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Full-Text Articles in Criminology

Juvenile Hackers: An Empirical Test Of Self-Control Theory And Social Bonding Theory, Sinchul Back, Sadhika Soor, Jennifer Laprade Aug 2018

Juvenile Hackers: An Empirical Test Of Self-Control Theory And Social Bonding Theory, Sinchul Back, Sadhika Soor, Jennifer Laprade

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In accordance with a similar growth in information technology, computer hacking has become a pervasive issue as a form of crime worldwide in recent years. Self-control theory and social bonding theory have frequently been employed to explain various types of crimes, but rarely to explore computer hacking. Drawing from Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990) self-control theory and Hirschi’s (1969) social bonding theory, the purpose of this study is to empirically examine the suitability of these two theories in explaining juvenile computer hacking offenses. The self-report survey data utilized for the present study was derived from middle school and high ...


Architecture Of Aggression In Cyberspace. Testing Cyber Aggression In Young Adults In Hungary, Katalin Parti, Tibor Kiss, Gergely Koplányi Aug 2018

Architecture Of Aggression In Cyberspace. Testing Cyber Aggression In Young Adults In Hungary, Katalin Parti, Tibor Kiss, Gergely Koplányi

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In order to test whether and how violence is exacerbated in online social networking sites, we utilized the BryantSmith Aggression Scale (Bryant & Smith, 2001), and included examples in the questionnaire offering solutions for 7 different hypothetical cases occurring online (Kiss, 2017). The questionnaire was sent to social work and law school students in Hungary. Prevalence and levels of aggression and its manifestation as violence online proved to be not more severe than in offline social relations. Law students were more aware than students of social work that online hostile acts are discrediting. Students of social work were significantly more prone ...


Welcoming Remarks From The Ijcic Honorary Editor, Peter Grabosky Aug 2018

Welcoming Remarks From The Ijcic Honorary Editor, Peter Grabosky

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

No abstract provided.


The Present And Future Of Cybercrime, Cyberterrorism, And Cybersecurity, Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee Aug 2018

The Present And Future Of Cybercrime, Cyberterrorism, And Cybersecurity, Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Cybercriminology combines knowledge from criminology, psychology, sociology, computer science, and cybersecurity to provide an in-depth understanding of cybercrime. Cybercrime and cybersecurity are interconnected across many places, platforms, and actors. Cybercrime issues are continuously and expeditiously changing and developing, especially with the advent of new technologies. The International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime (IJCIC) aims to contribute to the growing field of cybercriminology and cybersecurity. The IJCIC is eager to work with scholars, policy analysts, practitioners, and others to enhance theory, methods, and practice within cybercrime and cybersecurity at the regional, national, and international levels.


Spreading Propaganda In Cyberspace: Comparing Cyber-Resource Usage Of Al Qaeda And Isis, Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee, Robert Cadigan Aug 2018

Spreading Propaganda In Cyberspace: Comparing Cyber-Resource Usage Of Al Qaeda And Isis, Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee, Robert Cadigan

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Terrorists in cyberspace are increasingly utilizing social media to promote their ideologies, recruit new members, and justify terrorist attacks and actions. This study explores the ways in which types of social media, message contents, and motives for spreading propaganda take shape in cyberspace. In order to empirically test these relations, we created a dataset with annual terrorism reports from 2011 to 2016. In our global cyberterrorism dataset, we used and connected cyber-resources (Facebook, online forum, Twitter mentions, websites, and YouTube videos) and legal documents of individual cases that were mentioned in the reports. The results show that YouTube videos were ...


An Argument For Interdisciplinary Programs In Cybersecurity, Dennis Giever Aug 2018

An Argument For Interdisciplinary Programs In Cybersecurity, Dennis Giever

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In this commentary Dr. Giever presents a compelling argument for interdisciplinary programs in cybersecurity at the university level. He argues that we no longer have the luxury of allowing barriers to exist between those tasked with IT security and those who provide physical security. He recommends that any security program take an “all possible paths” or “balanced approach” to the protection of assets within an organization. Students in computer science, criminal justice, business, human resources, and others should work collaboratively within education programs learning these necessary skills. A team effort is needed to accomplish the myriad of tasks necessary to ...


