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Full-Text Articles in Criminology

Parole And Probation Officers' Perceptions Of Management Effectiveness In Baltimore County, Maryland, Valencia Tamir Johnson Dr. Aug 2015

Parole And Probation Officers' Perceptions Of Management Effectiveness In Baltimore County, Maryland, Valencia Tamir Johnson Dr.

Valencia T Johnson

Management practices in the rehabilitation and criminal justice system are primarily concerned with how employees sense, collect, organize, and process information regarding the criminal offender. The purpose of this quantitative study was to measure parole and probation officers' perceptions regarding management support and effectiveness in the workplace, with particular emphasis on communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution. Herzberg's 2-factor theory of motivation served as the theoretical framework for the study, supporting the concept of participatory management as a central factor in job satisfaction. A researcher-designed, Likert-type questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected sample of 31 parole and probation officers ...


On The Precipice Of Intersectionality: The Influence Of Race, Gender, And Offense Severity Interactions On Probation Outcomes, Kevin Steinmetz, Howard M. Henderson Apr 2015

On The Precipice Of Intersectionality: The Influence Of Race, Gender, And Offense Severity Interactions On Probation Outcomes, Kevin Steinmetz, Howard M. Henderson

Howard M Henderson

This analysis examines the impact of established predictors on probation failure utilizing a large randomly selected sample of adult probationers. Initial findings suggest that race, gender, location, offense severity as well as risk assessment scores significantly predict probation failure. This study then examines interaction effects between race and gender as well as race and offense severity. Results indicate such interactions may matter in studying probation failure, despite reason to be cautious about their interpretation. Importantly, the results of the interaction model suggest that the interaction between being an African American and male is a significant predictor of probation failure. Additionally ...


Psychometric Racial And Ethnic Predictive Inequities, Howard M. Henderson Apr 2015

Psychometric Racial And Ethnic Predictive Inequities, Howard M. Henderson

Howard M Henderson

Recent findings have held that offender behavioral assessments unfairly predict the probation outcomes of racial/ethnic minorities. To that end, this study examines the extent and degree to which a commonly used offender risk needs assessment instrument equitably predicts probationer success and distributes predictive error. Findings suggest that the risk needs instrument predicts most equitably for “higher risked” probationers and that error is more likely for under-classified Blacks and over-classified Whites. The discussion presents issues for consideration by policy makers, practitioners, and future researchers motivated by the minimization of predictive bias.


Violencia, Delincuencia Y Segruidad Pública En América Latina, Günther Maihold Sep 2014

Violencia, Delincuencia Y Segruidad Pública En América Latina, Günther Maihold

Günther Maihold

No abstract provided.


Surveillance In Chicago: Growing, But For What Purpose?, Rajiv Shah Jul 2014

Surveillance In Chicago: Growing, But For What Purpose?, Rajiv Shah

Rajiv Shah

Chicago is now one of the leading cities in the world in using surveillance technology. This growth began in 2003 when cameras were used to fight street level crime. Since then, Chicago’s camera network has grown to over 25,000 units, along with the use of a variety of new technologies. This chapter explains this growth and how it affects policing.


Élites Y Violencia Organizada En México, Andreas Schedler May 2014

Élites Y Violencia Organizada En México, Andreas Schedler

Andreas Schedler

La Encuesta Nacional de Violencia Organizada (ENVO Élites) fue levantada en otoño del 2013 en México entre seis sectores de élites: gobierno, políticos, academia, medios, empresarios y sociedad civil (N = 629). Indaga en las acciones y actitudes que adoptan las élites mexicanas hacia los actores principales de la violencia organizada criminal: los perpetradores, las víctimas, el Estado y la sociedad civil. El presente informe compara los resultados descriptivos principales entre los seis grupos de élite y entre ellos y la población general.


