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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Breaking Point: The Ironic Evolution Of Psychiatry In World War Ii - Appendix A, Rebecca Schwartz Greene Jan 2023

Breaking Point: The Ironic Evolution Of Psychiatry In World War Ii - Appendix A, Rebecca Schwartz Greene

History

This book informs the public for the first time about the impact of American psychiatry on soldiers during World War II.


Breaking Point is the first in-depth history of American psychiatry in World War II. Drawn from unpublished primary documents, oral histories, and the author’s personal interviews and correspondence over years with key psychiatric and military policymakers, it begins with Franklin Roosevelt’s endorsement of a universal Selective Service psychiatric examination followed by Army and Navy pre- and post-induction examinations. Ultimately, 2.5 million men and women were rejected or discharged from military service on neuropsychiatric grounds. Never before or since has …


Breaking Point: The Ironic Evolution Of Psychiatry In World War Ii - Appendix B, Rebecca Schwartz Greene Jan 2023

Breaking Point: The Ironic Evolution Of Psychiatry In World War Ii - Appendix B, Rebecca Schwartz Greene

History

This book informs the public for the first time about the impact of American psychiatry on soldiers during World War II.

Breaking Point is the first in-depth history of American psychiatry in World War II. Drawn from unpublished primary documents, oral histories, and the author’s personal interviews and correspondence over years with key psychiatric and military policymakers, it begins with Franklin Roosevelt’s endorsement of a universal Selective Service psychiatric examination followed by Army and Navy pre- and post-induction examinations. Ultimately, 2.5 million men and women were rejected or discharged from military service on neuropsychiatric grounds. Never before or since has …


Can Developmental Trauma Disorder Be Distinguished From Posttraumatic Stress Disorder? A Symptom-Level Person-Centred Empirical Approach, Julian D. Ford, Ruby Charak, Thanos Karatzias, Mark Shevlin, Joseph Spinazzola Nov 2022

Can Developmental Trauma Disorder Be Distinguished From Posttraumatic Stress Disorder? A Symptom-Level Person-Centred Empirical Approach, Julian D. Ford, Ruby Charak, Thanos Karatzias, Mark Shevlin, Joseph Spinazzola

Psychological Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background:

Developmental Trauma Disorder (DTD) is a proposed childhood psychiatric diagnosis for psychopathological and developmental sequela of victimization and attachment trauma extending beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Objective:

To determine whether a sub-group of trauma-impacted children is characterized by symptoms of DTD that extend beyond, or co-occur with, the symptoms of PTSD.

Method:

Person-centred Latent Class Analyses (LCA) were done with data from 507 children (ages 7–18 years, (M = 12.11, SD = 2/92); 49% female) referred to the study by mental health or paediatric clinicians.

Results:

A four class solution was optimal (LMR = 398.264, p < .001; Entropy = .93): (1) combined DTD + PTSD (n = …


First Responder Coping And Its Impact On Resilience, Ptsd Symptomology, And Hypervigilance, Bianca Bullock Sep 2022

First Responder Coping And Its Impact On Resilience, Ptsd Symptomology, And Hypervigilance, Bianca Bullock

Dissertations

The present study investigated coping strategies utilized by first responders and how those strategies relate to resilience, PTSD symptomology, and hypervigilance. The purpose of this study is to help provide more detailed information as to how first responders’ coping impacts their overall functioning. First responders (N = 181), including law enforcement officers, firefighters, paramedics, and emergency medical technicians, completed online surveys measuring whether engaged or disengaged coping strategies were used to manage stressful situations. Self-perceived resilience, PTSD symptoms, and hypervigilance were also measured. A one-way between-groups multivariate analysis of variance was performed to test the relationships between engaged versus disengaged …


A Moderated Mediation Model Of Gender, Posttraumatic Cognitions, And Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms After Military Sexual Assault, Hallie S. Tannahill Aug 2022

A Moderated Mediation Model Of Gender, Posttraumatic Cognitions, And Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms After Military Sexual Assault, Hallie S. Tannahill

