Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Criminology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Nebraska at Omaha

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 28 of 28

Full-Text Articles in Criminology

Up In Flames: Criminal Expertise And Far-Left Extremism, Michael K. Logan Mar 2018

Up In Flames: Criminal Expertise And Far-Left Extremism, Michael K. Logan

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

This paper examines the decision-making processes of far-left extremists involved in arson and incendiary violence. The paper pays specific attention to the manner in which offenders draw upon prior knowledge and ‘expertise’ in planning and/or execution the attack. Drawing upon a sample of 195 self-reported communiques, the results suggest offenders rely on two types of criminal expertise to inform their decision to become involved in a violent act. First, perceptual expertise describes differential thinking patterns related to the crime setting. Second, procedural expertise involves the knowledge and skills aimed at enacting the offense itself. Overall, findings from this study ...


An Examination Of Within And Between Family Influences On The Intergenerational Transmission Of Violence And Maltreatment, Bradon A. Valgardson Mar 2017

An Examination Of Within And Between Family Influences On The Intergenerational Transmission Of Violence And Maltreatment, Bradon A. Valgardson

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant problem that results in long-term mental and physical health issues. Previous research has identified a wide range of factors that potentially contribute to IPV perpetration, with childhood and adolescent maltreatment being some of the more commonly examined sources of influence. Despite these contributions, maltreatment has not been adequately distinguished from additional sources of influence that tend to cluster within families, such as other adverse family experiences and genetic influences. The current study attempts to better isolate the influence of maltreatment on IPV perpetration through the use of a sibling sample from the National ...


The Importance Of Interagency Collaboration For Crossover Youth, Emily M. Wright, Ryan E. Spohn, Joselyne Chenane, Nicholas Juliano Dec 2016

The Importance Of Interagency Collaboration For Crossover Youth, Emily M. Wright, Ryan E. Spohn, Joselyne Chenane, Nicholas Juliano

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Crossover or dually-involved youth are youth enmeshed in the child welfare (CWS) and juvenile justice systems (JJS). Given their dual status and high needs, attention has recently focused on how to best respond to them in an integrated, interagency fashion. The Crossover Youth Practice Model (CYPM) is designed to facilitate interagency collaboration between the CWS and JJS in order to enhance services and diversion to these youth. This study reports on the benefits and challenges that the JJS and CWS, as well as the personnel working within them, experience by participating in a CYPM effort in a Midwestern county, and ...


Rape And Mental Health Outcomes Among Women: Examining The Moderating Effects Of “Healthy” Fear Levels, Ryan E. Spohn, Emily M. Wright, Johanna C. Peterson Jun 2016

Rape And Mental Health Outcomes Among Women: Examining The Moderating Effects Of “Healthy” Fear Levels, Ryan E. Spohn, Emily M. Wright, Johanna C. Peterson

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

This study examined the mediating and moderating impact of fear of victimization on the relationships between forcible and vicarious rape on depression and PTSD among college women. Forcible and vicarious rape positively affected PTSD and depression symptomology, but fear did not mediate these relationships. Fear moderated the impact of forcible rape on PTSD, but was not a moderator for depression. Findings suggest that there may be “healthy” levels of fear in the aftermath of victimization where having too little fear may leave women unnecessarily vulnerable to victimization, while having too much fear may lead to social isolation and withdrawal.


The Effectiveness Of Specialized Legal Counsel And Case Management Services For Indigent Offenders With Mental Illness, Jeff Bouffard, Elizabeth Berger, Gaylene Armstrong Jan 2016

The Effectiveness Of Specialized Legal Counsel And Case Management Services For Indigent Offenders With Mental Illness, Jeff Bouffard, Elizabeth Berger, Gaylene Armstrong

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Background: In recent years, jurisdictions have recognized the strain placed on limited existing resources by criminal offenders with mental illness who frequently cycle through local jail facilities. In response, many locales have developed and implemented specialized programs to more effectively and efficiently manage these offenders, particularly the process of assigning defense attorneys to these often indigent defendants.

Methods: The current study examined the impact of an Indigent Defense Counsel (IDC) program designed to provide specially trained defense attorneys, and enhanced case management services to 257 indigent jail inmates with a qualifying, major mental health diagnosis (e.g., major depression). These ...