Ciudadanía Y Violencia Organizada En México, Andreas Schedler Apr 2014

Ciudadanía Y Violencia Organizada En México, Andreas Schedler

Andreas Schedler

La Encuesta Nacional de Violencia Organizada (ENVO) fue levantada en otoño del 2013 en México (N = 2,400). Indaga en las acciones y actitudes que adopta la ciudadanía mexicana hacia los actores principales de la violencia organizada criminal: los perpetradores, las víctimas, el Estado y la sociedad civil. El presente informe resume sus hallazgos descriptivos principales.


Trumping Communitarianism: Crime Control And Forensic Dna Typing And Databasing In Singapore, Victor Toom Jan 2014

Trumping Communitarianism: Crime Control And Forensic Dna Typing And Databasing In Singapore, Victor Toom

victor toom

Liberalism and communitarianism have figured prominently in discussions of how to govern forensic DNA practices (forensic DNA typing and databasing). Despite the prominence of these two political philosophies and their underlying values, no studies have looked at the governance of forensic DNA practices in a nondemocratic country governed by a communitarian logic. To fill this lacuna in the literature, this article considers Singapore as an authoritarian state governed by a communitarian philosophy. The article highlights basic innovations and technologies of forensic DNA practices and articulates a liberal democratic version of “biolegality” as described by Michael Lynch and Ruth McNally. It ...


Correctional Officer Excessive Use Of Force: Civil Liability Under Section 1983, Howard M. Henderson Jan 2014

Correctional Officer Excessive Use Of Force: Civil Liability Under Section 1983, Howard M. Henderson

Howard M Henderson

Despite recent research demonstrating the impact of inmate perceptions of correctional legitimacy on order maintenance, the extant literature has failed to examine the contextual reality of correctional excessive use of force claims. Utilizing legal cases from the U.S. Court of Appeals and U.S. District Courts, this article examines correctional officer excessive use of non-deadly force and identifies recurring themes in these claims. Findings highlight the common occurrence of retaliatory violence, negative attitudes, failure to listen to inmate concerns, inadequate training, and an inability to decipher reliable threat cues consistently present in correctional officer use of non-deadly force claims ...


The Criminological Cultivation Of African American Municipal Police Officers: Sambo Or Sellout, Howard M. Henderson Jan 2014

The Criminological Cultivation Of African American Municipal Police Officers: Sambo Or Sellout, Howard M. Henderson

Howard M Henderson

African American municipal police officers have been historically underrepresented and often face a double marginalization, arguably due to fellow officer and public perceptions. This study represents a first-step criminological cultivation analysis of the quantity and quality of African American municipal police officer depictions in the core cop film genre (1971–2011). Utilizing the unified film population identification methodology, 112 films were identified and examined to determine the overarching messages conveyed through the genre. Findings revealed that White officers were depicted in the lead or joint leading role in 89% (n ¼ 100) and African Americans in 19% (n ¼ 21 ...


The Eye-Patch Of The Beholder. Introduction To Entrepreneurship And Piracy, Steffen Roth Dr. Jan 2014

The Eye-Patch Of The Beholder. Introduction To Entrepreneurship And Piracy, Steffen Roth Dr.

Dr. Steffen Roth

This introduction to entrepreneurship and piracy presents a collection of articles that responds to an identified need to light the darker sides of entrepreneurship, which appear clearer in the mirror of piracy. It first makes a claim for a dismoralised view of piracy. It then presents the cases the individual members of our expedition make for an explorative research program in entrepreneurship and piracy, which is finally outlined in the lookout of this article.


Hip-Hop And Procedural Justice: Hip-Hop Artists' Perceptions Of Criminal Justice, Howard M. Henderson Jan 2012

Hip-Hop And Procedural Justice: Hip-Hop Artists' Perceptions Of Criminal Justice, Howard M. Henderson

Howard M Henderson

Despite its popularity, hip-hop has remained one of the most woefully underexamined topics within criminal justice and criminology. Given the reality that hip-hop music represents lyrical expressions from criminal justice’s most overrepresented population; the aforementioned paucity is all the more perplexing. Utilizing a latent and manifest content analysis of a random sample of 200 hip-hop songs, drawn from platinum-selling albums between the years 2000 and 2010, the current study examined the manner and extent to which hip-hop artist’s portrayed the criminal justice system. The results demonstrated that law enforcement was the branch of the criminal justice system most ...


