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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Story Of State Transformation In The Global South: Limited Statehood And Governance In Post-Syria Lebanon, Jodor Jalit Jun 2024

A Story Of State Transformation In The Global South: Limited Statehood And Governance In Post-Syria Lebanon, Jodor Jalit

Theses and Dissertations

This research thesis analyzes security governance in areas of limited statehood in the context of state transformation. Specifically, it examines the impact of the 2005 Syrian military withdrawal on the Lebanese state in the realm of security. Briefly, the thesis unveils the coexistence of state and non-state groups and the engagement of non-state actors in state-like practices. That is, it assesses the impact of the 2005 Syrian military withdrawal on the Lebanese state to reveal the relationship its new configuration, relationship with non-state actors, and emerging governance practices. In that sense, this thesis pretends to contribute to the larger body …


Scared To Give? A Look Into How Terrorism Affects The Flow Of Foreign Aid, Madelyn Jarjoura May 2024

Scared To Give? A Look Into How Terrorism Affects The Flow Of Foreign Aid, Madelyn Jarjoura

Honors Theses

This thesis examines the role of formal ties to terrorism and its effect on foreign aid

from donor countries considered either democratic or not. I hypothesize that as more seats are occupied in a recipient country’s government by a known terrorist organization, the less total aid democratic donor countries will send to that country (vice versa for non-democratic donors). However, with stronger ties to terrorism, the more aid democratic donors will bypass through NGOs (vice versa for non-democratic donors). To test this, I used Hezbollah’s seats in Lebanon’s Parliament from the years 1995 – 2021 as a case study for …


The Place Of Nuclear Weapons In Russian Identity: An Ontological Security Analysis, Peter Ernest Yeager Apr 2024

The Place Of Nuclear Weapons In Russian Identity: An Ontological Security Analysis, Peter Ernest Yeager

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

On May 9, 2008, Russia’s Victory Day, four 14-wheeled MAZ-7917s drove through Red Square carrying Topol intercontinental ballistic missiles. This was the first time nuclear weapons had been paraded through Moscow since before the end of the Cold War. The previous August, Russia had resumed nuclear-capable bomber patrols, and in January, 2007, President Putin acknowledged Russia had begun to build new nuclear weapons. These remarkable events were met with little acknowledgement in the West, as if they were completely normal. Instead, they represented a major evolution in the bilateral relationship between the United States and Russia. Sixteen years of fitful …


The Distributional Impacts Of Transportation Networks In China, Lin Ma, Yang Tang Mar 2024

The Distributional Impacts Of Transportation Networks In China, Lin Ma, Yang Tang

Research Collection School Of Economics

We document that the quality of roads and railroads vary substantially over time and space in China, and neglecting these variations biases the distributional impacts of transportation networks. To account for quality differences, we construct a new panel dataset and approximate quality using the design speed of roads and railroads that varies by vintage, class, and terrain at the pixel level. We then build a dynamic spatial general equilibrium model for multiple modes, transportation routes, and forward-looking migration decisions. Our findings demonstrate that disregarding quality differences leads to a median bias of approximately 31% in estimating real wage growth rates …


State Institutions In Northeast Thailand: Lao Ethnics And The Thai Identity, Jacob Ricks Mar 2024

State Institutions In Northeast Thailand: Lao Ethnics And The Thai Identity, Jacob Ricks

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

In this last chapter on state representation, we focus on a case where there has been an absence of demands. In Northeast Thailand, the large ethnic Lao population has not demanded cultural concessions from the state. In fact, not only have the demands been absent, but most people in the region see themselves as Thai (the broader national identity) or Isan (a moniker meaning “northeast”)—as opposed to ethnically Lao. The absence of the Lao identity has less to do with the absence of civic associations from the bottom up than with the absence of political representation from the top down. …


Migration And Resource Misallocation In China, Xiaolu Li, Lin Ma, Yang Tang Mar 2024

Migration And Resource Misallocation In China, Xiaolu Li, Lin Ma, Yang Tang

Research Collection School Of Economics

We structurally estimate the firm-level frictions across prefectures in China and quantify their aggregate and distributional implications. Based on a general equilibrium model with input and output distortions and migration, we show that the firm-level frictions are less dispersed and less correlated with firm productivity in richer prefectures. Counterfactual exercises show that reducing the within-prefecture misallocation increases aggregate welfare, discourages migration toward large prefectures, and reduces spatial inequality. Moreover, internal migration alleviates micro-frictions’ impacts on aggregate welfare and worsens their effects on spatial inequality.


