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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Information And Employee Evaluation: Evidence From A Randomized Intervention In Public Schools, Jonah E. Rockoff, Douglas O. Staiger, Thomas J. Kane, Eric S. Taylor Dec 2012

Information And Employee Evaluation: Evidence From A Randomized Intervention In Public Schools, Jonah E. Rockoff, Douglas O. Staiger, Thomas J. Kane, Eric S. Taylor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We examine how employers learn about worker productivity in a randomized pilot experiment which provided objective estimates of teacher performance to school principals. We test several hypotheses that support a simple Bayesian learning model with imperfect information. First, the correlation between performance estimates and prior beliefs rises with more precise objective estimates and more precise subjective priors. Second, new information exerts greater influence on posterior beliefs when it is more precise and when priors are less precise. Employer learning affects job separation and productivity in schools, increasing turnover for teachers with low performance estimates and producing small test score improvements ...


Do Low-Mercury Terrestrial Resources Subsidize Low-Mercury Growth Of Stream Fish? Differences Between Species Along A Productivity Gradient, Darren M. Ward, Keith H. Nislow, Carol L. Folt Nov 2012

Do Low-Mercury Terrestrial Resources Subsidize Low-Mercury Growth Of Stream Fish? Differences Between Species Along A Productivity Gradient, Darren M. Ward, Keith H. Nislow, Carol L. Folt

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Low productivity in aquatic ecosystems is associated with reduced individual growth of fish and increased concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) in fish and their prey. However, many stream-dwelling fish species can use terrestrially-derived food resources, potentially subsidizing growth at low-productivity sites, and, because terrestrial resources have lower MeHg concentrations than aquatic resources, preventing an increase in diet-borne MeHg accumulation. We used a large-scale field study to evaluate relationships among terrestrial subsidy use, growth, and MeHg concentrations in two stream-dwelling fish species across an in-stream productivity gradient. We sampled young-of-the-year brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis ) and Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ), potential competitors with ...


Mapping The Evolution Of Racially Mixed And Segregated Neighborhoods In Chicago, Jonathan Chipman, Richard Wright, Mark Ellis, Steven R. R. Holloway Nov 2012

Mapping The Evolution Of Racially Mixed And Segregated Neighborhoods In Chicago, Jonathan Chipman, Richard Wright, Mark Ellis, Steven R. R. Holloway

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The Chicago metropolitan region consists of a spatially complex mosaic of neighborhoods, in which measures of racial and ethnic composition vary dramatically. Understanding these patterns and their evolution has been hindered by ambiguities in the use of terms like ‘diverse’ or ‘segregated’, which are often posited as opposite ends of a one-dimensional scale. Using a new taxonomy of neighborhood composition, we have mapped the evolving patterns of Chicago's neighborhoods in 1990, 2000, and 2010, and tabulated census tracts that have undergone transitions or remained stable. Looking beyond the Chicago metropolitan area, we have developed an interactive atlas of similar ...


When Less Is More: Evolutionary Origins Of The Affect Heuristic, Jerald D. Kralik, Eric R. Xu, Emily J. Knight, Sara A. Khan, William J. Levine Oct 2012

When Less Is More: Evolutionary Origins Of The Affect Heuristic, Jerald D. Kralik, Eric R. Xu, Emily J. Knight, Sara A. Khan, William J. Levine

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The human mind is built for approximations. When considering the value of a large aggregate of different items, for example, we typically do not summate the many individual values. Instead, we appear to form an immediate impression of the likeability of the option based on the average quality of the full collection, which is easier to evaluate and remember. While useful in many situations, this affect heuristic can lead to apparently irrational decision-making. For example, studies have shown that people are willing to pay more for a small set of high-quality goods than for the same set of high-quality goods ...