Borders Up In Smoke: Marijuana Enforcement In Nebraska After Colorado’S Legalization Of Medicinal Marijuana, Jared M. Ellison, Ryan E. Spohn Nov 2015

Borders Up In Smoke: Marijuana Enforcement In Nebraska After Colorado’S Legalization Of Medicinal Marijuana, Jared M. Ellison, Ryan E. Spohn

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

With the passage of Amendments 20 (2000) and 64 (2012), Colorado legalized the medicinal and recreational use of marijuana. Nebraskan law enforcement in border counties subsequently reported increases in arrests and reductions in jail space. In response, the Nebraska state legislature passed LR-520 to study the potential increased costs incurred by criminal justice agencies in border counties. To investigate this situation, we compare trends in drug arrests and jail occupancy across three areas: border counties, those that contain Interstate 80 (I-80) as a major transportation route, and the remaining counties in the state of Nebraska from 2000 through 2013. We ...


The Association Between Mental Health And Violence Among A Nationally Representative Sample Of College Students From The United States, Joesph A. Schwartz, Kevin M. Beaver, J. C. Barnes Oct 2015

The Association Between Mental Health And Violence Among A Nationally Representative Sample Of College Students From The United States, Joesph A. Schwartz, Kevin M. Beaver, J. C. Barnes

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Objectives

Recent violent attacks on college campuses in the United States have sparked discussions regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the perpetration of violence among college students. While previous studies have examined the potential association between mental health problems and violent behavior, the overall pattern of findings flowing from this literature remain mixed and no previous studies have examined such associations among college students.

Methods

The current study makes use of a nationally representative sample of 3,929 college students from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine the prevalence of seven violent behaviors ...


Proposing A Pedigree Risk Measurement Strategy: Capturing The Intergenerational Transmission Of Antisocial Behavior In A Nationally Representative Sample Of Adults, Joesph A. Schwartz, Eric J. Connelly, Kevin M. Beaver, Joseph L. Nedelec, Michael G. Vaughn Sep 2015

Proposing A Pedigree Risk Measurement Strategy: Capturing The Intergenerational Transmission Of Antisocial Behavior In A Nationally Representative Sample Of Adults, Joesph A. Schwartz, Eric J. Connelly, Kevin M. Beaver, Joseph L. Nedelec, Michael G. Vaughn

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

An impressive literature has revealed that variation in virtually every measurable phenotype is the result of a combination of genetic and environmental influences. Based on these findings, studies that fail to use genetically informed modeling strategies risk model misspecification and biased parameter estimates. Twin- and adoption-based research designs have frequently been used to overcome this limitation. Despite the many advantages of such approaches, many available datasets do not contain samples of twins, siblings or adoptees, making it impossible to utilize these modeling strategies. The current study proposes a measurement strategy for estimating the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior (ASB) within ...


The Lancaster County Juvenile Reentry Project - Follow-Up Report, Anne M. Hobbs, Sommer Fousek Jul 2015

The Lancaster County Juvenile Reentry Project - Follow-Up Report, Anne M. Hobbs, Sommer Fousek

Reports

In 2011, Lancaster County received a planning grant under the Second Chance Act administered by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Using these funds, a team of stakeholders examined the limited reentry services available to juveniles who return to Lancaster County after a stay in a Nebraska Youth Rehabilitation and Treatment Center (YRTC).

The following year, Lancaster County officials brought together multiple agencies to develop a systematic juvenile reentry approach, which subsequently became known as the Lancaster County Juvenile Reentry Project. From January 1, 2013 to June 30, 2015, a total of 126 youth were served under the ...


The Role Of Parenting In The Prediction Of Criminal Involvement: Findings From A Nationally Representative Sample Of Youth And A Sample Of Adopted Youth, Kevin M. Beaver, Joesph A. Schwartz, Eric J. Connolly, Mohammed Said Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed Nezar Kobeisy Mar 2015

The Role Of Parenting In The Prediction Of Criminal Involvement: Findings From A Nationally Representative Sample Of Youth And A Sample Of Adopted Youth, Kevin M. Beaver, Joesph A. Schwartz, Eric J. Connolly, Mohammed Said Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed Nezar Kobeisy

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

The role of parenting in the development of criminal behavior has been the source of a vast amount of research, with the majority of studies detecting statistically significant associations between dimensions of parenting and measures of criminal involvement. An emerging group of scholars, however, has drawn attention to the methodological limitations—mainly genetic confounding—of the parental socialization literature. The current study addressed this limitation by analyzing a sample of adoptees to assess the association between 8 parenting measures and 4 criminal justice outcome measures. The results revealed very little evidence of parental socialization effects on criminal behavior before controlling ...


