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The Effect Of Prescribed Fires On Vernal Herbs, Janis Lemaster 2016 Western Kentucky University

The Effect Of Prescribed Fires On Vernal Herbs, Janis Lemaster

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The effects of fire on vernal herbs are little known. David Kem attempted to assess the influences of spring and winter prescribed fires on vernal herbs by collecting abundance data on three sets of research plots located at the WKU Green River Preserve in Hart County, KY, on April 9-10, 2010. On April 10 he conducted spring burns, and on February 22, 2011, he conducted winter burns. He then collected post-fire data on the abundance of the herbs on the 12-19 of March, 2011. He found little influence of fire on overall species richness and the density of common species ...


Effects Of Fire On Soil Co₂ Efflux In A Mature Longleaf Pine Forest, Knox Lemee Flowers 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Fire On Soil Co₂ Efflux In A Mature Longleaf Pine Forest, Knox Lemee Flowers

Master's Theses

This study was conducted from 2012-2013 in a 96 year old longleaf pine at the Lake Thoreau Environmental Center located Lamar County, MS. Measurements of soil CO₂ efflux (i.e., soil respiration or SR) rates (µmol m-2 sec-1) were taken across 8 field plots (4 burned, 4 unburned) before and after a prescribed fire on that occurred in May, 2012. These measurements were taken over diurnal cycles using a LICOR LI-8100A automated soil gas flux system with long term chambers. SR rates and soil temperature measurements were collected during 3 sampling periods in 2012 and 1 sampling period ...


Long-Term Overstory Vegetation Responses To Prescribed Fire Management For Longleaf Pine At Big Thicket National Preserve, Deanna M. Boensch 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Long-Term Overstory Vegetation Responses To Prescribed Fire Management For Longleaf Pine At Big Thicket National Preserve, Deanna M. Boensch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

At the western edge of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) range, federal land managers have burned the forests of Big Thicket National Preserve to bring back the structure and diversity of the longleaf pine forest. In the early 1990’s, a four year study was conducted by Rice University, and the National Park Service continued monitoring the study’s fire ecology research plots. After two decades of data collection, ordination was applied to species abundance data to examine changes in vegetation communities from a variety of prescribed fire treatments and controls. The vegetation data was separated by size class to ...


Do Novel Weapons That Degrade Mycorrhizal Mutualisms Explain Invasive Species Success?, Philip L. Pinzone Mr. 2016 Buffalo State College

Do Novel Weapons That Degrade Mycorrhizal Mutualisms Explain Invasive Species Success?, Philip L. Pinzone Mr.

Biology Theses

Invasive plants often dominate novel habitats where they did not co-evolve with local species. Several hypotheses suggest mechanisms that explain increased exotic plant success, including 'novel weapons' and 'degraded mutualisms'. Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) and European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) are widespread plant invaders in North America that can dominate ecosystems. The goal of this study is to test whether these impacts are more consistent with novel weapons or degraded mutualism hypotheses. I examine tree seedling recruitment, (germination and initial survival) growth, (biomass) and mycorrhizal invasion (AMF content) as a function of F. japonica and R. cathartica root exudates. Given that ...


Forest Islands In A Sea Of Urban Habitat, Michael J. Olejniczak 2016 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Forest Islands In A Sea Of Urban Habitat, Michael J. Olejniczak

Biology Theses

Urban forests are poorly defined as ecological communities. Substantive links between anthropogenic landscape features and forest ecology are lacking. ‘Urbaness’ is commonly defined by human population density or land use classifications, but their use is inconsistent throughout the literature, and rarely is linked with ecological processes. Furthermore, it is unknown whether urban forests are functioning parts of a patchy urban woodland system or isolated islands amidst an ocean of unsuitable habitat. I first used digital satellite imagery and publicly available U.S. National Park data to link urban land use with forest processes. I then linked those land use classifications ...