Technology Growth And Expenditure Growth In Health Care, Amitabh Chandra, Jonathan Skinner Sep 2012

Technology Growth And Expenditure Growth In Health Care, Amitabh Chandra, Jonathan Skinner

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In the United States, health care technology has contributed to rising survival rates, yet health care spending relative to GDP has also grown more rapidly than in any other country. We develop a model of patient demand and supplier behavior to explain these parallel trends in technology growth and cost growth. We show that health care productivity depends on the heterogeneity of treatment effects across patients, the shape of the health production function, and the cost structure of procedures such as MRIs with high fixed costs and low marginal costs. The model implies a typology of medical technology productivity: (I ...


Forensic Economics, Eric Zitzewitz Sep 2012

Forensic Economics, Eric Zitzewitz

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A new meta-field of "forensic economics" has begun to emerge, uncovering evidence of hidden behavior in a variety of domains. Examples include teachers cheating on exams, road builders skimping on materials, violations of U.N. sanctions, unnecessary heart surgeries, and racial biases in employment decisions, traffic stops, auto retailing, and even sports judging. In each case, part of the contribution of economic analysis is in uncovering evidence of wrongdoing. Although research questions differ, forensic economic work shares commonalities in approaches and limitations. This article seeks to draw out the common threads, with the hope of stimulating further research across fields ...


The City Of Man, European Émigrés, And The Genesis Of Postwar Conservative Thought, Adi Gordon, Udi Greenberg Aug 2012

The City Of Man, European Émigrés, And The Genesis Of Postwar Conservative Thought, Adi Gordon, Udi Greenberg

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

This article explores the forgotten manifesto The City of Man: A Declaration on World Democracy, which was composed in 1940 by a group of prominent American and European anti-isolationist intellectuals, including Thomas Mann, Reinhold Niebuhr, and Hermann Broch. Written in response to the victories of Nazi Germany, the manifesto declared that the United States had a new global responsibility not only to lead the war against fascism and Marxism, but also to establish a global order of peace and democracy under U.S. hegemony. Moreover, the authors of the manifesto claimed that such an order would have to be based ...


Cracks In The Melting Pot: Immigration, School Choice, And Segregation, Elizabeth U U. Cascio, Ethan G. Lewis Aug 2012

Cracks In The Melting Pot: Immigration, School Choice, And Segregation, Elizabeth U U. Cascio, Ethan G. Lewis

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We examine whether low-skilled immigration to the United States has contributed to immigrants' residential isolation by reducing native demand for public schools. We address endogeneity in school demographics using established Mexican settlement patterns in California and use a comparison group to account for immigration's broader effects. We estimate that between 1970 and 2000, the average California school district lost more than 14 non-Hispanic households with children to other districts in its metropolitan area for every 10 additional households enrolling low-English Hispanics in its public schools. By disproportionately isolating children, the native reaction to immigration may have longer-run consequences than ...


Multivoxel Patterns In Face-Sensitive Temporal Regions Reveal An Encoding Schema Based On Detecting Life In A Face, Christine E. Looser, Jyothi S. Guntupalli, Thalia Wheatley Jul 2012

Multivoxel Patterns In Face-Sensitive Temporal Regions Reveal An Encoding Schema Based On Detecting Life In A Face, Christine E. Looser, Jyothi S. Guntupalli, Thalia Wheatley

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

More than a decade of research has demonstrated that faces evoke prioritized processing in a ‘core face network’ of three brain regions. However, whether these regions prioritize the detection of global facial form (shared by humans and mannequins) or the detection of life in a face has remained unclear. Here, we dissociate form-based and animacy-based encoding of faces by using animate and inanimate faces with human form (humans, mannequins) and dog form (real dogs, toy dogs). We used multivariate pattern analysis of BOLD responses to uncover the representational similarity space for each area in the core face network. Here, we ...


Sweetening The Deal? Political Connections And Sugar Mills In India, Sandip Sukhtankar Jul 2012

Sweetening The Deal? Political Connections And Sugar Mills In India, Sandip Sukhtankar

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Political control of firms is prevalent across the world. Evidence suggests that firms profit from political connections, and politicians derive benefit from control over firms. This paper investigates an alternative mechanism through which politicians may benefit electorally from connected firms, examining sugar mills in India. I find evidence of embezzlement in politically controlled mills during election years, reflected in lower prices paid to farmers for cane. This result complements the literature on political cycles by demonstrating how campaign funds are raised rather than used. Politicians may recompense farmers upon getting elected, possibly explaining how they can get away with pilferage ...