Analysis Of The Nebraska Intake Risk Assessment Instrument, Sarah Moore, Anne M. Hobbs Jan 2015

Analysis Of The Nebraska Intake Risk Assessment Instrument, Sarah Moore, Anne M. Hobbs

Reports

Under current Nebraska law, a youth in Nebraska should be placed in a secure detention facility for only two reasons: (1) “immediate and urgent necessity for the protection of such juvenile or the person or property of another or (2) if it appears that such juvenile is likely to flee the jurisdiction of the court” (Rev. Stat. § 43-251.01(5)).

In the State of Nebraska, the Office of Juvenile Probation Administration screens youth using the Nebraska Juvenile Intake Screening Risk Assessment prior to making a determination whether to detain the youth. The assessment is referred to in this report as ...


Evidence-Based Practice In Juvenile Justice: Nebraska White Paper, Richard L. Wiener, Anne M. Hobbs, Ryan E. Spohn Jul 2014

Evidence-Based Practice In Juvenile Justice: Nebraska White Paper, Richard L. Wiener, Anne M. Hobbs, Ryan E. Spohn

Reports

This White Paper is the product of the collaborative effort of the University of Nebraska/Lincoln (UNL) Law and Psychology Program, the University of Nebraska/Omaha (UNO) Consortium for Crime and Justice Research and the UNO Juvenile Justice Institute. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview for understanding, testing, and developing Evidence Based Practice (EBP) interventions that make rehabilitative services available to children in the juvenile justice system. The paper begins with a summary of a proposal for a classification system of EBP programs in the Juvenile Justice System in Nebraska and then goes on to explain ...


The Lancaster County Juvenile Reentry Project, Anne M. Hobbs, Ryan E. Spohn, Jenna Strawhun, Timbre Wulf-Ludden, Johanna Peterson, Sommer Fousek Mar 2014

The Lancaster County Juvenile Reentry Project, Anne M. Hobbs, Ryan E. Spohn, Jenna Strawhun, Timbre Wulf-Ludden, Johanna Peterson, Sommer Fousek

Reports

In order to establish a best practice model for juveniles reentering the community, Lancaster County brought multiple agencies together in 2012 and began to develop a systematic juvenile reentry approach, which became known as the “Reentry Project.” By January 2013, Lancaster County had contracted with multiple agencies to ensure this new approach was used when youth were returning to the community.


State Of Juvenile Justice Report: 2014, Anne M. Hobbs, Sommer Fousek Jan 2014

State Of Juvenile Justice Report: 2014, Anne M. Hobbs, Sommer Fousek

Reports

The 2014 State of Juvenile Justice Report provides a snapshot of the juvenile justice system in Nebraska, with a specific focus on the current legislative context and an examination of three key points in the system: diversion, probation, and detention.

Trends within the juvenile justice system should be analyzed against the backdrop of statewide shifts that are a result of legislative mandates. In particular, Legislative Bill 561 has altered the juvenile justice landscape. Passed in 2013, LB 561 required communities to use programs aligned with evidence-based practices or best practices, with the goal of diverting youth out of the formal ...


Diversion In Nebraska: Fy 2012/2013, Amy Hoffman, Anne M. Hobbs Jan 2014

Diversion In Nebraska: Fy 2012/2013, Amy Hoffman, Anne M. Hobbs

Reports

Among the many initiatives created with the passage of LB 561, the position of the Juvenile Diversion Program Administrator was established within the Nebraska Crime Commission. The Diversion Administrator is tasked with assisting in creating and maintaining juvenile pretrial diversion programs to divert juveniles away from the judicial system and into community-based services. That process includes creating a statewide steering committee to assist in regular strategic planning related to supporting, funding, monitoring, and evaluating the effectiveness of plans and programs receiving funds from the Community-Based Juvenile Services Aid Program, as well as provide best practice recommendation guidelines and procedures used ...


Spare The Rod, Endanger The Child? Strain, Race/Ethnicity, And Serious Delinquency, Ryan E. Spohn Jan 2014

Spare The Rod, Endanger The Child? Strain, Race/Ethnicity, And Serious Delinquency, Ryan E. Spohn

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

General strain theory has evolved into a comprehensive theory of delinquency by incorporating factors that condition the relationship between strain and delinquency as well as acknowledging the subjective nature of strain. This study advances general strain theory by examining the conditioning role of race and the manner in which race influences the subjective experience of strain. Examining a nationally representative sample of adolescents, this study finds that ethnic minorities generally experience greater strain. However, the effect of strain is not consistently more criminogenic for ethnic minorities. Our research suggests that the impact of strain on delinquency is conditioned by the ...


