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2012

International and Area Studies

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Articles 1 - 30 of 938

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Pillar Ii In Focus--The Responsibility To Assist: Police Capacity-Building In Timor-Leste And The 2012 Parliamentary Elections, Charles Hawksley, Nichole Georgeou Apr 2013

Pillar Ii In Focus--The Responsibility To Assist: Police Capacity-Building In Timor-Leste And The 2012 Parliamentary Elections, Charles Hawksley, Nichole Georgeou

Charles M Hawksley

This briefing paper provides a short background to the 2012 elections in Timor-Leste, and explores the UNPOL mandate to support and build the capacity of the Polícia Nacional de Timor-Leste (PNTL – the Timor-Leste National Police), so that Timor-Leste will be able to manage security for its citizens without international assistance. Based on fieldwork conducted during June 2012, including interviews with human rights-focused NGOs, and with international police implementing bilateral and multilateral capacity building, we argue that the 3,200-3,400 strong PNTL is theoretically ready to go it alone when the UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste departs, and explore questions ...


The Beginning Of The End? Agricultural Modernization And Dissolution Of The Peasantry In Contemporary China, Qian Forrest Zhang, John Andrew Donaldson Dec 2012

The Beginning Of The End? Agricultural Modernization And Dissolution Of The Peasantry In Contemporary China, Qian Forrest Zhang, John Andrew Donaldson

Qian Forrest ZHANG

No abstract provided.


Agricultural Modernization In China And Its Impact On Cities: From The Perspective Of Rural-Urban Linkage, Qian Forrest Zhang Dec 2012

Agricultural Modernization In China And Its Impact On Cities: From The Perspective Of Rural-Urban Linkage, Qian Forrest Zhang

Qian Forrest ZHANG

No abstract provided.


Private Exchanges Of Agricultural Land In Zhejiang, China: A Road To Agrarian Capitalism Or Path-Dependent Transformation?, Qian Forrest Zhang Dec 2012

Private Exchanges Of Agricultural Land In Zhejiang, China: A Road To Agrarian Capitalism Or Path-Dependent Transformation?, Qian Forrest Zhang

Qian Forrest ZHANG

No abstract provided.


Participatory Budgeting: Diffusion And Outcomes Across The World, Brian Wampler, Janette Hartz-Karp Dec 2012

Participatory Budgeting: Diffusion And Outcomes Across The World, Brian Wampler, Janette Hartz-Karp

Journal of Public Deliberation

In this special issue of the Journal of Public Deliberation, multiple faces of Participatory Budgeting programs are revealed. The articles demonstrate that there is no standardized set of “best practices” that governments are adopting, but there are a broader set of principles that are adapted by local governments to meet local circumstances. Adopt and adapt appears to be the logic behind many PB programs.


Participatory Budgeting: Core Principles And Key Impacts, Brian Wampler Dec 2012

Participatory Budgeting: Core Principles And Key Impacts, Brian Wampler

Journal of Public Deliberation

This essay is a reflection piece. I identify key principles at the core of how PB functions and to discuss the scope of change we might expect to see generated by these institutions. I move beyond the idea that there is a specific model or set of “best practices” that define PB. Rather, it is most fruitful to conceptualize PB as a set of principles that can generate social change. The weaker the adherence to these principles, the less social change generated. The second purpose of the essay is to reflect on the impacts generated by PB. How do these ...


The World Bank And The Globalization Of Participatory Budgeting, Benjamin Goldfrank Dec 2012

The World Bank And The Globalization Of Participatory Budgeting, Benjamin Goldfrank

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article addresses the long-standing controversy over the World Bank’s role in the promotion of participatory budgeting (PB). Some on the left have celebrated the Bank’s funding and advocacy for PB as signifying the legitimacy or mainstream success of the process, while others see the Bank’s endorsement of PB as a sign that participatory budgeting is becoming watered down and losing its transformative potential, if it ever had such potential. This debate has mostly been an ideological one, and little research has been done to provide evidence to either side. The article is the first to address ...


