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Full-Text Articles in Criminology

A Public Health Argument Against Arming Teachers, David I. Swedler Dec 2018

A Public Health Argument Against Arming Teachers, David I. Swedler

Health Behavior Research

The peer-reviewed scientific literature does not support the idea that arming teachers will prevent school shootings. In this commentary, I draw on the criminal justice, injury prevention, and firearm safety literature to demonstrate how arming teachers will do more harm than good.


Political Competition And Predictors Of Hate Crime: A County-Level Analysis, Eaven Holder Dec 2018

Political Competition And Predictors Of Hate Crime: A County-Level Analysis, Eaven Holder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research on hate crime has tended to utilize sociological frameworks to best explain the incidence of such offending, but little research has been conducted to determine whether political factors may play a role. Although Olzak (1990) touched upon the relationship between racial violence and third-party politics during the American Progressive era (1882-1914), the research did not fully articulate how political competition may influence the commission of hate crime. The current study seeks to fill this gap, while also extending concepts associated with social disorganization theory and the defended communities perspective. It does so by utilizing a longitudinal research design to ...


Falling Between The Cracks: Understanding Why States Fail In Protecting Our Children From Crime, Michal Gilad Nov 2018

Falling Between The Cracks: Understanding Why States Fail In Protecting Our Children From Crime, Michal Gilad

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The article is the first to take an inclusive look at the monumental problem of crime exposure during childhood, which is estimated to be one of the most damaging and costly public health and public safety problem in our society today. It takes-on the challenging task of ‘naming’ the problem by coining the term Comprehensive Childhood Crime Impact or in short the Triple-C Impact. Informed by scientific findings, the term embodies the full effect of direct and indirect crime exposure on children due to their unique developmental characteristics, and the spillover effect the problem has on our society as a ...


The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy Nov 2018

The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy

Shared Knowledge Conference

Based on a review of research and best practices in mental health awareness and skills, this inquiry project argues for state legislative policies that would require mental health awareness and skills in the K-12 curriculum. Mental health affects individual accomplishments in every stage of people’s lives beginning in early childhood and throughout the life cycle. Prevention and treatment of mental illness plays a key role in the ability of an individual to cope with loss and develop resiliency and perseverance in challenging times and to make better decisions that improve the individual’s life and the lives of those ...


A General Mitigation For Disturbance-Driven Crimes?: Psychic State, Personal Choice, And Normative Inquiries, Paul H. Robinson Oct 2018

A General Mitigation For Disturbance-Driven Crimes?: Psychic State, Personal Choice, And Normative Inquiries, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

It is argued here that the narrow provoked “heat of passion” mitigation available under current law ought to be significantly expanded to include not just murder but all felonies and not just “heat of passion” but potentially all mental or emotional disturbances, whenever the offender’s situation and capacities meaningfully reduce the offender’s blameworthiness for the violation. In determining eligibility for mitigation, the jury should take into account (a) the extent to which the offender was acting under the influence of mental or emotional disturbance (the psychic state inquiry), (b) given the offender’s situation and capacities, the extent ...


Social Justice Guest Speaker Series: Does More Immigration Mean More Crime In The United States?, Ramiro Martinez Ph.D. Oct 2018

Social Justice Guest Speaker Series: Does More Immigration Mean More Crime In The United States?, Ramiro Martinez Ph.D.

Social Justice & Activism

Professor Martinez is a quantitative criminologist. Within that broad arena, his work contributes to violent crime research. His core research agenda asks how does violence vary across ecological settings, and, does violent crime and violent deaths vary across racial/ethnic and immigrant groups? In 2011, he was a recipient of American Society of Criminology DPCC’s Lifetime Achievement for outstanding scholarship in the area of race, crime, and justice. In 2007 he was a recipient of American Society of Criminology DPCC’s Coramae Richey Mann Award for outstanding scholarship in the area of race, crime, and justice. In 2006 he ...