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Military sexual assault (MSA) is associated with the greatest risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD severity beyond other trauma types. Sexual revictimization further increases this risk and severity. However, not all who experience MSA revictimization develop PTSD. This suggests there may be a key mechanism that explains the association between MSA and PTSD. Posttraumatic cognitions (PTC), which include an overall domain and subdomains of self, world, and self-blame, may be one such mechanism between MSA and PTSD, although this link has not yet been examined in the context of MSA revictimization. Further, literature suggests that men and women …


Gender And Ptsd: An Examination Of Socialized Masculinity As Moderator Of Ptsd Symptom Development, Kirsten Schmidt Aug 2022

Gender And Ptsd: An Examination Of Socialized Masculinity As Moderator Of Ptsd Symptom Development, Kirsten Schmidt

Theses and Dissertations

This study seeks to explain observed gender differences in PTSD risk and protective factors and subsequent PTSD symptoms by use of a Masculine Heuristic moderator variable. Drawing from heuristic and gender role theories, this study utilizes a sample of male and female trauma survivors to examine the interaction between a Masculine Heuristic style and trauma exposure in the development of PTSD symptoms. Structural Equation Modeling and moderation analysis were used to explore these constructs. Results are discussed and incorporated into current literature, while limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research are explored.


The Impact Of Trauma Subtypes On Ptsd Severity In Syrian Child And Adolescent Refugees, Liza Hinchey, Lana Grasser, Bassem Saad, Kathleen Gorski, Arash Javanbakht, May Chammaa Jun 2022

The Impact Of Trauma Subtypes On Ptsd Severity In Syrian Child And Adolescent Refugees, Liza Hinchey, Lana Grasser, Bassem Saad, Kathleen Gorski, Arash Javanbakht, May Chammaa

Medical Student Research Symposium

Background:

Child and adolescent refugee populations are at increased risk for psychiatric disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety. Recent studies have demonstrated different symptomatology based on the type(s) of traumatic events experienced. Cluster analyses based on the Life Events Checklist (LEC) indicate three trauma subtypes: accidental/injury, victimization, and predominant death threat. Extending this line of research from adults to youth may lead to better understanding of the unique impacts of trauma subtypes on symptoms for improved prediction of risk and resilience.

Methods:

Refugee participants were recruited within 1 month of their resettlement in the U.S. Data used were …


Kindness In The Bardo: Empathy As A Catalyst For Healing In Victims Of Dissociation, Julia Dorothea Chopelas Apr 2022

Kindness In The Bardo: Empathy As A Catalyst For Healing In Victims Of Dissociation, Julia Dorothea Chopelas

Criterion: A Journal of Literary Criticism

In George Saunders’ Lincoln in the Bardo, a host of undead characters find themselves in a spiritual limbo based on the bardo. Although they won’t admit it to themselves, Roger Bevins III and Hans Vollman are most certainly dead. Despite their supernatural makeup as ghosts, Bevins and Vollman bear strong psychological resonance with the living: they are human, heartbroken, and lost. For the ghosts of Oak Hills Cemetery, the inefficient coping mechanism of dissociation perpetuates their afterlife imprisonment in the bardo. Bevins and Vollman suffer from a variety of dissociative symptoms, their minds’ psychological defense against the trauma that has …


Pathways From Child Maltreatment To Proactive And Reactive Aggression: The Role Of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptom Clusters, Elizabeth M. Mcrae, Laura Stoppelbein, Sarah E. O'Kelley, Paula K. Fite, Shana B. Smith Mar 2022

Pathways From Child Maltreatment To Proactive And Reactive Aggression: The Role Of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptom Clusters, Elizabeth M. Mcrae, Laura Stoppelbein, Sarah E. O'Kelley, Paula K. Fite, Shana B. Smith