Forage Availability And Nutritional Carrying Capacity For Cervids Following Prescribed Fire And Herbicide Applications In Young Mixed-Hardwood Forest Stands In The Cumberland Mountains, Tennessee, Jordan Scott Nanney 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Forage Availability And Nutritional Carrying Capacity For Cervids Following Prescribed Fire And Herbicide Applications In Young Mixed-Hardwood Forest Stands In The Cumberland Mountains, Tennessee, Jordan Scott Nanney

Masters Theses

I evaluated the influence of timber harvest combined with prescribed fire and/or herbicide in young mixed-hardwood forest on forage availability and nutritional carrying capacity (NCC) for elk (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at the North Cumberland Wildlife Management Area (WMA), July-August, 2013-15. I combined land cover data, forest management data, field management data, and forage availability data to model summer elk forage availability across the WMA.

I compared forage availability, NCC (animal days/ha) using 12 and 14% crude protein (CP) nutritional constraints, and vegetation composition among 6 young forest treatments, reclaimed surface mines (MINE), and closed-canopy ...


Utilization Of Woody Browse By White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) In Valley Forge National Park, Joanne T. Pomerantz, Joan M. Welch 2016 Green Valleys Association

Utilization Of Woody Browse By White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) In Valley Forge National Park, Joanne T. Pomerantz, Joan M. Welch

Joan Welch

No abstract provided.


Invasive And Native Plant Response To Fire In A Pennsylvania Piedmont Woodland, Joan M. Welch 2016 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Invasive And Native Plant Response To Fire In A Pennsylvania Piedmont Woodland, Joan M. Welch

Joan Welch

No abstract provided.


Analisis De La Fragmentacion De Los Espacios Naturales En El Sector Sur Del Area Urbana De Girona, Josep Pinta, Josep Vila, Joan M. Welch 2016 Universidad de Girona

Analisis De La Fragmentacion De Los Espacios Naturales En El Sector Sur Del Area Urbana De Girona, Josep Pinta, Josep Vila, Joan M. Welch

Joan Welch

No abstract provided.


Deer Browse In The Interior Forest Of Warwick County Park, Jacquelyn Arnold, Joan M. Welch 2016 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Deer Browse In The Interior Forest Of Warwick County Park, Jacquelyn Arnold, Joan M. Welch

Joan Welch

No abstract provided.


The Mexican Water Forest: Benefits Of Using Remote Sensing Techniques To Assess Changes In Land Use And Land Cover, Maria F. Lopez Ornelas 2016 University of San Francisco

The Mexican Water Forest: Benefits Of Using Remote Sensing Techniques To Assess Changes In Land Use And Land Cover, Maria F. Lopez Ornelas

Master's Projects

In the past 30 years, anthropogenic activities like urbanization, agriculture, road fragmentation and deforestation have resulted in changes in the land use and land cover (LULC) in the Mexican Water Forest. Due to the important ecosystem services, and the natural resources this forest provides, in Mexico, it has become increasingly necessary to use new technologies and tools to support the planning, implementation and integration of forest management and conservation plans, as well as ecological and socioeconomic analysis of this ecosystem. Remote Sensing techniques and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been a true technological and methodological revolution in the acquisition, management ...


Nitrogen Addition Shapes Soil Phosphorus Availability In Two Reforested Tropical Forests In Southern China, Xiankai Lu, Jiangming Mo, Frank S. Gilliam, Hua Fang, Feifei Zhu, Yunting Fang, Wei Zhang, Juan Huang 2016 Marshall University

Nitrogen Addition Shapes Soil Phosphorus Availability In Two Reforested Tropical Forests In Southern China, Xiankai Lu, Jiangming Mo, Frank S. Gilliam, Hua Fang, Feifei Zhu, Yunting Fang, Wei Zhang, Juan Huang

Frank S. Gilliam

Scant information is available on how soil phosphorus (P) availability responds to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, especially in the tropical zones. This study examined the effect of N addition on soil P availability, and compared this effect between forest sites of contrasting land-use history. Effects of N addition on soil properties, litterfall production, P release from decomposing litter, and soil P availability were studied in a disturbed (reforested pine forest with previous understory vegetation and litter harvesting) and a rehabilitated (reforested mixed pine/broadleaf forest with no understory vegetation and litter harvesting) tropical forest in southern China. Experimental N-treatments (above ...