Resilience In The Face Of Disaster: Prevalence And Longitudinal Course Of Mental Disorders Following Hurricane Ike, Robert H. Pietrzak, Melissa Tracy, Sandro Galea, Dean G. Kilpatrick, Kenneth J. Ruggiero, Jessica L. Hamblen, Steven M. Southwick, Fran H. Norris Jun 2012

Resilience In The Face Of Disaster: Prevalence And Longitudinal Course Of Mental Disorders Following Hurricane Ike, Robert H. Pietrzak, Melissa Tracy, Sandro Galea, Dean G. Kilpatrick, Kenneth J. Ruggiero, Jessica L. Hamblen, Steven M. Southwick, Fran H. Norris

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Objectives: Natural disasters may increase risk for a broad range of psychiatric disorders, both in the short- and in the medium-term. We sought to determine the prevalence and longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), depression, and suicidality in the first 18 months after Hurricane Ike.

Methods: Six hundred fifty-eight adults representative of Galveston and Chambers Counties, Texas participated in a random, population-based survey. The initial assessment was conducted 2 to 5 months after Hurricane Ike struck Galveston Bay on September 13, 2008. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 5 to 9 and 14 ...


Financial Knowledge And Financial Literacy At The Household Level, Alan L. Gustman, Thomas L. Steinmeier, Nahid Tabatabai May 2012

Financial Knowledge And Financial Literacy At The Household Level, Alan L. Gustman, Thomas L. Steinmeier, Nahid Tabatabai

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

There is evidence of a relation between numeracy and wealth held outside of pensions and Social Security. With pensions and Social Security accounting for half of wealth at retirement, and evidence that those with pensions save more in other forms, one would expect to find knowledge of pensions and Social Security influencing retirement saving. Yet we find no evidence that knowledge of pensions and Social Security is related to nonpension, non-Social Security wealth, to numeracy, or that it plays an intermediate role in the numeracy-wealth relation. Our findings raise questions about policies that would enhance numeracy to increase retirement saving.


Global Savings And Global Investment: The Transmission Of Identified Fiscal Shocks, James Feyrer, Jay Shambaugh May 2012

Global Savings And Global Investment: The Transmission Of Identified Fiscal Shocks, James Feyrer, Jay Shambaugh

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

This paper examines the effect of exogenous shocks to savings on world capital markets. Exogenous tax increases in the United States (from Romer and Romer 2010) are only partially offset by changes in domestic private savings, and only a small amount is absorbed by increased domestic investment (contra Feldstein and Horioka 1980). Almost half the change in taxes is transmitted abroad through a change in the US current account. Other countries experience decreases in current accounts and increases in investment in response to exogenous US tax increases. We cannot reject symmetric responses across countries with different currency regimes and levels ...


Unfakeable Facial Configurations Affect Strategic Choices In Trust Games With Or Without Information About Past Behavior, Constantin Rezlescu, Brad Duchaine, Christopher Y. Olivola, Nick Chater Mar 2012

Unfakeable Facial Configurations Affect Strategic Choices In Trust Games With Or Without Information About Past Behavior, Constantin Rezlescu, Brad Duchaine, Christopher Y. Olivola, Nick Chater

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Background:

Many human interactions are built on trust, so widespread confidence in first impressions generally favors individuals with trustworthy-looking appearances. However, few studies have explicitly examined: 1) the contribution of unfakeable facial features to trust-based decisions, and 2) how these cues are integrated with information about past behavior.

Methodology/Principal Findings:

Using highly controlled stimuli and an improved experimental procedure, we show that unfakeable facial features associated with the appearance of trustworthiness attract higher investments in trust games. The facial trustworthiness premium is large for decisions based solely on faces, with trustworthy identities attracting 42% more money (Study 1), and ...