Ain’T I A Woman, Too?: The Thirteenth Amendment, In Defense Of Incarcerated Women’S Reproductive Rights, Alexandria Gutierrez Jan 2012

Ain’T I A Woman, Too?: The Thirteenth Amendment, In Defense Of Incarcerated Women’S Reproductive Rights, Alexandria Gutierrez

Alexandria Gutierrez

In her memoir, Harriet Ann Jacobs highlights the unique impact slavery had on women. The physical dominion imposed upon female slaves included both internal and external bodily control. Beyond sexual exploitation, the bodies of female slaves were used for a type of labor for which their male counterparts were not capable: reproduction. Forced pregnancy in the slavery context was a tragic and violative experience affecting women physically, psychologically, and emotionally. Long after the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment, slavery-like practices lived on through social, political, and economic mechanisms. In the penological context, peonage laws, penal plantations, and chain gangs were ...


The Value Of Government Mandated Location-Based Services In Emergencies In Australia, Anas Aloudat, Katina Michael, Roba Abbas, Mutaz M. Al-Debei Dec 2011

The Value Of Government Mandated Location-Based Services In Emergencies In Australia, Anas Aloudat, Katina Michael, Roba Abbas, Mutaz M. Al-Debei

Dr. Mutaz M. Al-Debei

The adoption of mobile technologies for emergency management has the capacity to save lives. In Australia in February 2009, the Victorian Bushfires claimed 173 lives, the worst peace-time disaster in the nation’s history. The Australian government responded swiftly to the tragedy by going to tender for mobile applications that could be used during emergencies, such as mobile alerts and location services. These applications, which are becoming increasingly accurate with the evolution of positioning techniques, have the ability to deliver personalized information direct to the citizen during crises, complementing traditional broadcasting mediums like television and radio. Indeed governments have a ...


The (Twice) Failure Of The Wisconsin Risk Need Assessment In A Sample Of Probationers, Howard M. Henderson Jan 2011

The (Twice) Failure Of The Wisconsin Risk Need Assessment In A Sample Of Probationers, Howard M. Henderson

Howard M Henderson

Despite being created and validated in the 1970s and 1980s, and widely adopted by many agencies in the United States, including Texas, the Wisconsin Risk Need Assessment Instrument has yet to be examined with a contemporaneous Texas probationer sample. Due to the majority of previous research reporting poor utility, the instrument’s authors proposed a new scoring system for the risk portion of the instrument in 2009 in an attempt to increase the predictive utility. This study examines the original instrument and is the first to examine the proposed reweighted risk scale’s relationship to recidivism with an independent sample ...


The Eleventh Circuit's Selective Assault On Sentencing Discretion, Adam Shajnfeld Jan 2011

The Eleventh Circuit's Selective Assault On Sentencing Discretion, Adam Shajnfeld

Adam Shajnfeld

Ever since the Supreme Court declared that the sentences which district courts impose on criminal defendants are to be reviewed on appeal for “unreasonableness,” the standard’s contours have remained elusive and mired in controversy, despite the Court’s repeated attempts at elucidation. In few instances is this confounding state of affairs more apparent and acute than in the Eleventh Circuit’s recent lengthy and factious en banc decision in United States v. Irey. This article explores Irey’s merits, mistakes, and lessons, trying to locate each within the broader context of the Eleventh Circuit’s sentencing jurisprudence. In doing ...


Utilizing The Past To Shape The Future: The Rehabilitation Of Child Soldiers In Darfur, Michael K. Marriott Jan 2011

Utilizing The Past To Shape The Future: The Rehabilitation Of Child Soldiers In Darfur, Michael K. Marriott

Michael K Marriott

Child soldiering, an unfortunate reality of war, has become increasingly common in modern warfare. With world attention focused on the genocide taking place in the Darfur region of Sudan, issues regarding the use of child soldiers in the conflict have come to light. By providing an overview of the use of child soldiers both globally and in Sudan, discussing the relevant legal norms theoretically governing the country and providing a case study on Sierra Leone, this paper ultimately provides an analysis and proposed framework for comprehensive programs that could be put into action after cessation of hostilities in an attempt ...