Interspecific Divergence In Foliar Nutrient Dynamics And Stem Growth In A Temperate Forest In Response To Chronic Nitrogen Inputs, Jeffrey D. May, Sarah Beth Burdette, Frank S. Gilliam, Mary Beth Adams 2016 Marshall University

Interspecific Divergence In Foliar Nutrient Dynamics And Stem Growth In A Temperate Forest In Response To Chronic Nitrogen Inputs, Jeffrey D. May, Sarah Beth Burdette, Frank S. Gilliam, Mary Beth Adams

Jeffrey May

We studied the effects of excessive nitrogen (N) fertilization on foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth in three important tree species in a mixed-deciduous forest. Stem diameter growth, foliar N concentrations, nitrogen–phosphorus (N/P) ratios, and nutrient resorption were determined for Acer rubrum L. (ACRU), Liriodendron tulipifera L. (LITU), and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (PRSE) on two 30-year-old watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia, USA: WS3, fertilized annually with 35 kg ammonium sulfate·ha-1 since 1989, and WS7, an untreated control watershed. In an earlier (1992) study, foliar N concentrations of all three species averaged 11% higher ...


Interspecific Divergence In Foliar Nutrient Dynamics And Stem Growth In A Temperate Forest In Response To Chronic Nitrogen Inputs, Jeffrey D. May, Sarah Beth Burdette, Frank S. Gilliam, Mary Beth Adams 2016 Marshall University

Interspecific Divergence In Foliar Nutrient Dynamics And Stem Growth In A Temperate Forest In Response To Chronic Nitrogen Inputs, Jeffrey D. May, Sarah Beth Burdette, Frank S. Gilliam, Mary Beth Adams

Jeffrey May

We studied the effects of excessive nitrogen (N) fertilization on foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth in three important tree species in a mixed-deciduous forest. Stem diameter growth, foliar N concentrations, nitrogen–phosphorus (N/P) ratios, and nutrient resorption were determined for Acer rubrum L. (ACRU), Liriodendron tulipifera L. (LITU), and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (PRSE) on two 30-year-old watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia, USA: WS3, fertilized annually with 35 kg ammonium sulfate ha–1 since 1989, and WS7, an untreated control watershed. In an earlier (1992) study, foliar N concentrations of all three species averaged 11% higher ...


Interspecific Divergence In Foliar Nutrient Dynamics And Stem Growth In A Temperate Forest In Response To Chronic Nitrogen Inputs, Jeffrey D. May, Sarah Beth Burdette, Frank S. Gilliam, Mary Beth Adams 2016 Marshall University

Interspecific Divergence In Foliar Nutrient Dynamics And Stem Growth In A Temperate Forest In Response To Chronic Nitrogen Inputs, Jeffrey D. May, Sarah Beth Burdette, Frank S. Gilliam, Mary Beth Adams

Frank S. Gilliam

We studied the effects of excessive nitrogen (N) fertilization on foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth in three important tree species in a mixed-deciduous forest. Stem diameter growth, foliar N concentrations, nitrogen–phosphorus (N/P) ratios, and nutrient resorption were determined for Acer rubrum L. (ACRU), Liriodendron tulipifera L. (LITU), and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (PRSE) on two 30-year-old watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia, USA: WS3, fertilized annually with 35 kg ammonium sulfate·ha-1 since 1989, and WS7, an untreated control watershed. In an earlier (1992) study, foliar N concentrations of all three species averaged 11% higher ...


Long-Term Nitrogen Addition Decreases Carbon Leaching In A Nitrogen-Rich Forest Ecosystem, X. Lu, Frank S. Gilliam, G. Yu, H. Chen, J. Mo 2016 Marshall University

Long-Term Nitrogen Addition Decreases Carbon Leaching In A Nitrogen-Rich Forest Ecosystem, X. Lu, Frank S. Gilliam, G. Yu, H. Chen, J. Mo

Frank S. Gilliam

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays a critical role in the carbon (C) cycle of forest soils, and has been recently connected with global increases in nitrogen (N) deposition. Most studies on effects of elevated N deposition on DOC have been carried out in N-limited temperate regions, with far fewer data available from N-rich ecosystems, especially in the context of chronically elevated N deposition. Furthermore, mechanisms for excess N-induced changes of DOC dynamics have been suggested to be different between the two kinds of ecosystems, because of the different ecosystem N status. The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine ...