Topical Analysis Of The Enron Emails Using Graph Theory, Casey Kalinowski Apr 2018

Topical Analysis Of The Enron Emails Using Graph Theory, Casey Kalinowski

Student Scholar Showcase

The Enron Scandal of the early 2000s shook the financial world. The subsequent investigation of the Enron Corporation resulted in the arrests of many top-level executives, but are these employees the only ones responsible for the wide scale fraud in the company? A topical analysis of a social network of over 150 employees of the Enron Corporation using Graph Theory could result in new findings or prove that the investigators were correct in their original findings. The research is a retrospective analysis of a corpus of over 500,000 emails from more than 150 employees and top-level executives of the ...


Models As Weapons: Review Of Weapons Of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality And Threatens Democracy By Cathy O’Neil (2016), Samuel L. Tunstall Jan 2018

Models As Weapons: Review Of Weapons Of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality And Threatens Democracy By Cathy O’Neil (2016), Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

Cathy O’Neil. 2016. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy (New York, NY: Crown) 272 pp. ISBN 978-0553418811.

Accessible to a wide readership, Cathy O’Neil’s Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy provides a lucid yet alarming account of the extensive reach of mathematical models in influencing all of our lives. With a particular eye towards social justice, O’Neil not only warns modelers to be cognizant of the effects of their work on real people—especially vulnerable groups who have less power to fight back—but ...


Predictive Analytics In The Criminal Justice System: Media Depictions And Framing, Kar Mun Cheng Jan 2018

Predictive Analytics In The Criminal Justice System: Media Depictions And Framing, Kar Mun Cheng

Honors Program Theses

Artificial intelligence and algorithms are increasingly becoming commonplace in crime-fighting efforts. For instance, predictive policing uses software to predetermine criminals and areas where crime is most likely to happen. Risk assessment software are employed in sentence determination and other courtroom decisions, and they are also being applied towards prison overpopulation by assessing which inmates can be released. Public opinion on the use of predictive software is divided: many police and state officials support it, crediting it with lowering crime rates and improving public safety. Others, however, have questioned its effectiveness, citing civil liberties concerns as well as the possibility of ...


A Cross-Sectional Exploration Of Household Financial Reactions And Homebuyer Awareness Of Registered Sex Offenders In A Rural, Suburban, And Urban County., John Charles Navarro Aug 2017

A Cross-Sectional Exploration Of Household Financial Reactions And Homebuyer Awareness Of Registered Sex Offenders In A Rural, Suburban, And Urban County., John Charles Navarro

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As stigmatized persons, registered sex offenders betoken instability in communities. Depressed home sale values are associated with the presence of registered sex offenders even though the public is largely unaware of the presence of registered sex offenders. Using a spatial multilevel approach, the current study examines the role registered sex offenders influence sale values of homes sold in 2015 for three U.S. counties (rural, suburban, and urban) located in Illinois and Kentucky within the social disorganization framework. Homebuyers were surveyed to examine whether awareness of local registered sex offenders and the homebuyer’s community type operate as moderators between ...


Death And Destruction: Insight Into The Rhino Poaching Epidemic In South Africa, Richard Wayne Charlton Feb 2017

Death And Destruction: Insight Into The Rhino Poaching Epidemic In South Africa, Richard Wayne Charlton

Theses and Dissertations

The poaching of wildlife has been a concern to many involved in the protection of wildlife. Poaching is found throughout the world and has been around for thousands of years. In the past century, poaching has reached new heights and the concern of an extinction of a species has bought the topic of poaching to new light. Whilst poaching has been seen as a biological or conservation topic in the past, criminologists around the world have now started to delve into the topic. The poaching of wildlife and more so in recent years, rhino poaching, has been a concern in ...


Security Strategies For Hosting Sensitive Information In The Commercial Cloud, Edward Steven Forde Jan 2017

Security Strategies For Hosting Sensitive Information In The Commercial Cloud, Edward Steven Forde

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

IT experts often struggle to find strategies to secure data on the cloud. Although current security standards might provide cloud compliance, they fail to offer guarantees of security assurance. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the strategies used by IT security managers to host sensitive information in the commercial cloud. The study's population consisted of information security managers from a government agency in the eastern region of the United States. The routine active theory, developed by Cohen and Felson, was used as the conceptual framework for the study. The data collection process included IT security ...