Research, Publications & Creative Work

Objective: Childhood aggression is related to a myriad of negative concurrent and long-term outcomes. To mitigate the risks associated with childhood aggression, it is important to understand risk factors that might predispose one to aggressive behaviors. One risk factor commonly associated with aggression is the experience of child maltreatment. A common outcome associated with child maltreatment is the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Several prevailing theoretical models of both post-traumatic stress and aggression indicate that these constructs have similar underlying cognitive, behavioral, and emotional mechanisms. Therefore, the present study examined the relations between and among child maltreatment, PTSS clusters, …


Signs In Sophocles: Modern Approaches To Ptsd In The Ajax, Charlotte Simon Jan 2022

Signs In Sophocles: Modern Approaches To Ptsd In The Ajax, Charlotte Simon

Honors Theses

This project explores the relationship between ancient Greek tragedy and modern psychology, specifically focusing on instances of PTSD, both through the descriptions of symptoms and the cultural reaction to such trauma responses in both ancient and modern sources. The case study from ancient Greece is Sophocles’ play, Ajax, a dramatic depiction of a post-PTSD soldier who has a mental break and is faced with either living with what he has done or committing suicide. The primary objective of this project is to illustrate what modern psychological theory can reveal about the portrayal of PTSD in Greek tragedy and therefore also …


The Merits Of Reporting Battered Woman Syndrome In South Asian Women, Annyssa Karran Jan 2022

The Merits Of Reporting Battered Woman Syndrome In South Asian Women, Annyssa Karran

Honors Undergraduate Theses

This paper’s focus on South Asian and Asian-American women in relation to Battered Woman Syndrome (BWS) originates from a limited amount of research on the self-helping behaviors of these women–especially those who have immigrated from the countries of Nepal, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Bhutan–as compared to other cultures (Sripada, 2020). The current literature surrounding BWS identifies lesser reporting on South Asian and Asian-American women with ethnic backgrounds from these regions (Kasturirangan, 2004). A journal by Yoshioka (2005) proposes that we consider the “world view” or intersectionality when considering domestic violence and to which many women are restricted as a result …


A Model Of Childhood Maltreatment, Ptsd Symptoms, Reinforcement Sensitivity, And Alcohol Outcomes In Young Adults, Logan E. Welker Jan 2022

A Model Of Childhood Maltreatment, Ptsd Symptoms, Reinforcement Sensitivity, And Alcohol Outcomes In Young Adults, Logan E. Welker

Dissertations and Theses

Alcohol use poses a significant public health concern, particularly among young adults, 35% of whom report binge drinking (SAMHSA, 2019). Childhood maltreatment is reported by over 50% of young adults (Maples et al., 2014) which places individuals at a greater risk of problematic drinking (Goldstein et al., 2010). Developmental traumatology theory posits that 1) maltreatment-related psychobiological changes are responsible for the increased risk of dysfunctional alcohol use in maltreated individuals and 2) PTSD may be a good indicator of this psychobiological change (De Bellis, 2002). PTSD symptoms have mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol outcomes in previous studies …


Susceptibility And The Stockholm Syndrome, Karina S. Cabrera Jan 2022

Susceptibility And The Stockholm Syndrome, Karina S. Cabrera

Honors Undergraduate Theses

This thesis intends to explore the relationship between three specific types of abuse and their susceptibility to developing Stockholm syndrome. Stockholm syndrome is the psychological phenomenon of a victim empathizing with their abuser. It can occur under various types of abuse, such as captivity, domestic violence with a partner, and child sexual abuse. A thorough literature review was conducted on the topic to determine which type of abuse makes a person more susceptible to developing the syndrome. It was concluded that the circumstances involved in child sexual abuse make a victim more inclined to sympathize with their abuser. By understanding …


Can Brazilian Jiu Jitsu Be A Viable Treatment Option For Law Enforcement Officers With Ptsd?, Megan Rinderer Jan 2022

Can Brazilian Jiu Jitsu Be A Viable Treatment Option For Law Enforcement Officers With Ptsd?, Megan Rinderer