Drug And Alcohol Policy Under New Labour: Pandering To Populism?, Julian Buchanan Jan 2011

Drug And Alcohol Policy Under New Labour: Pandering To Populism?, Julian Buchanan

Julian Buchanan

Coming to power with an overwhelming majority in 1997, New Labour had the opportunity to lead the world by adopting a much needed progressive, pragmatic and scientifically informed approach to the management of substance use and misuse in the twenty-first century: by some distance, they failed to deliver on the election promise of change. Instead, they mistakenly continued the pursuit of eradicating drugs through prohibition, perpetuated the misleading distinction between legal and illegal drugs, and failed to overhaul the much criticised and outdated Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, which continues to inform (or some would argue misinform) the public about ...


Putting Forfeiture To Work, Sarah M. Buel May 2010

Putting Forfeiture To Work, Sarah M. Buel

SARAH M BUEL

Intimate partner violence (“IPV”) victims are increasingly turning to the courts for help, too often with poor results. Successful witness tampering by offenders sabotages the court system by silencing victims through an array of unlawful conduct, including coercion and violence. The doctrine of forfeiture by wrongdoing should afford a viable solution, but several obstacles constrain its efficacy. Much confusion exists regarding witness tampering and forfeiture law as a result of the recent trilogy of the Crawford, Davis, and Giles Supreme Court decisions. Their cumulative effect is decreased doctrinal uniformity within a perplexing scheme that is difficult to implement. The resulting ...


Softe Praat, Efficiënte Remedies, Jenneke Christiaens Feb 2010

Softe Praat, Efficiënte Remedies, Jenneke Christiaens

Jenneke Christiaens

No abstract provided.


Evaluating The Measurement Properties Of Procedural Justice In A Correctional Setting, Howard M. Henderson Jan 2010

Evaluating The Measurement Properties Of Procedural Justice In A Correctional Setting, Howard M. Henderson

Howard M Henderson

Research and theory on the effects of fair procedures has gained popularity over the past decade. This is understandable given the inherent appeal of these ideas and the supporting evidence. Research suggests that authorities are able to secure compliance from subordinates when they use fair procedures and when they are viewed as legitimate. Unfortunately, empirical studies of procedural justice and legitimacy are hampered by weak measures of key theoretical constructs. The purpose of this study is to examine the measurement properties of procedural justice in a sample of inmates. Results show that a one-factor model of procedural justice fits the ...


The Criminal Investigator, Terry Goldsworthy Dec 2009

The Criminal Investigator, Terry Goldsworthy

Terry Goldsworthy

Extract:
The words of Sherlock Holmes illustrate that it is the attention to detail that makes for a successful investigator. The investigator is a story teller, charged with telling the story of the victim in such a way that it is impervious to criticism or doubt. Many cogs make up the machinery of the justice system, yet the most important is the investigator, without whom, many crimes would go unsolved.


Eindrapport Voor Het Eerst Geplaatste Delinquente Minderjaringen En Recidive, Jenneke Christiaens, Tinne Geluyckens, Els Enhus, Els Dumortier Jan 2009

Eindrapport Voor Het Eerst Geplaatste Delinquente Minderjaringen En Recidive, Jenneke Christiaens, Tinne Geluyckens, Els Enhus, Els Dumortier

Jenneke Christiaens

No abstract provided.


Victim And Offender Correlates Of Elder Abuse And Mistreatment: Research For Future Prevention, Howard M. Henderson Jan 2008

Victim And Offender Correlates Of Elder Abuse And Mistreatment: Research For Future Prevention, Howard M. Henderson

Howard M Henderson

Elder abuse is a crime that is often misunderstood, under detected, and improperly processed. While definitions of this abuse are clear within most states, the knowledge that most elder abuse occurs at the hands of those the victim most trusts–their friends and family–is seldom understood by the public. Further, many professionals lack the training to effectively assess and detect elder abuse. Most underlying indicators of such abuse have specific correlates based on both victim and offender characteristics. Persons in various human service professions must be trained on those characteristics and the dynamics that tend to enable an abusive ...


