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An Artificial Neural Network For Real-Time Hardwood Lumber Grading, Edward Thomas 2017 USDA Forest Service

An Artificial Neural Network For Real-Time Hardwood Lumber Grading, Edward Thomas

USDA Forest Service / UNL Faculty Publications

Computerized grading of hardwood lumber according to NHLA rules would permit fast assessment of sawn lumber and the evaluation of potential edging and trimming operations to improve lumber value. More importantly, to enable optimization of the hardwood lumber sawing process, a fast means of evaluating the potential value of boards before they are sawn is necessary. As log and lumber scanning systems become prevalent and common, these needs become more pressing. From an automation perspective, the NHLA lumber grades are difficult to implement efficiently in a computer program. Exhaustive approaches that examine every potential cutting size and combination to determine ...


Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer Density And The Composition Of Forest Understories In The Northern United States, Matthew B. Russell, Christopher W. Woodall, Kevin M. Potter, Brian F. Walters, Grant M. Domke, Christopher M. Oswalt 2017 University of Minnesota

Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer Density And The Composition Of Forest Understories In The Northern United States, Matthew B. Russell, Christopher W. Woodall, Kevin M. Potter, Brian F. Walters, Grant M. Domke, Christopher M. Oswalt

USDA Forest Service / UNL Faculty Publications

Forest understories across the northern United States (US) are a complex of tree seedlings, endemic forbs, herbs, shrubs, and introduced plant species within a forest structure defined by tree and forest floor attributes. The substantial increase in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) populations over the past decades has resulted in heavy browse pressure in many of these forests. To gain an objective assessment of the role of deer in forested ecosystems, a region-wide forest inventory across the northern US was examined in concert with white-tailed deer density information compiled at broad scales. Results indicate that deer density may be an ...


Residential Building Energy Conservation And Avoided Power Plant Emissions By Urban And Community Trees In The United States, David J. Nowak, Nathaniel Appleton, Alexis Ellis, Eric Greenfield 2017 USDA Forest Service

Residential Building Energy Conservation And Avoided Power Plant Emissions By Urban And Community Trees In The United States, David J. Nowak, Nathaniel Appleton, Alexis Ellis, Eric Greenfield

USDA Forest Service / UNL Faculty Publications

Urban trees and forests alter building energy use and associated emissions from power plants by shading buildings, cooling air temperatures and altering wind speeds around buildings. Field data on urban trees were combined with local urban/community tree and land cover maps, modeling of tree effects on building energy use and pollutant emissions, and state energy and pollutant costs to estimate tree effects on building energy use and associated pollutant emissions at the state to national level in the conterminous United States. Results reveal that trees and forests in urban/community areas in the conterminous United States annually reduce electricity ...


Establishment Of American Chestnuts On Surface Mined Lands In Appalachian Coalfields Region, Michael E. French 2017 University of Kentucky

Establishment Of American Chestnuts On Surface Mined Lands In Appalachian Coalfields Region, Michael E. French

Theses and Dissertations--Forestry

American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) was an dominant hardwood throughout eastern North America until the introduction of an exotic fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr) in the early 20th century devastated American chestnut populations. Chestnuts that have been bred for blight resistance have recently become available for testing. Due to the overlap of American chestnut’s natural range and the Appalachian coalfields region, the potential establishment of founder populations of blight-resistant chestnuts on reclaimed coal surface mines has recently gained attention. This work examined chestnut establishment on a surface mine in eastern Kentucky to assess factors controlling early survival ...


Old-Growth Characteristics Of Northern White-Cedar Stands, Nathan Wesely 2016 University of Maine

Old-Growth Characteristics Of Northern White-Cedar Stands, Nathan Wesely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis; hereafter white-cedar) communities have received relatively little research attention, and managers lack the tools used in the management of other commercial tree species. This includes the recognition of old-growth characteristics and the differentiation between old-growth and partially harvested stands, particularly in the context of Forest Stewardship Council (FSC-US) certification. Specifically, there is very little information about characteristics that define old-growth white-cedar stands despite the species’ abundance and wide distribution. Regional indices for late-successional or old-growth stands (Whitman and Hagan, 2007) do not include white-cedar. Forests dominated by white-cedar represent a type that currently lacks quantitative benchmarks ...