Forensic Tool Mark Comparisons: Tests For The Null Hypothesis Of Different Sources, Jeremy R. Hadler Jan 2017

Forensic Tool Mark Comparisons: Tests For The Null Hypothesis Of Different Sources, Jeremy R. Hadler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

If a striated tool such as a screw driver is used to commit a crime, often there is a tool mark left behind as evidence. It is then the job of a forensic tool mark examiner to compare this crime scene tool mark to tool marks made by a suspect's tool to determine if they match, i.e were made by the same tool. Forensic tool mark examiners say that these striated tool marks are comprised of 'class' and 'individual' characteristics where class characteristics are traits common to a large number of tools such as the width of a ...


Identifying Terrorist Affiliations Through Social Network Analysis Using Data Mining Techniques, Govand A. Ali Apr 2016

Identifying Terrorist Affiliations Through Social Network Analysis Using Data Mining Techniques, Govand A. Ali

Information Technology Master Theses

In a technologically enabled world, local ideologically inspired warfare becomes global all too quickly, specifically terrorist groups like Al Quaeda and ISIS (Daesh) have successfully used modern computing technology and social networking environments to broadcast their message, recruit new members, and plot attacks. This is especially true for such platforms as Twitter and encrypted mobile apps like Telegram or the clandestine Alrawi. As early detection of such activity is crucial to attack prevention data mining techniques have become increasingly important in the fight against the spread of global terrorist activity. This study employs data mining tools to mine Twitter for ...


Climate Change And Interpersonal Violence: A "Global" Estimate And Regional Inequities, Dennis Mares, Kenneth W. Moffett Nov 2015

Climate Change And Interpersonal Violence: A "Global" Estimate And Regional Inequities, Dennis Mares, Kenneth W. Moffett

SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

This study estimates the predicted impact of climate change on levels of violence in a sample of 57 countries. We sample western and non-western countries and perform a multilevel ARFIMA regression to examine if warmer temperatures are associated with higher levels of homicide. Our results indicate that each degree Celsius increase in annual temperatures is associated with a nearly 6% average increase in homicides. Regional variation in this predicted effect is detected, for example, with no apparent effects in former Soviet countries and far stronger effects found in Africa. This variation indicates that climate change may acutely increase violence in ...


Workshop | Body Worn Video Recorders: The Socio-Technical Implications Of Gathering Direct Evidence, Katina Michael, Alexander Hayes Jun 2015

Workshop | Body Worn Video Recorders: The Socio-Technical Implications Of Gathering Direct Evidence, Katina Michael, Alexander Hayes

Alexander Hayes Mr.

- From in-car video recording to body-worn video recording

- Exploring available technologies: how do they work, pros and cons

- Storing direct evidence in secure storage: factors to consider

- Citizens “shooting” back with POV tech – what are their rights?

- Crowdsourced sousveillance- harnessing public data for forensic profiling

- Police force policies and practices on the application of new media


Immunology Inspired Detection Of Data Theft From Autonomous Network Activity, Theodore O. Cochran Apr 2015

Immunology Inspired Detection Of Data Theft From Autonomous Network Activity, Theodore O. Cochran

CEC Theses and Dissertations

The threat of data theft posed by self-propagating, remotely controlled bot malware is increasing. Cyber criminals are motivated to steal sensitive data, such as user names, passwords, account numbers, and credit card numbers, because these items can be parlayed into cash. For anonymity and economy of scale, bot networks have become the cyber criminal’s weapon of choice. In 2010 a single botnet included over one million compromised host computers, and one of the largest botnets in 2011 was specifically designed to harvest financial data from its victims. Unfortunately, current intrusion detection methods are unable to effectively detect data extraction ...


Marginal Structural Models: An Application To Incarceration And Marriage During Young Adulthood, Valerio Bacak, Edward Kennedy Jan 2015

Marginal Structural Models: An Application To Incarceration And Marriage During Young Adulthood, Valerio Bacak, Edward Kennedy

Edward H. Kennedy

Advanced methods for panel data analysis are commonly used in research on family life and relationships, but the fundamental issue of simultaneous time-dependent confounding and mediation has received little attention. In this article the authors introduce inverse-probability-weighted estimation of marginal structural models, an approach to causal analysis that (unlike conventional regression modeling) appropriately adjusts for confounding variables on the causal pathway linking the treatment with the outcome. They discuss the need for marginal structural models in social science research and describe their estimation in detail. Substantively, the authors contribute to the ongoing debate on the effects of incarceration on marriage ...