A Bit Like Cash: Understanding Cash-For-Bitcoin Transactions Through Individual Vendors, Stephanie J. Robberson, Mark R. Mccoy Oct 2018

A Bit Like Cash: Understanding Cash-For-Bitcoin Transactions Through Individual Vendors, Stephanie J. Robberson, Mark R. Mccoy

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

As technology improves and economies become more globalized, the concept of currency has evolved. Bitcoin, a cryptographic digital currency, has been embraced as a secure and convenient type of money. Due to its security and privacy for the user, Bitcoin is a good tool for conducting criminal trades. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) has regulations in place to make identification information of Bitcoin purchasers accessible to law enforcement, but enforcing these rules with cash-for-Bitcoin traders is difficult. This study surveyed cash-for-Bitcoin vendors in Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico to determine personal demographic information, knowledge of ...


Effects Of Senate Bill 4 On Wage-Theft: Why All Workers Are At Risk In Low-Income Occupations, Daniella Salas-Chacon Aug 2018

Effects Of Senate Bill 4 On Wage-Theft: Why All Workers Are At Risk In Low-Income Occupations, Daniella Salas-Chacon

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming


Undocumented Crime Victims: Unheard, Unnumbered, And Unprotected, Pauline Portillo Aug 2018

Undocumented Crime Victims: Unheard, Unnumbered, And Unprotected, Pauline Portillo

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming


Welcoming Remarks From The Ijcic Honorary Editor, Peter Grabosky Aug 2018

Welcoming Remarks From The Ijcic Honorary Editor, Peter Grabosky

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

No abstract provided.


A Failure To Regulate? The Demands And Dilemmas Of Tackling Illegal Content And Behaviour On Social Media, Majid Yar Aug 2018

A Failure To Regulate? The Demands And Dilemmas Of Tackling Illegal Content And Behaviour On Social Media, Majid Yar

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The proliferation and user uptake of social media applications has brought in its wake a growing problem of illegal and harmful interactions and content online. Recent controversy has arisen around issues ranging from the alleged online manipulation of the 2016 US presidential election by Russian hackers and ‘trolls’, to the misuse of users’ Facebook data by the political consulting firm Cambridge Analytica (Hall 2018; Swaine & Bennetts 2018). These recent issues notwithstanding, in the UK context, ongoing concern has focused in particular upon (a) sexually-oriented and abusive content about or directed at children, and (b) content that is racially or religiously ...


Spreading Propaganda In Cyberspace: Comparing Cyber-Resource Usage Of Al Qaeda And Isis, Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee, Robert Cadigan Aug 2018

Spreading Propaganda In Cyberspace: Comparing Cyber-Resource Usage Of Al Qaeda And Isis, Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee, Robert Cadigan

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Terrorists in cyberspace are increasingly utilizing social media to promote their ideologies, recruit new members, and justify terrorist attacks and actions. This study explores the ways in which types of social media, message contents, and motives for spreading propaganda take shape in cyberspace. In order to empirically test these relations, we created a dataset with annual terrorism reports from 2011 to 2016. In our global cyberterrorism dataset, we used and connected cyber-resources (Facebook, online forum, Twitter mentions, websites, and YouTube videos) and legal documents of individual cases that were mentioned in the reports. The results show that YouTube videos were ...


Juvenile Hackers: An Empirical Test Of Self-Control Theory And Social Bonding Theory, Sinchul Back, Sadhika Soor, Jennifer Laprade Aug 2018

Juvenile Hackers: An Empirical Test Of Self-Control Theory And Social Bonding Theory, Sinchul Back, Sadhika Soor, Jennifer Laprade

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In accordance with a similar growth in information technology, computer hacking has become a pervasive issue as a form of crime worldwide in recent years. Self-control theory and social bonding theory have frequently been employed to explain various types of crimes, but rarely to explore computer hacking. Drawing from Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990) self-control theory and Hirschi’s (1969) social bonding theory, the purpose of this study is to empirically examine the suitability of these two theories in explaining juvenile computer hacking offenses. The self-report survey data utilized for the present study was derived from middle school and high ...


