected to use the numerical and graphical methods to observe the qualitative long-term behavior of predator and prey populations. Although there are other choices of predators and prey, we find that using blue whales and krill as predator and prey, respectively, would be most beneficial in strengthening our students' awareness of protecting endangered species and its impact on climate …


Odes And Mandatory Voting, Christoph Borgers, Natasa Dragovic, Anna Haensch, Arkadz Kirshtein, Lilla Orr Jan 2024

Odes And Mandatory Voting, Christoph Borgers, Natasa Dragovic, Anna Haensch, Arkadz Kirshtein, Lilla Orr

CODEE Journal

This paper presents mathematics relevant to the question whether voting should be mandatory. Assuming a static distribution of voters’ political beliefs, we model how politicians might adjust their positions to raise their share of the vote. Various scenarios can be explored using our app at https: //centrism.streamlit.app/. Abstentions are found to have great impact on the dynamics of candidates, and in particular to introduce the possibility of discontinuous jumps in optimal candidate positions. This is an unusual application of ODEs. We hope that it might help engage some students who may find it harder to connect with the more customary …


Pre-Service Teachers Notice Student Thinking: Then What?, Tara Barnhart, Heather J. Johnson, Miray Tekkumru-Kisa Jan 2024

Pre-Service Teachers Notice Student Thinking: Then What?, Tara Barnhart, Heather J. Johnson, Miray Tekkumru-Kisa

Education Faculty Articles and Research

Research has demonstrated that pre-service teachers (PSTs) can learn to notice students’ thinking in sophisticated ways by analyzing videos of classroom interactions. What is less clear is how PSTs use what they notice about student thinking to inform how they respond. Secondary math and science PSTs from three teacher preparation programs were invited to analyze a video clip identifying noteworthy moments of student thinking and describing an instructional move they might make and why. A qualitative analysis of their responses indicates that the PSTs overwhelmingly noticed both the substance and the source of students’ ideas. However, the patterns in their …


To Open Or Not To Open: Developing A Covid-19 Model Specific To Small Residential Campuses, Christina Joy Edholm, Maryann Hohn, Nicole Lee Falicov, Emily Lee, Lily Natasha Wartman, Ami Radunskaya Jan 2024

To Open Or Not To Open: Developing A Covid-19 Model Specific To Small Residential Campuses, Christina Joy Edholm, Maryann Hohn, Nicole Lee Falicov, Emily Lee, Lily Natasha Wartman, Ami Radunskaya

CODEE Journal

In May 2020, administrators of residential colleges struggled with the decision of whether or not to open their campuses in the Fall semester of 2020. To help guide this decision, we formulated an ODE model capturing the dynamics of the spread of COVID-19 on a residential campus. In order to provide as much information as possible for administrators, the model accounts for the different behaviors, susceptibility, and risks in the various sub-populations that make up the campus community. In particular, we start with a traditional SEIR model and add compartments representing relevant variables, such as quarantine compartments and a hospitalized …


Fitting A Covid-19 Model Incorporating Senses Of Safety And Caution To Local Data From Spartanburg County, South Carolina, D. Chloe Griffin, Amanda Mangum Jan 2024

Fitting A Covid-19 Model Incorporating Senses Of Safety And Caution To Local Data From Spartanburg County, South Carolina, D. Chloe Griffin, Amanda Mangum

CODEE Journal

Common mechanistic models include Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) and Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Removed (SEIR) models. These models in their basic forms have generally failed to capture the nature of the COVID-19 pandemic's multiple waves and do not take into account public policies such as social distancing, mask mandates, and the ``Stay-at-Home'' orders implemented in early 2020. While the Susceptible-Vaccinated-Infected-Recovered-Deceased (SVIRD) model only adds two more compartments to the SIR model, the inclusion of time-dependent parameters allows for the model to better capture the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic when surveillance testing was common practice for a large portion of the population. We find …


Applying The Sir Model: Can Students Advise The Mayor Of A Small Community?, Carrin Goosen, Mark I. Nelson, Mahime Watanabe Jan 2024

Applying The Sir Model: Can Students Advise The Mayor Of A Small Community?, Carrin Goosen, Mark I. Nelson, Mahime Watanabe

CODEE Journal

This is an account of a modelling scenario that uses the sir epidemic model. It was used in a third year applied mathematics subject. All students were enrolled in a mathematics degree of some type. Students are presented with the results of a test carried out on 100 individuals in a community containing 3000 people. From this they determined the number of infectious and recovered individuals in the population. Given the per capita recovery rate and making a suitable assumption about the number of infectious individuals at the start of the epidemic, they then estimate the infectious contact rate and …


Differential Equations For A Changing World:How To Engage Students In Learning And Applying Differential Equations, Biyong Luo Jan 2024

Differential Equations For A Changing World:How To Engage Students In Learning And Applying Differential Equations, Biyong Luo

CODEE Journal

In this article, I share my decade-long experience teaching an intensive five-week summer Differential Equation course covering complex topics and tips for creating an interactive and supportive learning environment to optimize student engagement. This article provides my detailed approach to planning and teaching an asynchronous course with rigor and flexibility for each student. An interactive teaching approach and variety of learning activities will augment students’ mathematical fluency and appreciation of the importance of differential equations in modeling a wide variety of real-world situations with special attention to ways differential equations can be relevant to creating public policy.


Raising Student Awareness Of Environmental Issues Via Writing Assignments With Differential Equations, Michelle L. Ghrist Jan 2024

Raising Student Awareness Of Environmental Issues Via Writing Assignments With Differential Equations, Michelle L. Ghrist

CODEE Journal

In this paper, I discuss two environmentally-focused writing assignments that I developed and implemented in recent integral calculus and differential equations courses. These models of carbon storage and PCB’s in a river provide interesting applications of one-compartment mixing problems. The assignments were intended to focus student attention on sustainability concerns while also developing other essential skills. I discuss these assignments and their effect on my students’ technical writing and environmental awareness. Detailed introductory instructions and mostly complete solutions to these assignments appear in the appendices, to include sample student work.


Modeling Aircraft Takeoffs, Catherine Cavagnaro Jan 2024

Modeling Aircraft Takeoffs, Catherine Cavagnaro

CODEE Journal

Real-world applications can demonstrate how mathematical models describe and provide insight into familiar physical systems. In this paper, we apply techniques from a first-semester differential equations course that shed light on a problem from aviation. In particular, we construct several differential equations that model the distance that an aircraft requires to become airborne. A popular thumb rule that pilots have used for decades appears to emanate from one of these models. We will see that this rule does not follow from a representative model and suggest a better method of ensuring safety during takeoff. Aircraft safety is definitely a matter …


Ode Models Of Wealth Concentration And Taxation, Bruce Boghosian, Christoph Borgers Jan 2024

Ode Models Of Wealth Concentration And Taxation, Bruce Boghosian, Christoph Borgers

CODEE Journal

We refer to an individual holding a non-negligible fraction of the country’s total wealth as an oligarch. We explain how a model due to Boghosian et al. can be used to explore the effects of taxation on the emergence of oligarchs. The model suggests that oligarchs will emerge when wealth taxation is below a certain threshold, not when it is above the threshold. The underlying mechanism is a transcritical bifurcation. The model also suggests that taxation of income and capital gains alone cannot prevent the emergence of oligarchs. We suggest several opportunities for students to explore modifications of the model.