Digital Forensics Tool Interface Visualization, Roberto A. Altiero Jan 2015

Digital Forensics Tool Interface Visualization, Roberto A. Altiero

CEC Theses and Dissertations

Recent trends show digital devices utilized with increasing frequency in most crimes committed. Investigating crime involving these devices is labor-intensive for the practitioner applying digital forensics tools that present possible evidence with results displayed in tabular lists for manual review. This research investigates how enhanced digital forensics tool interface visualization techniques can be shown to improve the investigator's cognitive capacities to discover criminal evidence more efficiently. This paper presents visualization graphs and contrasts their properties with the outputs of The Sleuth Kit (TSK) digital forensic program. Exhibited is the textual-based interface proving the effectiveness of enhanced data presentation. Further ...


Refining The Search And Recovery Process: A Predictive Model For Vehicle Repossessions, Vijay Sachdev Jan 2015

Refining The Search And Recovery Process: A Predictive Model For Vehicle Repossessions, Vijay Sachdev

MS GIS Program Major Individual Projects

The automotive repossession industry has been transitioning to locationally aware hardware that permits the use of geographic data to enhance business intelligence operations. GIS initiatives in this industry are relatively new meaning that geospatial trends in repossession data have not been studied in an academic context. This project focuses on identifying trends in license plate recognition scan data collected from high-resolution cameras in Houston, Texas in order to predict future repossession locations. Through the use of opportunity terrain modeling with spatial statistics, a prediction surface was generated that accurately described the habitat of debt by combining seven opportunity variables that ...


Characterization Of Illegal Wildlife Trade Networks, Nikkita Gunvant Patel Jan 2015

Characterization Of Illegal Wildlife Trade Networks, Nikkita Gunvant Patel

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The legal and illegal trade in wild animals and their products is a multi-billion dollar industry that threatens the health and well-being of humans and animals alike. The management of the wildlife trade is a crisis-driven area, where decisions are made quickly, and, often, inefficiently. In particular, the regulation and control of the illegal wildlife trade is hampered by a dearth of formal quantitative analysis of the nature of the trade. This thesis represents a preliminary attempt to rectify that knowledge gap. It describes an investigation into the factors that support and promote the trade and is based upon information ...


Police Opinions Of Digital Evidence Response Handling In The State Of Georgia: An Examination From The Viewpoint Of Local Agencies’ Patrol Officers, Tanya Macneil Jan 2015

Police Opinions Of Digital Evidence Response Handling In The State Of Georgia: An Examination From The Viewpoint Of Local Agencies’ Patrol Officers, Tanya Macneil

CEC Theses and Dissertations

This research examined opinions of local law enforcement agencies’ patrol officers in the State of Georgia regarding preparedness and expectations for handling of digital evidence. The increased criminal use of technology requires that patrol officers be prepared to handle digital evidence in many different situations. The researcher’s goal was to gain insight into how patrol officers view their preparedness to handle digital evidence as well as their opinions on management expectations regarding patrol officers’ abilities to handle digital evidence. The research focused on identifying whether a gap existed between patrol officers’ opinions of digital evidence and the patrol officers ...


Mining Social Networking Sites For Digital Evidence, Brian Cusack, Saud Alshaifi Jan 2015

Mining Social Networking Sites For Digital Evidence, Brian Cusack, Saud Alshaifi

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

OnLine Social Networking sites (SNS) hold a vast amount of information that individuals and organisations post about themselves. Investigations include SNS as sources of evidence and the challenge is to have effective tools to extract the evidence. In this exploratory research we apply the latest version of a proprietary tool to identify potential evidence from five SNS using three different browsers. We found that each web browser influenced the scope of the evidence extracted. In previous research we have shown that different open source and proprietary tools influence the scope of evidence obtained. In this research we asked, What variation ...


Investigating The Aroma Of Marijuana, Cocaine, And Heroin For Forensic Applications Using Simultaneous Multidimensional Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry - Olfactometry, Somchai Rice Jan 2015

Investigating The Aroma Of Marijuana, Cocaine, And Heroin For Forensic Applications Using Simultaneous Multidimensional Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry - Olfactometry, Somchai Rice

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The active pharmacological compound in a street drug sample is not volatile at ambient temperatures and is probably not what triggers and alert response from a trained drug dog. Improved understanding of the ‘signature’ odor characteristics of illicit street drugs offers insight into the detection and some fundamental mechanisms of canine and human olfaction. Signature odor and smell of a drug is typically caused by compounds present as very low concentrations and are not targeted in forensic analytical methods. Forensic analytical methods focus on active compounds or their breakdown intermediates, which may not elicit any olfactory response or be only ...