Modeling And Forecasting The Influence Of Current And Future Climate On Eastern North American Spruce-Fir (Picea-Abies) Forests, Caitlin Andrews 2016 The University of Maine

Modeling And Forecasting The Influence Of Current And Future Climate On Eastern North American Spruce-Fir (Picea-Abies) Forests, Caitlin Andrews

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The spruce-fir (Picea-Abies) forest type of the Acadian Region is at risk of disappearing from the United States and parts of Canada due to climate change and associated impacts. Managing for the ecosystem services provided by this forest type requires accurate forecasting of forest metrics across this broad international region in the face of the expected redistribution of tree species. This analysis linked species specific data with climate and topographic variables using the nonparametric random forest algorithm, to generate models that accurately predicted changes in species distribution due to climate change. A comprehensive dataset, consisting of 10,493,619 observations ...


Determining Public Perceptions Toward Wildland Fire In The Veluwe Region Of The Netherlands, Amy Brennan 2016 Stephen F. Austin State University

Determining Public Perceptions Toward Wildland Fire In The Veluwe Region Of The Netherlands, Amy Brennan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Netherlands has been facing a growing threat of wildfires due to warmer

and drier weather patterns. The purpose of this study was to identify public

perceptions toward wildland fire in the forested Veluwe region of the country. The

Dutch have little experience with wildland fires or fire as a management tool. In a

collaborative effort between Stephen F. Austin State University and the Instituut

Fysieke Veiligheid, the Dutch public safety agency, a survey was distributed to

residents and visitors to the Veluwe to reveal and quantify public opinions and

perceptions regarding wildland fire and public expectations of government

agencies ...


Effects Of Prescribed Fire On The Forest Structure And Composition At Land Between The Lakes National Recreation Area, Ky, Miranda Thompson 2016 Murray State University

Effects Of Prescribed Fire On The Forest Structure And Composition At Land Between The Lakes National Recreation Area, Ky, Miranda Thompson

Honors College Theses

With a regular fire regime present on the landscape, open canopies and herbaceous understories characterize oak forests in western Kentucky. However, a long period of fire suppression has changed the structure and composition of many forests in the Southeast. Forest managers at Land Between the Lakes have started using prescribed fire in an attempt to replicate aspects of a natural fire regime and increase the amount of open oak woodlands and savannas in the area. The prescribed fires in our study area were conducted during the dormant season and are very low intensity ground fires.

To understand how prescribed fire ...


Comparison Of Four Harvesting Systems In A Loblolly Pine Plantation, John Klepac, Dana Mitchell 2016 USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station

Comparison Of Four Harvesting Systems In A Loblolly Pine Plantation, John Klepac, Dana Mitchell

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

Felling and skidding operations were monitored while clearcut harvesting a 12-acre area of a 14-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation. The study area contained 465 trees per acre for trees 2.0 inches Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) and larger with a Quadratic Mean Diameter (QMD) of 7.26 inches. Two feller-bunchers (tracked and rubber-tired) and two skidders (conventional and large capacity) were paired to create four different harvesting systems which were randomly assigned to 3-acre units for evaluation of production rates and costs. Each system was balanced to determine the number of machines needed to minimize the ...


Assisted Tree Migration In North America: Policy Legacies, Enhanced Forest Policy Integration, And Climate Change Adaptation, Adam Wellstead, Michael Howlett 2016 Michigan Technological University

Assisted Tree Migration In North America: Policy Legacies, Enhanced Forest Policy Integration, And Climate Change Adaptation, Adam Wellstead, Michael Howlett

Adam Wellstead

The weight of much expert forest management opinion is that issues such as climate change can be effectively addressed only if forest policy-making moves from a purely sectoral focus and undergoes a shift to a more integrated multi-issue, multi-sector policy-making process. This is because credible adaptation policies in the sector require greatly enhanced multi-sectoral policy integration if they are to succeed. But this requirement may be beyond the capacity of many countries to deliver. This article explores the integration challenges faced by forest policy-making in Canada and the United States and uses the case of Assisted Tree Migration (ATM) to ...