Architecture Of Aggression In Cyberspace. Testing Cyber Aggression In Young Adults In Hungary, Katalin Parti, Tibor Kiss, Gergely Koplányi Aug 2018

Architecture Of Aggression In Cyberspace. Testing Cyber Aggression In Young Adults In Hungary, Katalin Parti, Tibor Kiss, Gergely Koplányi

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In order to test whether and how violence is exacerbated in online social networking sites, we utilized the BryantSmith Aggression Scale (Bryant & Smith, 2001), and included examples in the questionnaire offering solutions for 7 different hypothetical cases occurring online (Kiss, 2017). The questionnaire was sent to social work and law school students in Hungary. Prevalence and levels of aggression and its manifestation as violence online proved to be not more severe than in offline social relations. Law students were more aware than students of social work that online hostile acts are discrediting. Students of social work were significantly more prone ...


An Argument For Interdisciplinary Programs In Cybersecurity, Dennis Giever Aug 2018

An Argument For Interdisciplinary Programs In Cybersecurity, Dennis Giever

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In this commentary Dr. Giever presents a compelling argument for interdisciplinary programs in cybersecurity at the university level. He argues that we no longer have the luxury of allowing barriers to exist between those tasked with IT security and those who provide physical security. He recommends that any security program take an “all possible paths” or “balanced approach” to the protection of assets within an organization. Students in computer science, criminal justice, business, human resources, and others should work collaboratively within education programs learning these necessary skills. A team effort is needed to accomplish the myriad of tasks necessary to ...


The Present And Future Of Cybercrime, Cyberterrorism, And Cybersecurity, Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee Aug 2018

The Present And Future Of Cybercrime, Cyberterrorism, And Cybersecurity, Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Cybercriminology combines knowledge from criminology, psychology, sociology, computer science, and cybersecurity to provide an in-depth understanding of cybercrime. Cybercrime and cybersecurity are interconnected across many places, platforms, and actors. Cybercrime issues are continuously and expeditiously changing and developing, especially with the advent of new technologies. The International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime (IJCIC) aims to contribute to the growing field of cybercriminology and cybersecurity. The IJCIC is eager to work with scholars, policy analysts, practitioners, and others to enhance theory, methods, and practice within cybercrime and cybersecurity at the regional, national, and international levels.


Pretrial Release And Failure-To-Appear In Mclean County, Il, Jonathan Monsma Jul 2018

Pretrial Release And Failure-To-Appear In Mclean County, Il, Jonathan Monsma

Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development to Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development—Student Research

Actuarial risk assessment tools increasingly have been employed in jurisdictions across the U.S. to assist courts in the decision of whether someone charged with a crime should be detained or released prior to their trial. These tools should be continually monitored and researched by independent 3rd parties to ensure that these powerful tools are being administered properly and used in the most proficient way as to provide socially optimal results. McLean County, Illinois began using the Public Safety Assessment-CourtTM (PSA-Court or simply PSA) risk assessment tool beginning in 2016. This study culls data from the McLean County ...


Islamic Terrorism In The United States – The Association Of Religious Fundamentalism With Social Isolation & Paths Leading To Extreme Violence Through Processes Of Radicalization., Shay Shiran Jun 2018

Islamic Terrorism In The United States – The Association Of Religious Fundamentalism With Social Isolation & Paths Leading To Extreme Violence Through Processes Of Radicalization., Shay Shiran

Student Theses

This exploratory study focuses on identifying motivations for religious terrorism and Islamic terrorism in the United States in particular. Terrorism is a crime of extreme violence with the end purpose of political influence. This crime is challenging to encounter for its multi-faced characteristics, the unusual motivations of its actors, and their semi-militant conduct. The hypothesis of this study asserts that religious terrorists are radicalized by passing from fundamental to extreme devout agendas, caused by isolation from the dominant society, and resulted in high potential to impose those agendas by extreme violence. Under the theoretical framework of subculture in criminology, this ...


Does Mental Illness Affect Societal Perception Of Sex Offenders?, Keely A. Bartram Jun 2018

Does Mental Illness Affect Societal Perception Of Sex Offenders?, Keely A. Bartram

Student Theses

Although mental illness is common in the sex offender population, it has never been examined how evidence of such may influence societal perception. In comparison to the non-sex offender population, it was hypothesized that participants would consider mental illness less mitigating for sex offenders, would be less likely to support the mental health treatment of sex offenders while incarcerated, and would consider certain mental illnesses (schizophrenia and substance abuse disorders) as particularly aggravating for this group of offenders. Respondents were asked to read a short vignette and then respond to a series of questions about culpability, sentencing decisions, and mental ...