International Terrorism And Television Channels:Operation And Regulation Of Tv News Channel During Coverage Of Terrorism, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr Dec 2012

International Terrorism And Television Channels:Operation And Regulation Of Tv News Channel During Coverage Of Terrorism, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr

Ratnesh Dwivedi

The concept of globalization or internationalization of certain wars, which were result of terrorist activities worldwide , as well as the high attention of terrorism coverage broadcast worldwide might open up better opportunities to journalists – particularly to those who work in democratic countries like U.S.A and India – to improve their coverage. The context is the key: the context of the operation methodology, follow of guidelines of regulatory bodies,and of the journalistic culture and of the global environment. It is very important how media presents consequences of terrorist acts, how information is transmitted to public. Television and press have ...


Myth Of Indian Nuke Doctrine (Cpc Journal, No.1038, Us Air Force, Alabama, Shams Uz Zaman Mr. Dec 2012

Myth Of Indian Nuke Doctrine (Cpc Journal, No.1038, Us Air Force, Alabama, Shams Uz Zaman Mr.

Mr. Shams uz Zaman

No abstract provided.


Critique Of Microcredit As A Development Model, Grace Levin Dec 2012

Critique Of Microcredit As A Development Model, Grace Levin

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

The field of microcredit (otherwise known as microfinance, microlending, or microcapital) has expanded rapidly since the 1980s as an economic means of lifting people out of poverty. Generally, microcredit has been accepted as an effective method for empowering both individuals and communities. In recent years, however, critics have brought to light some of the problems associated with microlending, such as the complex socioeconomic factors that can cause loan programs to fail. These problems stem from the basic tenet of microfinance: the need for lending programs to be managed locally in order to understand the needs of a community and assess ...


The Next Hu, Zheng Wang Dec 2012

The Next Hu, Zheng Wang

Zheng Wang

No abstract provided.


Juvenile Delinquency And Violence: Examining International Police And Societal Response, Gordon A. Crews, Angela West Crews Dec 2012

Juvenile Delinquency And Violence: Examining International Police And Societal Response, Gordon A. Crews, Angela West Crews

Angela Crews

This presentation comparatively examines relationships in the United States, Eastern and Central Europe, Scandinavia, and parts of the Middle East among juvenile violence, "heavy metal" music, substance abuse, and participation in occult and "alternative" youth groups (e.g., Wicca, Satanism, vampirism, Goth). We trace the movement of certain groups, behaviors, and preferences and make a correlation between some of these movements and an increase in youth violence and substance abuse. The authors use results from surveys and participant observations in the U.S., Copenhagen, Germany, the Netherlands, & the Middle East (Egypt & Turkey) that indicate, however, that mere participation in these ...


Citizen And Officer Perceptions Of Community Policing In Ghana: Policing Of, By, And For The People, Or Just To The People?, Angela West Crews, Gordon A. Crews Dec 2012

Citizen And Officer Perceptions Of Community Policing In Ghana: Policing Of, By, And For The People, Or Just To The People?, Angela West Crews, Gordon A. Crews

Angela Crews

This presentation presents initial results of an evaluation of citizen and officer perceptions of policing in Ghana. The Ghana Police Service (GPS) is attempting to transition from a para-militaristic philosophy to a more community-centered approach, developing a domestic violence unit in the past decade and, more recently, a community policing unit. Community policing philosophies, however, face unique challenges in Ghanaian society, such as a deep-rooted (and historically well-founded) mistrust of the police, and a culture with a well-established and trusted “traditional” system wherein matters are settled within communities and impacted by religion, spirituality, and mysticism. This project used official reported ...