Graduate School of Professional Psychology: Doctoral Papers and Masters Projects

Law enforcement officers (LEO) are more likely to experience symptoms of PTSD when compared to the general population yet are less likely to seek mental health treatment (Jetelina et al., 2020). Given that LEO face unique occupational stressors and repeated exposure to traumatic events, treatment for PTSD among law enforcement populations poses unique challenges for clinicians. The combination of these variables precludes officers from seeking and receiving mental health services. Research regarding the efficacy of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ) as a psychotherapeutic intervention is limited. To date, no studies have examined the use of BJJ to mitigate symptoms of PTSD …


Preconception Maternal Posttraumatic Stress And Child Negative Affectivity: Prospectively Evaluating The Intergenerational Impact Of Trauma, Danielle A. Swales, Elysia Poggi Davis, Nicole E. Mahrer, Christine M. Guardino, Madeleine Shalowitz, Sharon L. Ramey, Christine Dunkel Schetter Jan 2022

Preconception Maternal Posttraumatic Stress And Child Negative Affectivity: Prospectively Evaluating The Intergenerational Impact Of Trauma, Danielle A. Swales, Elysia Poggi Davis, Nicole E. Mahrer, Christine M. Guardino, Madeleine Shalowitz, Sharon L. Ramey, Christine Dunkel Schetter

Psychology: Faculty Scholarship

The developmental origins of psychopathology begin before birth and perhaps even prior to conception. Understanding the intergenerational transmission of psychopathological risk is critical to identify sensitive windows for prevention and early intervention. Prior research demonstrates that maternal trauma history, typically assessed retrospectively, has adverse consequences for child socioemotional development. However, very few prospective studies of preconception trauma exist, and the role of preconception symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains unknown. The current study prospectively evaluates whether maternal preconception PTSD symptoms predict early childhood negative affectivity, a key dimension of temperament and predictor of later psychopathology. One hundred and eighteen …


Tripping Over Trauma: A Proposal Of Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy For Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Depression, Liam Paul Gomez Jan 2022

Tripping Over Trauma: A Proposal Of Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy For Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Depression, Liam Paul Gomez

Senior Projects Spring 2022

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a widespread, often debilitating affliction that is only partially attenuated by current first-line treatment despite its heightened prominence in the sociopolitical arena. Since individuals with PTSD also experience high rates of depression comorbidity and resultant suicidality, it is essential that treatment is more holistically effective. A possible novel intervention, psilocybin-assisted therapy, has shown promising results for the improvement of depression, addiction, and other disorders; prospectively, when administered with non-directive therapy, it could prove to be an efficacious intervention for PTSD with comorbid depression. In the proposed study, there will be two participant groupings: the control …


A Cluster Analytic Approach To Examining The Role Of Cortisol In The Development Of Post-Traumatic Stress And Dysphoria In Adult Traumatic Injury Survivors, Devi Jayan, Terri A Deroon-Cassini, Garrett Sauber, Cecilia J. Hillard, Jacklynn M. Fitzgerald Jan 2022

A Cluster Analytic Approach To Examining The Role Of Cortisol In The Development Of Post-Traumatic Stress And Dysphoria In Adult Traumatic Injury Survivors, Devi Jayan, Terri A Deroon-Cassini, Garrett Sauber, Cecilia J. Hillard, Jacklynn M. Fitzgerald

Psychology Faculty Research and Publications

Identification of specific risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus depression after trauma has been challenging, in part due to the high comorbidity of these disorders. As exposure to trauma triggers activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, examining atypical stress responses via HPA-axis hormones, namely cortisol, may help in the delineation of these disorders. Indeed, extant research demonstrates that, following stress, individuals with chronic PTSD exhibit hypocortisolism (e.g., lower cortisol response than controls), while those with chronic depression exhibit hypercortisolism (e.g., higher response than controls). Less is known about the role of cortisol and these seemingly disparate profiles immediately following …


Racial/Ethnic Disparities In Mental Health Diagnosis Of Maltreated Youth, Shadie Burke Dec 2021

Racial/Ethnic Disparities In Mental Health Diagnosis Of Maltreated Youth, Shadie Burke