Understanding The Experiences And Perceptions Of Specialty Mental Health Probation Officers, Brice Terpstra Apr 2018

Understanding The Experiences And Perceptions Of Specialty Mental Health Probation Officers, Brice Terpstra

Theses and Dissertations

Over the last two decades, specialty mental health probation caseloads have become increasingly common – focusing on offenders with serious mental illness (SMI). Scholars have examined overall effectiveness, the organization and design of these programs, and the differences between standard probation and specialty probation. Less attention, however, has been placed on examining how the officers supervising these SMI caseloads perceive their roles as specialty mental health probation officers and how discretion impacts their caseload management. In the current study semi-structured interviews were conducted with a complete census of 24 SMI caseload probation officers and supervisors in Maricopa County, Arizona over a ...


Gatekeeping Decriminalization Of Prostitution: The Ubiquitous Influence Of The New Zealand Prostitutes' Collective, Janice G. Raymond Apr 2018

Gatekeeping Decriminalization Of Prostitution: The Ubiquitous Influence Of The New Zealand Prostitutes' Collective, Janice G. Raymond

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This article explores the activities of The New Zealand Prostitutes' Collective (NZPC) in promoting decriminalization of prostitution and its role in gatekeeping this legislation. The NZPC has loomed large in the government’s evaluations of the decriminalization legislation known as the Prostitution Reform Act (PRA). It has collected information, partnered on the research team appointed by the Ministry of Justice to conduct the research, and ultimately secured seats as evaluators on the Prostitution Law Review Committee (PLRC) charged with assessing the research and making recommendations. Much of its outsized influence on the research and conclusions of this report is demonstrated ...


The Perceptions Of Illinois State University Students Regarding Sexual Assault On Campus, Brittany Lee Acquaviva Mar 2018

The Perceptions Of Illinois State University Students Regarding Sexual Assault On Campus, Brittany Lee Acquaviva

Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of sexual assault on college campuses is a continued epidemic within the United States. The increase of literature on this topic highlights the risk factors and perceptions that students hold on sexual assault. Previous findings have been able to aid in the creation of educational programs to be administered by universities to their students on commonly misconstrued topics within sexual assault and consent. This research adds to existing literature with its investigation on perceptions of sexual assault that Illinois State University students old. Specifically, this study looks at the beliefs and values that students hold about sexual assault ...


Introducing The Police Crime Database, Philip M. Stinson, Kathleen Y. Murray Feb 2018

Introducing The Police Crime Database, Philip M. Stinson, Kathleen Y. Murray

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

There are no official statistics on crime committed by sworn law enforcement officers, and the public is generally without the ability to research the incidence and prevalence of police crime in their own communities. The Police Crime database is designed to fill that gap, and provides internet-based public access to summary information on 8,006 criminal arrest cases during years 2005-2012 involving 6,596 sworn officers who were charged with one or more crimes. The arrested officers were employed by 2,830 nonfederal law enforcement agencies located in 1,302 counties and independent cities in all 50 states and the ...


Attitudes Toward Mental Illness: A Study Among Law Enforcement Officers In The South And Southwest United States, Ashley N. Montano, Brooke Barfield Feb 2018

Attitudes Toward Mental Illness: A Study Among Law Enforcement Officers In The South And Southwest United States, Ashley N. Montano, Brooke Barfield

Papers & Publications: Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Research

Ashley Montano

Brooke Barfield

The objective of the current study was to evaluate factors that may affect law enforcement officer’s attitudes toward the mentally ill. Through the use of a self-administered questionnaire officers in California, Colorado and Florida reported their perceptions of mental illness, specialized training they received, and any personal or family experiences with mental illness. Our findings suggest officers that reported having a parent who is mentally ill were more likely to have positive attitudes in comparison to officers who did not have these relationships. We also found limited support for a gender difference in attitudes towards ...