Benefits And Risks Of Imidacloprid-Based Management Programs For Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Elizabeth Paige Benton 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Benefits And Risks Of Imidacloprid-Based Management Programs For Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Elizabeth Paige Benton

Doctoral Dissertations

Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (HWA) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has caused widespread decline of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriére. This collaborative retrospective analysis with Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) provides research-based management guidance on imidacloprid treatments and nontarget risks to aquatic systems.

Imidacloprid and olefin concentrations were assessed in foliage from different diameter at breast height (DBH) size hemlocks 4 – 7 yr post-imidacloprid treatment. Imidacloprid concentrations were below the LC50 [lethal concentration] for HWA, but olefin was above the LC50 4 yr post-treatment. HWA populations were suppressed, and hemlock canopies were healthy. Treatment efficacy can last ...


Changes In Floristic Composition In The State Forests In Worcester County (Massachusetts) Over 34 Years, Flor A. Monroe 2016 Clark University

Changes In Floristic Composition In The State Forests In Worcester County (Massachusetts) Over 34 Years, Flor A. Monroe

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

ABSTRACT

CHANGES IN FOREST DIVERSITY OF STATE FOREST IN WORCESTER COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS, OVER 34 YEARS PERIOD

The forest in Massachusetts has changed since the earliest colonial settlement and today the floristic composition is more homogeneous. This study investigates the potential change in the floristic composition over thirty years in Worcester County State Forests. Shannon, richness and evenness indices for two periods were compared, and Jaccard index was used to analyze similarity in composition between the periods. The possible influence of severe weather events was also analyzed.

It was found Changes in the floristic composition, but the magnitude of the changes ...


Interactive Effects Of Nitrogen And Phosphorus On Soil Microbial Communities In A Tropical Forest, Lei Liu, Tao Zhang, Frank S. Gilliam, Per Gundersen, Wei Zhang, Hao Chen, Jiangming Mo 2016 Marshall University

Interactive Effects Of Nitrogen And Phosphorus On Soil Microbial Communities In A Tropical Forest, Lei Liu, Tao Zhang, Frank S. Gilliam, Per Gundersen, Wei Zhang, Hao Chen, Jiangming Mo

Frank S. Gilliam

Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition in humid tropical regions may exacerbate phosphorus (P) deficiency in forests on highly weathered soils. However, it is not clear how P availability affects soil microbes and soil carbon (C), or how P processes interact with N deposition in tropical forests. We examined the effects of N and P additions on soil microbes and soil C pools in a N-saturated old-growth tropical forest in southern China to test the hypotheses that (1) N and P addition will have opposing effects on soil microbial biomass and activity, (2) N and P addition will alter the composition of ...


Estimated Losses Of Plant Biodiversity Across The U.S. From Historical N Deposition From 1985—2010., Christopher M. Clark, Philip E. Morefield, Frank S. Gilliam, Linda H. Pardo 2016 Marshall University

Estimated Losses Of Plant Biodiversity Across The U.S. From Historical N Deposition From 1985—2010., Christopher M. Clark, Philip E. Morefield, Frank S. Gilliam, Linda H. Pardo

Frank S. Gilliam

Although nitrogen (N) deposition is a significant threat to herbaceous plant biodiversity worldwide, it is not a new stressor for many developed regions. Only recently has it become possible to estimate historical impacts nationally for the United States. We used 26 years (1985–2010) of deposition data, with ecosystem-specific functional responses from local field experiments and a national critical loads (CL) database, to generate scenario-based estimates of herbaceous species loss. Here we show that, in scenarios using the low end of the CL range, N deposition exceeded critical loads over 0.38, 6.5, 13.1, 88.6, and 222 ...


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