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Racial/ethnic marginalized youth are more likely to receive a misdiagnosis of a mental health disorder than their White peers. Misdiagnosis contributes to existing disparities for racial/ethnic marginalized groups by leading to longer durations of untreated and worsening mental health symptoms. For maltreated youth, receiving a misdiagnosis can lead to a failure to connect with appropriate mental health services, medication regimens, therapeutic foster homes, and academic and developmental resources. To date, very few empirical studies have identified disparities in mental health diagnosis among racial/ethnic marginalized maltreated youth. The present study examined two key research questions: (1) what racial/ethnic disparities in diagnoses …


Effect Of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage On Brain Functional Connectivity And Structural Properties In Trauma-Exposed Adults, Elisabeth Kathleen Webb Dec 2021

Effect Of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage On Brain Functional Connectivity And Structural Properties In Trauma-Exposed Adults, Elisabeth Kathleen Webb

Theses and Dissertations

Though there has been substantial progress towards understanding brain-behavior relationships and characterizing the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders, research has not translated as expected into novel prevention and treatment of mental health conditions. One limitation may be the emphasis on individual-level variables (e.g., income) and omission of relevant area-level factors (e.g., neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage). Recently, attention has been directed towards identifying the biological mechanisms by which neighborhoods impact mental health. The chronic stress associated with living in a disadvantaged neighborhood promotes a cascade of maladaptive events, which in turn impact brain structure and functioning. The processes affected by chronic neighborhood stressors …


A Preliminary Evaluation Of The Unified Protocol Among Trauma-Exposed Adults With And Without Ptsd, Caitlyn O. Hood, Matthew W. Southward, Christian Bugher, Shannon Sauer-Zavala Nov 2021

A Preliminary Evaluation Of The Unified Protocol Among Trauma-Exposed Adults With And Without Ptsd, Caitlyn O. Hood, Matthew W. Southward, Christian Bugher, Shannon Sauer-Zavala

Psychology Faculty Publications

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the Unified Protocol (UP)—a mechanistically transdiagnostic psychological treatment—provides benefit to individuals with a range of trauma histories, psychological difficulties, and diagnostic comorbidity. Using data from a sequential multiple-assignment randomized trial (SMART), this exploratory analysis included a sample of 69 community-recruited adults seeking outpatient mental health treatment. We examined reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms and changes in aversive and avoidant reactions to intense emotions—the UP’s putative mechanism—first by comparing individuals with and without trauma histories and then specifically among participants with PTSD. Findings suggest that the UP may lead to similar …


A Phenomenological Replication Study On The Unique Challenges Experienced By Veterans Diagnosed With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Ptsd) While Attending A California State University (Csu) In Riverside, San Diego, San Bernardino, Or Orange County, Ralph Martinez Nov 2021

A Phenomenological Replication Study On The Unique Challenges Experienced By Veterans Diagnosed With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Ptsd) While Attending A California State University (Csu) In Riverside, San Diego, San Bernardino, Or Orange County, Ralph Martinez

Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological replication study was to understand the unique challenges experienced by veterans diagnosed with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) while attending a California State University (CSU) in Riverside, San Diego, San Bernardino, or Orange County. Furthermore, it was the intent of this study to explore the current and prospective services veteran students believe were helpful or would be helpful in promoting positive academic outcomes.

A phenomenological approach was utilized in the development of this qualitative research study to explore the lived experiences of veteran students diagnosed with PTSD attending a California State University (CSU) in Riverside, …


The Road Home Program: An Efficient Model Of Ptsd Treatment In Veterans, Alexandra J. Fischer, Brian J. Klassen, Rhea A. Merck Oct 2021

The Road Home Program: An Efficient Model Of Ptsd Treatment In Veterans, Alexandra J. Fischer, Brian J. Klassen, Rhea A. Merck

Senior Theses

This thesis details my experiences at Rush University’s Road Home Program during the summer of 2021. The Road Home Program is an intensive treatment program for veterans suffering from PTSD. It is unique from conventional PTSD treatments in that it provides the equivalent of six months of treatment in just two weeks. The Road Home Program approaches PTSD in a comprehensive way by implementing a variety of therapies and supplemental treatments to veterans. These therapies include Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), Mindfulness Based Resiliency Training (MBRT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), and Art Therapy. The supplemental treatments include cognitive seminars, acupuncture, and …