Biosocial Criminology Versus The Constitution, Karen E. Balter Jan 2018

Biosocial Criminology Versus The Constitution, Karen E. Balter

All Regis University Theses

The continually emerging field of biosocial criminology provides a basis for productively merging biology with sociological reasonings for criminal behavior. Mainstream research in criminology focuses on environmental factors as the sole reason individuals exhibit antisocial behavior patterns and may ultimately commit crimes. Criminological research has travelled in this direction for decades. The current climate within this community subscribes heavily to the notion that biology has very little to do with why people behave the way they do, and if it did, government control would be the norm. The nature of biocriminology opens a door through which constitutional issues may enter ...


A Case Study Of Overcrowding In A County Jail In The Southeast United States, Marquice Robinson Jan 2018

A Case Study Of Overcrowding In A County Jail In The Southeast United States, Marquice Robinson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

For the past several decades, the county jail in a large metropolitan city in the southeast United States has been overcrowded, which has resulted in violence within the jail, excessive costs to the Sheriff's Office, and a requirement of Federal oversight of the jail from 2005 to 2015. In spite of these events, little is understood about why jail overcrowding is prevalent in the county and what impacts overcrowding may have on the communities around the jail. Using Shaw and McKay's social disorganization theory as the foundation, the purpose of this case study was to understand the unique ...


Reentry Practitioners' Perceptions Of Constraints During Ex-Offenders' Job Search Process, Crystal Raquel Francis Jan 2018

Reentry Practitioners' Perceptions Of Constraints During Ex-Offenders' Job Search Process, Crystal Raquel Francis

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Unemployment among formerly incarcerated citizens is a complex problem that continues to grow. Previous reentry studies describe the collateral effects of incarceration on employment from the perspective of formerly incarcerated individuals, yet little academic research exists regarding reentry practitioners' perceptions of constraints during the job search process. Using Goldratt's theory of constraints as the foundation, the purpose of this case study of reentry and employment in a mid-Atlantic state was to explore from the perspective of practitioners, the types of constraints individuals with criminal records face during the job search process, the most difficult phase of the job search ...


A Phenomenological Analysis Of Formerly Incarcerated Women's Perceptions Of Successful Reentry, Angela Martilik Jan 2018

A Phenomenological Analysis Of Formerly Incarcerated Women's Perceptions Of Successful Reentry, Angela Martilik

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Female offenders are distinctly different from male offenders, and present with their own gender-specific needs and issues both in and out of the correctional setting. Most approaches to treatment and programming for female offenders are currently based on research involving males and approaches designed for males. Inquiry regarding the gender-specific needs of female inmates as they pertain to treatment and reentry programs is necessary so professionals can better understand how to serve this population. Through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 8 women who were formerly incarcerated in the United States, this phenomenological study was used to examine the perceptions of successful ...


Punishment And Privilege: The Politics Of Class, Crime, And Corporations In America, Anthony Grasso Jan 2018

Punishment And Privilege: The Politics Of Class, Crime, And Corporations In America, Anthony Grasso

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

As the global leader in incarceration, America locks up its own citizens at a rate that dwarfs that of any other developed nation. Yet while racial minorities and the urban poor fill American prisons and jails for street crimes, the state has historically struggled to consistently prosecute corporate crime. Why does the American state lock people up for street crimes at extraordinary rates but demonstrate such a limited capacity to prosecute corporate crime? While most scholarship analyzes these questions separately, juxtaposing these phenomena illuminates how the carceral state’s divergent treatments of street crime and corporate crime share common and ...


Biological Research On Behavior As Extra-Legal And Discretionary Factors In Sentencing And Punishment, Colleen Margaret Berryessa Jan 2018

Biological Research On Behavior As Extra-Legal And Discretionary Factors In Sentencing And Punishment, Colleen Margaret Berryessa

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In recent years, there has been an increase in empirical literature regarding how and why neuroscience and genetics research on behavior may influence criminal punishment. This dissertation aims to add to this growing body of literature specifically on types of evidence and aspects of sentencing and punishment that have not yet been studied. This dissertation consists of three papers that examine how the presentation of biological evidence in court or knowledge of the biological influences to behavior may act as extra-legal and discretionary factors in sentencing. The first paper, utilizing a multi-factorial experiment with the death-qualified jury-eligible public, examines how ...