Juvenile Delinquency And Violence: Examining International Police And Societal Response, Gordon A. Crews, Angela West Crews Dec 2012

Juvenile Delinquency And Violence: Examining International Police And Societal Response, Gordon A. Crews, Angela West Crews

Gordon A Crews

This presentation comparatively examines relationships in the United States, Eastern and Central Europe, Scandinavia, and parts of the Middle East among juvenile violence, "heavy metal" music, substance abuse, and participation in occult and "alternative" youth groups (e.g., Wicca, Satanism, vampirism, Goth). We trace the movement of certain groups, behaviors, and preferences and make a correlation between some of these movements and an increase in youth violence and substance abuse. The authors use results from surveys and participant observations in the U.S., Copenhagen, Germany, the Netherlands, & the Middle East (Egypt & Turkey) that indicate, however, that mere participation in these ...


Citizen And Officer Perceptions Of Community Policing In Ghana: Policing Of, By, And For The People, Or Just To The People?, Angela West Crews, Gordon A. Crews Dec 2012

Citizen And Officer Perceptions Of Community Policing In Ghana: Policing Of, By, And For The People, Or Just To The People?, Angela West Crews, Gordon A. Crews

Gordon A Crews

This presentation presents initial results of an evaluation of citizen and officer perceptions of policing in Ghana. The Ghana Police Service (GPS) is attempting to transition from a para-militaristic philosophy to a more community-centered approach, developing a domestic violence unit in the past decade and, more recently, a community policing unit. Community policing philosophies, however, face unique challenges in Ghanaian society, such as a deep-rooted (and historically well-founded) mistrust of the police, and a culture with a well-established and trusted “traditional” system wherein matters are settled within communities and impacted by religion, spirituality, and mysticism. This project used official reported ...


Egyptian Civil Society (Transnational Vs. Local): The Distinction Between Theory And Practice, Jeremiah Davis Dec 2012

Egyptian Civil Society (Transnational Vs. Local): The Distinction Between Theory And Practice, Jeremiah Davis

Master's Theses

Abstract:

The strength and dominance of political society, rather than the weaknesses of civil society, is arguably one of the primary reasons for massive civil uprising in Egypt led by independent, unaffiliated members of society. In many cases it appears that civil society was behind the Egyptian Revolution, although is this the case? Did the Revolution happen in spite of civil society? Just as the state can be a roadblock to development and democratization, civil society may also be detrimental to society’s growth. In this thesis, the development and civil society community is analyzed to discover the functions of ...


Human Trafficking In Poland: Further Victimization Of Female Victims Of Human Trafficking For Sexual Exploitation, Katarzyna Peninska Dec 2012

Human Trafficking In Poland: Further Victimization Of Female Victims Of Human Trafficking For Sexual Exploitation, Katarzyna Peninska

Master's Theses

Poland is a source, destination, and transit country for human trafficking. The country is taking steps to address this crime, but it offers very little benefits to the victims. Currently, the victims are only allowed to stay temporarily in Poland if they testify against their traffickers. During their cooperation with the prosecution they rarely receive legal representation or psychological help. This thesis posed the question of whether Polish laws and the Polish system further victimize female victims of human trafficking for sexual exploitation. The research was conducted in Poland between May and July of 2012. The first part of the ...


Do Culturally Engaging Reading Materials Matter? An Analysis Of Rural Libraries In Burkina Faso, Erica Ernst Dec 2012

Do Culturally Engaging Reading Materials Matter? An Analysis Of Rural Libraries In Burkina Faso, Erica Ernst

Master's Theses

Academics have noted the lack of culturally relevant reading materials in African libraries. Book collections are primarily composed of donated materials from western countries intended for a western, rather than African audience. This research project aimed to gain insight onto children’s reading preferences in the rural Burkina Faso and to learn about the popularity of local photo books that were added in 2009. Quantitative methods examined library book checkout records in three categories of African, French, and local photo books. Additionally the library subscription records were used in order to gain information about the children including age, gender, and ...