Acute Posterior Cingulum Integrity Post-Trauma Prospectively Predicts Depression But Not Ptsd Symptoms, Carissa N. Weiss, Ashley A. Huggins, Tara A. Miskovich, Jacklynn M. Fitzgerald, Kenneth P. Bennett, Jessica L. Krukowski, E Kate Webb, Terri A. Deroon-Cassini, Christine L. Larson Sep 2021

Acute Posterior Cingulum Integrity Post-Trauma Prospectively Predicts Depression But Not Ptsd Symptoms, Carissa N. Weiss, Ashley A. Huggins, Tara A. Miskovich, Jacklynn M. Fitzgerald, Kenneth P. Bennett, Jessica L. Krukowski, E Kate Webb, Terri A. Deroon-Cassini, Christine L. Larson

Psychology Faculty Articles

Background: Little is known about what distinguishes those who are resilient after trauma from those at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous work indicates white matter integrity may be a useful biomarker in predicting PTSD. Research has shown changes in the integrity of three white matter tracts—the cingulum bundle, corpus callosum (CC), and uncinate fasciculus (UNC)—in the aftermath of trauma relate to PTSD symptoms. However, few have examined the predictive utility of white matter integrity in the acute aftermath of trauma to predict prospective PTSD symptom severity in a mixed traumatic injury sample.

Method: Thus, the …


Secondary Traumatic Stress In Intimate Partners And Children Of Service Members, Amber Foreman Sep 2021

Secondary Traumatic Stress In Intimate Partners And Children Of Service Members, Amber Foreman

Dissertations

This literature review addresses secondary traumatic stress (STS) in intimate partners and children of service members. More specifically, this literature review aims to explore if intimate partners and children of military service members are at risk for developing secondary traumatic stress. Secondly, this review aims to explore if there are specific risk factors associated with the development of secondary traumatic stress in intimate partners and children of service members. Finally, this review examines if there are other stressors and outcomes for intimate partners and children of service members. A systematic review of peer-reviewed research was explored to accomplish addressing the …


Acute White Matter Integrity Post-Trauma And Prospective Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Carissa N. Weis, Ashley A. Huggins, Tara A. Miskovich, Jacklynn M. Fitzgerald, Kenneth P. Bennett, Jessica L. Krukowski, E. Kate Webb, Terri A Deroon-Cassini, Christine L. Larson Sep 2021

Acute White Matter Integrity Post-Trauma And Prospective Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Carissa N. Weis, Ashley A. Huggins, Tara A. Miskovich, Jacklynn M. Fitzgerald, Kenneth P. Bennett, Jessica L. Krukowski, E. Kate Webb, Terri A Deroon-Cassini, Christine L. Larson

Psychology Faculty Research and Publications

Background: Little is known about what distinguishes those who are resilient after trauma from those at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous work indicates white matter integrity may be a useful biomarker in predicting PTSD. Research has shown changes in the integrity of three white matter tracts—the cingulum bundle, corpus callosum (CC), and uncinate fasciculus (UNC)—in the aftermath of trauma relate to PTSD symptoms. However, few have examined the predictive utility of white matter integrity in the acute aftermath of trauma to predict prospective PTSD symptom severity in a mixed traumatic injury sample.