Assessing Youth Early In The Juvenile Justice System, Anne M. Hobbs, Timbre Wulf-Ludden, Jenna Strawhun Oct 2013

Assessing Youth Early In The Juvenile Justice System, Anne M. Hobbs, Timbre Wulf-Ludden, Jenna Strawhun

Academic Publications

Unnecessary involvement in the juvenile justice system generally results in negative long-term outcomes (Annie E. Casey Foundation Website, 2008). The problem lies in determining when involvement is unnecessary and when it is necessary. A juvenile’s path to detention often begins years prior. Research indicates that unnecessary court involvement may contribute to worse outcomes, which can ultimately culminate in detention (Holman & Ziedenberg, 2006). Youth who are formally processed through court are more likely to be under closer supervision, which, in turn, increases their chances of being caught violating curfew, missing school, or committing another technical violation. To test the effect ...


Nebraska Sex Offender Registry Study, Ryan E. Spohn Jul 2013

Nebraska Sex Offender Registry Study, Ryan E. Spohn

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

The Consortium for Crime and Justice Research at the University of Nebraska Omaha was charged by the Nebraska Legislature’s Judiciary Committee to undertake a study of the Nebraska Sex Offender Registry. The primary goal of the study was to compare sex offender recidivism under the pre-LB 285 classification system that utilized risk levels derived from a psychological risk assessment instrument to sex offender recidivism under the post-LB 285 classification system utilizing Adam Walsh Act Tier Levels derived from offense severity. Additional goals include an overall examination of offender characteristics, victim characteristics, and offense characteristics among all individuals on the ...


Breaking The Criminogenic Code: A Frame Analysis Of Neo-Nazi And Violent Jihadi Propaganda, William Travis Morris Jul 2011

Breaking The Criminogenic Code: A Frame Analysis Of Neo-Nazi And Violent Jihadi Propaganda, William Travis Morris

Student Work

This dissertation focuses on neo-Nazi and violent jihadi propaganda and its role in defining social boundaries. Frame analysis was used to gain a deeper understanding of how neo-Nazis and violent jihadis construct propaganda to neutralize objections and promote drift. Specifically, diagnostic and prognostic frames were analyzed for 10 "effective" propagandists and two "ineffective" propagandists in a comparative framework. This research uses a social psychological perspective, paying particular attention to the emotion of shame and advances the "violence as communication" model into "terrorism as criminogenic propaganda." Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze how neo-Nazi and violent jihadi propagandists incorporate ...


The Tipping Point To Terrorism: Involvement In Right-Wing Terrorist Groups In The United States, Anne M. Stacey Reeser May 2011

The Tipping Point To Terrorism: Involvement In Right-Wing Terrorist Groups In The United States, Anne M. Stacey Reeser

Student Work

This dissertation focuses on right-wing terrorism (RWT) in the United States perpetrated by adherents to the White Supremacist Movement (WSM). In depth case history data were collected using a variety of sources and analyzed on 66 federally indicted WSM terrorists representing 10 different terrorist organizations in the United States from 1980-2002. The primary means of analysis was a qualitative case analysis using narrative data to uncover what influences an individual to become involved in a terrorist group. Specifically, I analyzed the influences of: 1) structural components, 2) family dynamics, and 3) non-familial relationships on the involvement process. Results from this ...


An Assessment Of Cross-National Variation In Rates Of Incarceration, Ryan E. Spohn, Travis Linnemann Jan 2008

An Assessment Of Cross-National Variation In Rates Of Incarceration, Ryan E. Spohn, Travis Linnemann

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Our theoretical approach compares the relative efficacy of multiple theories of law and social control. From a general social threat perspective, we find that variables reflecting the size of the unemployed youth population and general measures of income inequality have positive impacts on a nation's rates of incarceration. We also find partial support for one of Durkheim's laws of quantitative change and penal evolution, in that, all else equal, nations with a more authoritarian form of government utilize incarceration at a higher rate than their more democratic counterparts. We also find that the institutional anomie perspective, which has ...


Investigating Racial Disparity At The Detention Decision: The Role Of Respectability, Don L. Kurtz, Travis Linnemann, Ryan E. Spohn Jan 2008

Investigating Racial Disparity At The Detention Decision: The Role Of Respectability, Don L. Kurtz, Travis Linnemann, Ryan E. Spohn

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

A concern over inequity and the existence of racial disparity of youth served by the juvenile justice system has long been a topic of considerable interest among scholars, policymakers, and court offi cials. Numerous empirical studies undertaken by academics and various public and private organizations have attempted to shed some light on this phenomenon. Research fi ndings on disproportionate minority contact have hardly been uniform, leaving much of this practice unexplained. This study uses data obtained at the detention decision point over a three-year period examining variance in juvenile case processing related to race. Findings suggest that extra-legal factors influencing ...