Re-Evaluating Peacebuilding In The Democratic Republic Of Congo: A Case Study In Dongo, Wilita Sanguma Dec 2012

Re-Evaluating Peacebuilding In The Democratic Republic Of Congo: A Case Study In Dongo, Wilita Sanguma

Master's Theses

Re-evaluating Peacebuilding in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A case study in Dongo

The Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo) is a country rich with natural resources centered in the heart of Africa. Since the colonial era, the country has seen more bloodshed than peace and development. From 1996 to 2003, Congo experienced the worst conflict since World War II, with over six million people dead. Despite having the largest United Nations peacekeeping troops present; Congo continues to be plagued by violence. This research thesis argues that the international community failed to promote a lasting peace in Congo because the international ...


A Tale Of Two Superpowers: Nigeria And China Relations, Faouziatou Aboudou Kabassi Dec 2012

A Tale Of Two Superpowers: Nigeria And China Relations, Faouziatou Aboudou Kabassi

Master's Theses

The study discusses the historical development of the Sino-Nigerian bilateral relations. The paper provides a detailed view of china's FDI in Nigeria and the diverse challenges faced by the oil rich country to develop its own economy through NEEDS as a result of china's economic power. China’s partnership with Nigeria is ideally for economic growth but practically poisonous to Nigeria’s development goals as China is solely pursuing its own interest and diverting its partner from working toward its NEEDS goal. A deep investigation of the relations should be reviewed for both countries. This will be needed ...


The Media Is A Funhouse Mirror: Comparing Economic Interaction Issues In The U.S. And Chinese Media, Yiye Zhang Dec 2012

The Media Is A Funhouse Mirror: Comparing Economic Interaction Issues In The U.S. And Chinese Media, Yiye Zhang

Master's Theses

ABSTRACT

This project studied the differences between mainstream news reporting in the U.S. and China. I employed content analysis to analyze the major features of 427 news reports about the economic interaction between the two countries. The research focused on the key media frames in the two sets of news media, the factors that shaped these media frames, and the real meanings behind those reports. The study found both similarities and differences. The two sets of media showed significant differences in their reporting of news and events about economic issues in terms of the selection of topics, and the ...


Examining Crime Among College-Aged Christians: Are Christian Religious Beliefs Associated With Low Levels Of Criminal Activity?, Paul R. Rickert Dec 2012

Examining Crime Among College-Aged Christians: Are Christian Religious Beliefs Associated With Low Levels Of Criminal Activity?, Paul R. Rickert

Paul R Rickert

The purpose of this correlational study into crime among college-aged Christians in the United States is to determine if indicating higher levels of Christian spiritual growth is associated with lower levels of criminal behavior. A convenience sample of college aged Christians was given an online survey to measure self-reported criminality measured by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Uniform Crime Reports Part I and Part II and self-reported religious convictions as measured by Bufford et al.’s Christ-like Spiritual Growth Scale. This quantitative study then analyzed data generated from 57 respondents and found that reporting higher rates of ...


Oil, Power, And Discourse: How Chevron Evaded Its Dues To The Indigenous Communities Of The Ecuadorian Amazon, Kine Norland Dec 2012

Oil, Power, And Discourse: How Chevron Evaded Its Dues To The Indigenous Communities Of The Ecuadorian Amazon, Kine Norland

Master's Theses

Abstract

The principal objectives of this thesis were to shed lights on the backside of oil and to question the great power of big corporations. I researched why Chevron refused to acknowledge its legal obligation to remedy the complex problems it has caused in the Ecuadorian Rainforest. The catastrophes the indigenous communities have been facing are about to change as a result of grass root mobilization against Chevron. By the use of observations, discourse analysis of the media, and the use of theories from Michel Foucault, I was able to explain how Chevron has managed to escape from the terrible ...


Women's Mobilization In Latin America: A Case Study Of Venezuela, Brianna Russell Dec 2012

Women's Mobilization In Latin America: A Case Study Of Venezuela, Brianna Russell

Master's Theses

Abstract

I examine the following elements in regards to women’s mobilization in Latin America and Venezuela from the late 1950s to the present: (a) the influence of the state and economy on times when women mobilized (b) class division within the movement (c) women’s demands during different time periods (d) the ways in which women were successful in working towards gender equality. This thesis reviews the literature on women’s mobilization in Latin America during the second half of the twentieth century. I find that women mobilized across class lines with the masses to end dictatorships. Women demobilized ...