The Application Of Dispersion Staining And Infrared Microspectroscopy To Analyze Physical Evidence In Developing Countries, Thiti Mahacharoen Jun 2014

The Application Of Dispersion Staining And Infrared Microspectroscopy To Analyze Physical Evidence In Developing Countries, Thiti Mahacharoen

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In developing countries like Thailand and in remote forensic laboratories around the world, scientific investigations of crimes are limited by the shortage of trained personnel and financial resources. The premise of this research is that polarized light microscope and dispersion staining methods will be developed which allow investigators with limited training to analyze physical evidence at a minimal cost. This research identifies specific liquids for the analysis of trace evidence using the dispersion staining technique. The development of dispersion staining technique and identification of specific liquid will extend the application of forensic science to remote laboratories and in the field ...


An Analysis Of The Patterns Of Crime And Socioeconomic Status Visualized Through Self-Organized Maps, Jason Carlin Kaufman May 2014

An Analysis Of The Patterns Of Crime And Socioeconomic Status Visualized Through Self-Organized Maps, Jason Carlin Kaufman

Masters Theses

This work is research to explore the association of spatial patterns between crime and socioeconomic status (SES) through the use of self-organized maps (SOM). It had been found that the spatial patterns of crime could be associated with those of socioeconomic, and this work sought to further these analyses in order to better understand how crime patterns and SES were related. To explore this association, patterns of crime and SES were examined in three cities: Nashville, TN; Portland, OR; and Tucson, AZ. Three SOMs were used in each city: one to analyze the patterns of crime, a second to analyze ...


The Bad Guys Are Using It, Are You?, Hong-Eng Koh Jan 2014

The Bad Guys Are Using It, Are You?, Hong-Eng Koh

Australian Security and Intelligence Conference

From Occupy Wall Street to 2011 England riots to Arab Spring to Mumbai 26/11 to the ethnic cleansing rumors in India and increasingly used by pedophiles, social media is a very powerful tool for pedophiles, troublemakers, criminals and even terrorists to target individuals and even to go against the establishment. On the other hand, social media can save lives in a disaster, and its a natural extension of community policing or engagement. Community engagement is a must-have strategy for any public safety and security agency. However, this strategy requires the removal of stovepipe processes and systems within an agency ...


I Remember Richelieu: Is Anything Secure Anymore?, Michael G. Crowley, Michael N. Johnstone Jan 2014

I Remember Richelieu: Is Anything Secure Anymore?, Michael G. Crowley, Michael N. Johnstone

Australian Security and Intelligence Conference

Petraeus-gate, hacked nude celebrity photos in the cloud and the recent use of a search and seizure warrant in the United States of America to seek production of customer email contents on an extraterritorial server raises important issues for the supposably safe storage of data on the World Wide Web. Not only may there be nowhere to hide in cyberspace but nothing in cyberspace may be private. This paper explores the legal and technical issues raised by the these matters with emphasis on the courts decision “In the Matter of a Warrant to Search a Certain E-Mail Account Controlled and ...


7th Australian Security And Intelligence Conference, 2014, Edith Cowan University: Conference Details, Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University Jan 2014

7th Australian Security And Intelligence Conference, 2014, Edith Cowan University: Conference Details, Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University

Australian Security and Intelligence Conference

No abstract provided.


Burglary Crime Analysis Using Logistic Regression, Daniel Antolos, Dahai Liu, Andrei Ludu, Dennis Vincenzi Jul 2013

Burglary Crime Analysis Using Logistic Regression, Daniel Antolos, Dahai Liu, Andrei Ludu, Dennis Vincenzi

Andrei Ludu

This study used a logistic regression model to investigate the relationship between several predicting factors and burglary occurrence probability with regard to the epicenter. These factors include day of the week, time of the day, repeated victimization, connectors and barriers. Data was collected from a local police report on 2010 burglary incidents. Results showed the model has various degrees of significance in terms of predicting the occurrence within difference ranges from the epicenter. Follow-up refined multiple comparisons of different sizes were observed to further discover the pattern of prediction strength of these factors. Results are discussed and further research directions ...