Age And Ideology: The Emergence Of New Political Cleavages In Thailand’S 2566 (2023) Election, Napon Jatusripitak, Jacob Ricks Mar 2024

Age And Ideology: The Emergence Of New Political Cleavages In Thailand’S 2566 (2023) Election, Napon Jatusripitak, Jacob Ricks

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The Move Forward Party’s victory in Thailand’s 14 May 2566 (2023 CE) election surprised most observers, defying widespread predictions of a Pheu Thai win. Departing from traditional vote-mobilization strategies, Move Forward’s campaign focused largely on social media and broad calls for political reform while eschewing the vote-canvassing networks and economic policy promises that had delivered victory after victory for Pheu Thai. Does Move Forward’s win indicate changes in Thai voting behaviour? Relying on data from an original survey collected the week before and the week after the election, as well as observations from fieldwork, we identify two political cleavages that …


What Is Beyond Graduation For Mena Scholarship Alumni? Understanding The Global Journeys Of Tomorrow’S Leaders Scholarship Alumni, Albaraa Quradi Feb 2024

What Is Beyond Graduation For Mena Scholarship Alumni? Understanding The Global Journeys Of Tomorrow’S Leaders Scholarship Alumni, Albaraa Quradi

Theses and Dissertations

The research conducted by the author delves deeply into the migration experiences of students from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, with a specific focus on graduates of the Tomorrow's Leaders scholarship program. Through the use of a case study methodology, the study investigates the complex interconnections between migration, development, inequality, and the students' countries of origin.

The investigation critically analyzes the aftermath of pursuing higher education on a scholarship basis, shedding light on how migration experiences are intertwined with broader issues of development and inequality in the MENA region. Furthermore, the research examines the factors that drive …


Drawing The Line Of Scrimmage: Global Perspective Of Daily Fantasy Sports In The Advertising Space, Michael Sekich Feb 2024

Drawing The Line Of Scrimmage: Global Perspective Of Daily Fantasy Sports In The Advertising Space, Michael Sekich

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Budding Solutions: Weeding Out Obstacles To Bankruptcy Protections For Marijuana Ventures, Jessica Lowen Feb 2024

Budding Solutions: Weeding Out Obstacles To Bankruptcy Protections For Marijuana Ventures, Jessica Lowen

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Environmental, Social, And Governance (Esg) Reporting: Attempting To Bridge The Gap On Reporting Standards And The Need For Uniform Standards, Emilee Kula Feb 2024

Environmental, Social, And Governance (Esg) Reporting: Attempting To Bridge The Gap On Reporting Standards And The Need For Uniform Standards, Emilee Kula

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Data Privacy And China's “Super App” Wechat, Wan Li Feb 2024

Data Privacy And China's “Super App” Wechat, Wan Li

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


The Trips Trap Revisited, Roya Ghafele, Adam Chaddock Feb 2024

The Trips Trap Revisited, Roya Ghafele, Adam Chaddock

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Sovereignty As Responsibility With References To The Framework Of R2p, Tor Dahl-Eriksen Feb 2024

Sovereignty As Responsibility With References To The Framework Of R2p, Tor Dahl-Eriksen

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Foreword Feb 2024

Foreword

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents Feb 2024

Table Of Contents

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Dedication Feb 2024

Dedication

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Assessing The Dimensional Validity And Reliability Of The Critical Thinking Inventory (Cti) In The Kenyan Higher Education System: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Millicent A. Oyugi, Kristin Gibson, Alexa J. Lamm Feb 2024

Assessing The Dimensional Validity And Reliability Of The Critical Thinking Inventory (Cti) In The Kenyan Higher Education System: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Millicent A. Oyugi, Kristin Gibson, Alexa J. Lamm

Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education

The global importance of critical thinking in enhancing academic success, employability, civic engagement, and mental health is universally acknowledged. Yet, its cultivation in educational systems, particularly in Kenya, requires further attention. This gap is pronounced in Kenya's higher education, where more research is needed to develop and validate effective critical thinking assessment tools given the paradigm shift in its educational curricular. This study contributes to this need by evaluating the applicability of the Critical Thinking Inventory (CTI) model in Kenyan higher education. Using a convenience sample of 387 undergraduates from Egerton University, the study assessed the alignment between the CTI …