Influence Of Medical Journal Press Releases On The Quality Of Associated Newspaper Coverage: Retrospective Cohort Study, Lisa M. Schwartz, Steven Woloshin, Alice Andrews, Therese A. Stukel Jan 2012

Influence Of Medical Journal Press Releases On The Quality Of Associated Newspaper Coverage: Retrospective Cohort Study, Lisa M. Schwartz, Steven Woloshin, Alice Andrews, Therese A. Stukel

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Objective: To determine whether the quality of press releases issued by medical journals can influence the quality of associated newspaper stories.


Globalization And U.S. Wages: Modifying Classic Theory To Explain Recent Facts, Jonathan Haskel, Robert Z. Lawrence, Edward E. Leamer, Matthew J. Slaughter Jan 2012

Globalization And U.S. Wages: Modifying Classic Theory To Explain Recent Facts, Jonathan Haskel, Robert Z. Lawrence, Edward E. Leamer, Matthew J. Slaughter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

This paper seeks to review how globalization might explain the recent trends in real and relative wages in the United States. We begin with an overview of what is new during the last 10-15 years in globalization, productivity, and patterns of U.S. earnings. To preview our results, we then work through four main findings: First, there is only mixed evidence that trade in goods, intermediates, and services has been raising inequality between more- and less-skilled workers. Second, it is more possible, although far from proven, that globalization has been boosting the real and relative earnings of superstars. The usual ...


Using Participatory Scenarios To Stimulate Social Learning For Collaborative Sustainable Development, Kris A. Johnson, Genya Dana, Nicholas R. Jordan, Kathy J. Draeger, Anne Kapuscinski Jan 2012

Using Participatory Scenarios To Stimulate Social Learning For Collaborative Sustainable Development, Kris A. Johnson, Genya Dana, Nicholas R. Jordan, Kathy J. Draeger, Anne Kapuscinski

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Interdependent human and biophysical systems are highly complex and behave in unpredictable and uncontrollable ways. Social and ecological challenges that emerge from this complexity often defy straightforward solutions, and efforts to address these problems will require not only scientific and technological capabilities but also learning and adaptation. Scenarios are a useful tool for grappling with the uncertainty and complexity of social-ecological challenges because they enable participants to build adaptive capacity through the contemplation of multiple future possibilities. Furthermore, scenarios provide a platform for social learning, which is critical to acting in the face of uncertain, complex, and conflict-laden problems. We ...


Civic Education And Democratic Backsliding In The Wake Of Kenya’S Post-2007 Election Violence, Steven E. Finkel, Jeremy Horowitz, Reynaldo T. Rojo-Mendoza Jan 2012

Civic Education And Democratic Backsliding In The Wake Of Kenya’S Post-2007 Election Violence, Steven E. Finkel, Jeremy Horowitz, Reynaldo T. Rojo-Mendoza

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

This article examines two unexplored questions concerning the impact of civic education programs in emerging democracies: (1) whether such programs have longer-terms effects and (2) whether civic education can be effective under conditions of democratic “backsliding.” We investigate these questions in the context of a large-scale civic education program in Kenya just before the disputed 2007 election that sparked a wave of ethnic clashes and brought the country to the brink of civil war. Analysis of a survey of 1,800 “treatment” and 1,800 “control” individuals shows that the program had significant long-term effects on variables related to civic ...


Diagnosing Institutional Fit: A Formal Perspective, Michael Cox Jan 2012

Diagnosing Institutional Fit: A Formal Perspective, Michael Cox

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

I attempt to demonstrate that the concept of institutional fit and the closely related approach of institutional diagnosis can be improved with the process of formalization. In this context, the concept of fit is interpreted as a way of expressing certain theoretical propositions that relate a set of variables with each other and with an outcome. This perspective is demonstrated through the use of the Web Ontology Language to express several "theories of fit." Using a formal language to describe types of fit and their associated theories is argued to have much potential for advancing the scientific study of social-ecological ...