Method: Thus, the current study …


“My Bruises Are Inward:” A Study Of Mental Trauma In The American Civil War, Cody Turnbaugh Aug 2021

“My Bruises Are Inward:” A Study Of Mental Trauma In The American Civil War, Cody Turnbaugh

Master's Theses

War is traumatic. Since the American Psychiatric Association first recognized post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 1980, living veterans of combat have been diagnosed at an alarmingly high rate. However, mental trauma related diagnoses have existed for centuries, including several that were identified around the time of the American Civil War. This thesis argues that Civil War soldiers experienced mental trauma related to their military service. It does so through three lenses. Focused on the mental trauma among Northern veterans, this study investigates in particular the relationship between mental trauma and socioeconomic status. It analyzes the experiences of both white and …


Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Comparing Short-Term, Intensive Therapy To Traditional, Long-Term Therapy, Laura Gonzalez, Sean Kruckenberg Aug 2021

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Comparing Short-Term, Intensive Therapy To Traditional, Long-Term Therapy, Laura Gonzalez, Sean Kruckenberg

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental health diagnosis that occurs following a traumatic event, and military veterans are at higher risk of exposure to hazardous or life-threatening situations that may result in psychological trauma. PTSD sufferers experience symptoms such as distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, hypervigilance, and heightened arousal. Individuals with PTSD also experience higher rates of depressive and substance use disorders, involvement with the justice system, and self-harm and suicide. Many agencies, such as the Department of Veteran’s Affairs (VA) provide treatment PTSD, however most programs experience dropout rates as high as 36%. Recent studies have shown that …


Stability Of Hippocampal Subfield Volumes After Trauma And Relationship To Development Of Ptsd Symptoms, C. N. Weis, E. Kate Webb, Ashley A. Huggins, Maddy Kallenbach, Tara A. Miskovich, Jacklynn M. Fitzgerald, Kenneth P. Bennett, Jessica L. Krukowski, Terri A Deroon-Cassini, Christine L. Larson Aug 2021

Stability Of Hippocampal Subfield Volumes After Trauma And Relationship To Development Of Ptsd Symptoms, C. N. Weis, E. Kate Webb, Ashley A. Huggins, Maddy Kallenbach, Tara A. Miskovich, Jacklynn M. Fitzgerald, Kenneth P. Bennett, Jessica L. Krukowski, Terri A Deroon-Cassini, Christine L. Larson

Psychology Faculty Research and Publications

Background

The hippocampus plays a central role in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) pathogenesis, and the majority of neuroimaging research on PTSD has studied the hippocampus in its entirety. Although extensive literature demonstrates changes in hippocampal volume are associated with PTSD, fewer studies have probed the relationship between symptoms and the hippocampus’ functionally and structurally distinct subfields. We utilized data from a longitudinal study examining post-trauma outcomes to determine whether hippocampal subfield volumes change post-trauma and whether specific subfields are significantly associated with, or prospectively related to, PTSD symptom severity. As a secondary aim, we leveraged our unique study design sample …


The Trauma, Substance Use, And Crime Connection: Characteristics And Recidivism Outcomes Of Adult Offenders, Kathryn F. Fokas Jul 2021

The Trauma, Substance Use, And Crime Connection: Characteristics And Recidivism Outcomes Of Adult Offenders, Kathryn F. Fokas

Psychology ETDs

Despite exceptionally high rates of trauma and substance use among incarcerated offenders, treatments remain limited in scope and availability within the criminal justice system. Identifying shared underlying mechanisms and potential gender differences could facilitate the development of interventions to target the vicious cycle of trauma, substance use, and crime. This study aimed to test a novel conceptualization of trauma, substance use, and criminal history as a composite risk factor for recidivism, including posttraumatic world assumptions as a hypothesized mediator and gender as a potential moderator. Participants were adult offenders from a community corrections program. Due to many institutional barriers and …


Relations Between Ptsd Symptoms And Pain Interference Among Older Adults, Laura E. Travers Jun 2021

Relations Between Ptsd Symptoms And Pain Interference Among Older Adults, Laura E. Travers

Theses and Dissertations

Both the older adult population and the frequency of natural disasters (e.g., hurricanes) increase in the U.S. each year. Consequently, understanding the health experiences that affect older adults specifically following a natural disaster is important for providing effective healthcare and promoting health expectancy. For example, the extent to which PTSD symptoms following a natural disaster contribute to pain severity (beyond the contributions of other psychosocial experiences such as depression) among older adults is not yet clear, and whether this contribution differs by gender or age has yet to be established. The aims of this study were (1) to determine whether …