Systems Thinking In The Forest Service: A Framework To Guide Practical Application For Social-Ecological Management In The Enterprise Program, Megan Kathleen Kmon 2016 Portland State University

Systems Thinking In The Forest Service: A Framework To Guide Practical Application For Social-Ecological Management In The Enterprise Program, Megan Kathleen Kmon

Dissertations and Theses

The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Enterprise Program (EP), which provides fee-for-service consulting services to the USFS, is interested in integrating systems thinking into its service offerings. Despite there being several excellent sources on the range and diversity of systems thinking, no single framework exists that thoroughly yet concisely outlines what systems thinking is along with its deep history, theoretical tenets, and soft and hard approaches. This thesis is an attempt to create such a framework, aimed specifically at practical application in a land management agency, through literature synthesis injected with original analysis. The usefulness of the framework is then ...


Agenda: Flpma Turns 40, University of Colorado Boulder. Getches-Wilkinson Center for Natural Resources, Energy, and the Environment 2016 University of Colorado Law School

Agenda: Flpma Turns 40, University Of Colorado Boulder. Getches-Wilkinson Center For Natural Resources, Energy, And The Environment

FLPMA Turns 40 (October 21)

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) administers approximately 245 million acres of our public lands and yet, for most of our nation's history, these lands seemed largely destined to end up in private hands. Even when the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 ushered in an important era of better managing public grazing districts and "promoting the highest use of the public lands," such use of our public lands still was plainly considered temporary, "pending its final disposal." It was not until 1976 with the passage of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) that congress adopted a policy ...


Assisted Tree Migration In North America: Policy Legacies, Enhanced Forest Policy Integration, And Climate Change Adaptation, Adam Wellstead, Michael Howlett 2016 Michigan Technological University

Assisted Tree Migration In North America: Policy Legacies, Enhanced Forest Policy Integration, And Climate Change Adaptation, Adam Wellstead, Michael Howlett

Department of Social Sciences Publications

The weight of much expert forest management opinion is that issues such as climate change can be effectively addressed only if forest policy-making moves from a purely sectoral focus and undergoes a shift to a more integrated multi-issue, multi-sector policy-making process. This is because credible adaptation policies in the sector require greatly enhanced multi-sectoral policy integration if they are to succeed. But this requirement may be beyond the capacity of many countries to deliver. This article explores the integration challenges faced by forest policy-making in Canada and the United States and uses the case of Assisted Tree Migration (ATM) to ...


Carbon, Nitrogen And Phosphorus Storage Across A Growing Season By The Herbaceous Layer In Urban And Preserved Temperate Hardwood Forests, Michaeleen Gerken Golay, Janette Thompson, Randall Kolka 2016 Wartburg College

Carbon, Nitrogen And Phosphorus Storage Across A Growing Season By The Herbaceous Layer In Urban And Preserved Temperate Hardwood Forests, Michaeleen Gerken Golay, Janette Thompson, Randall Kolka

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Question: Herbaceous plant communities in hardwood forests are important for maintaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, such as nutrient storage. Are there differences in herbaceous layer nutrient storage for urban park and state preserve forests, and is there seasonal variation?

Location: United States,Midwestern region (Iowa).

Methods: We examined the herbaceous layer in three 20-m2 plots at six forest sites, in urban parks (city parks with high human visitation) and state preserves (under permanent protection as state preserves). We harvested herbaceous plants from quadrats in each plot in spring, summer and autumn to analyse above- and below-ground tissues for total ...


Evaluation Des Impacts Sociaux Et Ecologiques De La Gestion Communautaire De La Forêt D’Analabe, Nicole Israel-Meyer 2016 SIT Study Abroad

Evaluation Des Impacts Sociaux Et Ecologiques De La Gestion Communautaire De La Forêt D’Analabe, Nicole Israel-Meyer

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Le transfert de gestion des forêts de l’Etat vers les communautés locales est l’une des approches que le gouvernement malgache a implémentées pour à la fois conserver la biodiversité locale et continuer le développement rural. Cette étude cherche à comprendre les impacts sociaux et écologiques de la gestion communautaire de la forêt d’Analabe par le VOI Fanarenana. La forêt d’Analabe se trouve dans le secteur d’Antanandava du district Majunga II dans le nord-ouest du pays. En utilisant une méthodologie mixte, l’étude a exposé que dans les trois ans d’opération du VOI Fanarenana, la ...