Why Eu Work-Family Reconciliation Policies Fail In Italy: A Feminist Legal Analysis, Chrystal Orozco Dec 2012

Why Eu Work-Family Reconciliation Policies Fail In Italy: A Feminist Legal Analysis, Chrystal Orozco

Master's Theses

Following the establishment of the European Parental Leave Directive (96/34/EC), the female employment rate in Italy is still ranked the third lowest in the European Union (EU) and Italian women continue to do twice as much household work as Italian men. Parents, especially women, struggle to find a balance between professional work and their family lives in a society that encourages the traditional gendered roles of the housewife and the breadwinner. The following study is a theoretical analysis of the Parental Leave Directive and the potential domestic influences that may prevent Italy from progressing socially towards gender equality ...


Between Facebook And Boas: Kichwa Indigenous Identity In Alto Napo And Challenges To Multiculturalism In Ecuador, Anna Maria Fernandez-Marti Dec 2012

Between Facebook And Boas: Kichwa Indigenous Identity In Alto Napo And Challenges To Multiculturalism In Ecuador, Anna Maria Fernandez-Marti

Master's Theses

This qualitative study examines contemporary Kichwa indigenous identity formation in the Alto Napo region of Ecuador through Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic capital. Following an extended-case method, I analyze the articulation of indigenousness (as an idealized expression of tradition) vis-à-vis the power relationships of the actors involved in such process. A combination between participant observation, daily field notes and twelve tape-recorded interviews during a two-month research allowed me to deconstruct essentialist portrayals and stereotypes of Kichwa indigenous peoples in Alto Napo, and confirm that their identity is hybrid, multiple and shifting. A comparative analysis between urban and rural social dynamics ...


Arizona’S Senate Bill 1070: A Case Study On State-Sponsored Immigration Policy, Ryan Murphy Dec 2012

Arizona’S Senate Bill 1070: A Case Study On State-Sponsored Immigration Policy, Ryan Murphy

Master's Theses

This study assesses the origins of Arizona’s state-sponsored immigration policy. It attempts to identify the social dynamics within Arizona that contributed to the overwhelming public support for SB 1070. Since it has been two years after the law was passed, this analysis determines what impact the law has had thus far within the state. Finally, it postulates the future of Arizona’s immigration policy.


The Odious Debt System, Andrew Hanauer Dec 2012

The Odious Debt System, Andrew Hanauer

Master's Theses

Over the past forty years, African countries have accumulated enormous quantities of external debt. Today, this debt is heavily burdensome; money spent on debt service is money that cannot be invested into infrastructure development, health, education, or other areas that might benefit the large number of Africans who live in poverty. Calls for debt forgiveness have led western institutions to forgive a portion of this debt, but have not addressed the question of whether or not this debt is legitimate in the first place.

Similarly, academic proposals for the classification and subsequent repudiation or forgiveness of so-called "odious debt" have ...


Dual Intransigence: An Assessment Of The Us-Iran Conflict And Prospects For Rapprochement, Chad Lama Dec 2012

Dual Intransigence: An Assessment Of The Us-Iran Conflict And Prospects For Rapprochement, Chad Lama

Master's Theses

In the months leading up to the 2012 Presidential Election, a number of Republican candidates that were vying for the nomination against the incumbent, Barack Obama, made sensational claims regarding the “Nuclear Iran Question”. This study discusses the issue of a nuclear Iran, what this means for regional stability, and what America’s options are in dealing with the Islamic Republic. Specifically the researcher addresses the consequences of a strike on Iran’s nuclear facilities, conducting a discourse analysis for the purposes of demonstrating the polarizing affect this issue has had on some of the leading scholars, theorists and practitioners ...


Promoting And Developing Oromummaa (Power Point), Asafa Jalata Dec 2012

Promoting And Developing Oromummaa (Power Point), Asafa Jalata

Sociology Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.