Recent Efforts To Make Nebraska Juries More Representative Of Their Communities, Carly Duvall, Elizabeth Neeley May 2006

Recent Efforts To Make Nebraska Juries More Representative Of Their Communities, Carly Duvall, Elizabeth Neeley

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

According to the Minority and Justice Task Force Report (2003), “the majority of Nebraskans believe that it is important that juries reflect the racial and ethnic makeup of the community.”


Gun Related Youth Violence: Fear Of Victimization Versus The Influence Of Significant Others, Ryan E. Spohn, Samantha Lane Jan 2006

Gun Related Youth Violence: Fear Of Victimization Versus The Influence Of Significant Others, Ryan E. Spohn, Samantha Lane

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Differential association/social learning theories have received considerable empirical support as an explanation of participation in delinquent acts, including violent delinquency (Heimer 1997). More recently, and primarily as a result of highly publicized school shootings in suburban high schools, fear of crime and victimization have received attention as motivators of gun-carrying and gun violence. These phenomena are generally not examined in unison, however, leaving open the question of their relative role as a cause of gun carrying and violence amongst youth. The current research project addresses this question. A major strength of the current research is the adoption of multiple ...


The Douglas County Drug Court: Characteristics Of Participants, Case Outcomes And Recidivism, Cassia Spohn, R. K. Piper Mar 2004

The Douglas County Drug Court: Characteristics Of Participants, Case Outcomes And Recidivism, Cassia Spohn, R. K. Piper

Publications since 2000

The primary purpose of this cost-benefit evaluation of the Douglas County Drug Court (DCDC) is to provide administrators and policy-makers with critical information for future policy and funding decisions.

This study expands and refines previous DCDC cost-benefit analyses through an investigation of drug court program investment, outcome and societal-impact costs and savings. This study employs a Transaction Cost model that examines complex, multi-agency events and costs for participants in drug court and non-drug court comparison groups. A “cost-to-taxpayer” approach is used that includes any criminal justice related costs (or avoided costs) generated by drug court or non-drug court comparison group ...


Families, Crime And Criminal Justice: Charting The Linkages, Greer Litton Fox, Michael L. Benson, Ryan E. Spohn Jan 2000

Families, Crime And Criminal Justice: Charting The Linkages, Greer Litton Fox, Michael L. Benson, Ryan E. Spohn

Faculty Books and Monographs

Chapter: Gender Differences in the Effect of Child Maltreatment on Criminal Activity over the Life Course, written by Ryan Spohn, UNO faculty member.

"Contemporary Perspectives in Family Research" is a series of volumes that features scholarly work on the frontiers of interdisciplinary research on families and family life. Volume 2, Families, Crime and Criminal Justice reflects this pioneering orientation by bringing together new empirical research that examines the various ways that families intersect with and are affected by crime and the criminal justice system. The interdisciplinary nature of the volume is reflected in the diversity of disciplines represented, including developmental ...


Performance-Based Standards For Juvenile Corrections, Doris Layton Mackenzie, Gaylene Armstrong, Angela R. Grover Apr 1998

Performance-Based Standards For Juvenile Corrections, Doris Layton Mackenzie, Gaylene Armstrong, Angela R. Grover

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Total quality management (TQM) has revolutionized business, and some of its components can be applied to corrections. The importance of information for developing performance-based standards is obvious. Much more difficult is the process of deciding what information to obtain and how to use it. In the area of juvenile corrections, information about the conditions or environments of juvenile facilities and how these conditions are associated with intermediate and longterm outcomes will be invaluable in developing performance-based standards.


Perceived Effectiveness Of The Chicago Crime Commission, 1980-1985: Insiders And Outsiders, Dennis Hoffman, Vincent J. Webb Mar 1986

Perceived Effectiveness Of The Chicago Crime Commission, 1980-1985: Insiders And Outsiders, Dennis Hoffman, Vincent J. Webb

Publications Archives, 1963-2000

This study examines the perceived effectiveness of the oldest and most famous citizens' crime commission in the United States--the Chicago Crime Commission.l The commission's effectiveness is measured by the perceptions of influential criminal justice decisionmakers and policymakers.