The Importance Of Rivers In Protected Areas: Macroinvertebrate Sampling Reveals The Impact Of Humans And Highways On Water Quality, Marie-Claire Harrison 2016 SIT Study Abroad

The Importance Of Rivers In Protected Areas: Macroinvertebrate Sampling Reveals The Impact Of Humans And Highways On Water Quality, Marie-Claire Harrison

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The water quality and level of contamination of two rivers in a cloud forest ecosystem in the Mejía region of Ecuador, the Tupí River and the Pilatón River were assessed through benthic macroinvertebrate sampling at various sites along the rivers. Many different biological indices were then used to assess water quality at each site. Pollution in the form of grey water, black water, and petroleum negatively impacted the water quality of the both rivers as they pass through the town of La Esperie. Differences in river structure and size also played a role in determining the prevalence of certain benthic ...


The Effect Of Prescribed Fires On Vernal Herbs, Janis Lemaster 2016 Western Kentucky University

The Effect Of Prescribed Fires On Vernal Herbs, Janis Lemaster

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The effects of fire on vernal herbs are little known. David Kem attempted to assess the influences of spring and winter prescribed fires on vernal herbs by collecting abundance data on three sets of research plots located at the WKU Green River Preserve in Hart County, KY, on April 9-10, 2010. On April 10 he conducted spring burns, and on February 22, 2011, he conducted winter burns. He then collected post-fire data on the abundance of the herbs on the 12-19 of March, 2011. He found little influence of fire on overall species richness and the density of common species ...


Long-Term Overstory Vegetation Responses To Prescribed Fire Management For Longleaf Pine At Big Thicket National Preserve, Deanna M. Boensch 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Long-Term Overstory Vegetation Responses To Prescribed Fire Management For Longleaf Pine At Big Thicket National Preserve, Deanna M. Boensch

Student Publications

At the western edge of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) range, federal land managers have burned the forests of Big Thicket National Preserve to bring back the structure and diversity of the longleaf pine forest. In the early 1990’s, a four year study was conducted by Rice University, and the National Park Service continued monitoring the study’s fire ecology research plots. After two decades of data collection, ordination was applied to species abundance data to examine changes in vegetation communities from a variety of prescribed fire treatments and controls. The vegetation data was separated by size class to ...


Effects Of Fire On Soil Co₂ Efflux In A Mature Longleaf Pine Forest, Knox Lemee Flowers 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Fire On Soil Co₂ Efflux In A Mature Longleaf Pine Forest, Knox Lemee Flowers

Master's Theses

This study was conducted from 2012-2013 in a 96 year old longleaf pine at the Lake Thoreau Environmental Center located Lamar County, MS. Measurements of soil CO₂ efflux (i.e., soil respiration or SR) rates (µmol m-2 sec-1) were taken across 8 field plots (4 burned, 4 unburned) before and after a prescribed fire on that occurred in May, 2012. These measurements were taken over diurnal cycles using a LICOR LI-8100A automated soil gas flux system with long term chambers. SR rates and soil temperature measurements were collected during 3 sampling periods in 2012 and 1 sampling period ...


Forage Availability And Nutritional Carrying Capacity For Cervids Following Prescribed Fire And Herbicide Applications In Young Mixed-Hardwood Forest Stands In The Cumberland Mountains, Tennessee, Jordan Scott Nanney 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Forage Availability And Nutritional Carrying Capacity For Cervids Following Prescribed Fire And Herbicide Applications In Young Mixed-Hardwood Forest Stands In The Cumberland Mountains, Tennessee, Jordan Scott Nanney

Masters Theses

I evaluated the influence of timber harvest combined with prescribed fire and/or herbicide in young mixed-hardwood forest on forage availability and nutritional carrying capacity (NCC) for elk (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at the North Cumberland Wildlife Management Area (WMA), July-August, 2013-15. I combined land cover data, forest management data, field management data, and forage availability data to model summer elk forage availability across the WMA.

I compared forage availability, NCC (animal days/ha) using 12 and 14% crude protein (CP) nutritional constraints, and vegetation composition among 6 young forest treatments, reclaimed surface mines (MINE), and closed-canopy ...


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