Steekpartij Voor De Spiegel, Jenneke Christiaens Sep 2007

Steekpartij Voor De Spiegel, Jenneke Christiaens

Jenneke Christiaens

No abstract provided.


Undermining Individual And Collective Citizenship: The Impact Of Felon Exclusion Laws On The African-American Community, S. David Mitchell Apr 2007

Undermining Individual And Collective Citizenship: The Impact Of Felon Exclusion Laws On The African-American Community, S. David Mitchell

S. David Mitchell

Felon exclusion laws are jurisdiction-specific, post-conviction statutory restrictions that prohibit convicted felons from exercising a host of legal rights, most notably the right to vote. The professed intent of these laws is to punish convicted felons equally without regard for the demographic characteristics of each individual, including race, class, or gender. Felon exclusion laws, however, have a disproportionate impact on African-American males and, by extension, on the residential communities from which many convicted felons come. Thus, felon exclusion laws not only relegate African-American convicted felons to a position of second-class citizenship, but the laws also diminish the collective citizenship of ...


The Predictive Utility Of The Wisconsin Risk Needs Assessment Instrument In A Sample Of Successfully Released Texas Probationers, Howard M. Henderson Jan 2007

The Predictive Utility Of The Wisconsin Risk Needs Assessment Instrument In A Sample Of Successfully Released Texas Probationers, Howard M. Henderson

Howard M Henderson

Predictive actuarial risk needs assessment research has focused on probation completion. This research examines the predictive utility of the Wisconsin Risk Needs Assessment instrument as used with Texas probationers. The purpose of the research reported in this article is threefold: (1) to determine the rate of rearrest for successfully released probationers; (2) to examine the predictive utility of the Wisconsin Risk Needs Assessment instrument in a sample of successfully released probationers; and (3) to determine if the assessment tool correctly classifies probationers according to their risk of rearrest. The Wisconsin instrument predictive utility appears to be 12.5% better than ...


Eindrapport Overlastjongeren Uit Antwerpen Aan Het Woord, Jenneke Christiaens, Sarah Van Polfliet, Latifa Amezghal Jan 2006

Eindrapport Overlastjongeren Uit Antwerpen Aan Het Woord, Jenneke Christiaens, Sarah Van Polfliet, Latifa Amezghal

Jenneke Christiaens

No abstract provided.


Politique Urbaine Et Sécurité En Belgique Et Aux Pays-Bas, Els Enhus, Jenneke Christiaens, Jessica Hoste, Leentje Winkelmans, Evelien Van Den Herrewegen, Marjan De Gruijter, Hugo Swinnen, Hans Boutellier, Astrid Huygen, Josine Junger-Tas Jan 2006

Politique Urbaine Et Sécurité En Belgique Et Aux Pays-Bas, Els Enhus, Jenneke Christiaens, Jessica Hoste, Leentje Winkelmans, Evelien Van Den Herrewegen, Marjan De Gruijter, Hugo Swinnen, Hans Boutellier, Astrid Huygen, Josine Junger-Tas

Jenneke Christiaens

No abstract provided.


The Color Of Crime: The Case Against Race-Based Suspect Descriptions, Bela August Walker Apr 2003

The Color Of Crime: The Case Against Race-Based Suspect Descriptions, Bela August Walker

Bela August Walker

Law enforcement in the United States relies on racial identifiers as a crucial part of suspect descriptions. Unlike racial profiling, this practice is regarded as both an essential tool for law enforcement and as an unproblematic use of race. However, given the racial history of the United States, such descriptors, particularly “Black,” have developed in such a way to create an extremely large and unreliable category. Due to these factors, the use of race as a physical descriptor in suspect decisions is both discriminatory and inefficient. Employing race as an identifying characteristic allows law enforcement officers broad discretionary powers that ...