Predicting Sedentarism And Its Impact On Caloric Requirements, Jacob Michels, John C. Beghin Feb 2024

Predicting Sedentarism And Its Impact On Caloric Requirements, Jacob Michels, John C. Beghin

Yeutter Institute International Trade Policy Review

A recent study conducted by PhD candidate Jacob Michels and Agricultural economist John Beghin delves into the question of whether global estimates of food insecure populations need a reevaluation of their methodology to account for increasing sedentarism. This reevaluation is prompted by the increasing prevalence of sedentary lifestyles worldwide, which calls for a redefinition of caloric thresholds indicating the onset of food insecurity. In this short article, we provide a nontechnical summary of their investigation recently published in Michels and Beghin (2024).


“Genocide Of The Soviet People”: Putin’S Russia Waging Lawfare By Means Of History, 2018–2023, Anton Weiss-Wendt Feb 2024

“Genocide Of The Soviet People”: Putin’S Russia Waging Lawfare By Means Of History, 2018–2023, Anton Weiss-Wendt

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article exposes the political underpinnings of the term “genocide of the Soviet people,” introduced and actively promoted in Russia since 2019. By reclassifying mass crimes committed by the Nazis and their accomplices against the civilian population—specifically Slavic—as genocide, Russian courts effectively engage in adjudication of the history of the Second World War. In the process, genocide trials, ongoing in twenty-five Russian provinces and five occupied Ukrainian territories, present no new evidence or issue new indictments, thus fulfilling none of the objectives of a standard criminal investigation. The wording of the verdicts, and a comprehensive political project put in place …


A Pearl Ravaged: The Paradox Of Haiti And Its Socioeconomic Origins, Isabel Ishibe Exel Feb 2024

A Pearl Ravaged: The Paradox Of Haiti And Its Socioeconomic Origins, Isabel Ishibe Exel

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Saint-Domingue was once the most profitable colony of the Caribbean, the so-called pearl of the Antilles. Nowadays, Haiti is known for being the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, a dramatic shift that raises the question of the factors contributing to Haiti's current state, marked by persistent violence, natural disasters, and political instability. Various discourses have framed Haiti as a country doomed for failure. However, relying on binary concepts such as success and failure is counterproductive to a refined analysis. How, then, should we structure this conversation? My ultimate goal for this work is to provide a nuanced analysis of …


Containerization Of Seafarers In The International Shipping Industry: Contemporary Seamanship, Maritime Social Infrastructures, And Mobility Politics Of Global Logistics, Liang Wu Feb 2024

Containerization Of Seafarers In The International Shipping Industry: Contemporary Seamanship, Maritime Social Infrastructures, And Mobility Politics Of Global Logistics, Liang Wu

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation discusses the mobility politics of container shipping and argues that technological development, political-economic order, and social infrastructure co-produce one another. Containerization, the use of standardized containers to carry cargo across modes of transportation that is said to have revolutionized and globalized international trade since the late 1950s, has served to expand and extend the power of international coalitions of states and corporations to control the movements of commodities (shipments) and labor (seafarers). The advent and development of containerization was driven by a sociotechnical imaginary and international social contract of seamless shipping and cargo flows. In practice, this liberal, …


Data Sovereignty And Trade Agreements: Three Digital Kingdoms, Henry S. Gao Feb 2024

Data Sovereignty And Trade Agreements: Three Digital Kingdoms, Henry S. Gao

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

For centuries, international lawyers have wrestled with the relationship between national sovereignty and international law. This is also the case of international trade law, where the tension between trade liberalization and national sovereignty culminated in the famous “Great 1994 Sovereignty Debate” between the late Prof. John Jackson and other leading scholars when the WTO came into being. As we enter the digital age, the issue of sovereignty resurfaced once again in the form of data sovereignty. In this paper, I will examine provisions in trade agreements which deal with data sovereignty issues, such as restrictions on data flow such as …


Educational Assortative Mating And Motherhood Penalty In China, Cheng Cheng, Yang Zhou Feb 2024

Educational Assortative Mating And Motherhood Penalty In China, Cheng Cheng, Yang Zhou

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Mothers earn less than comparable childless women, and such motherhood penalty differs in magnitude by women’s socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Prior research, however, has rarely considered how the effect of parenthood on women’s income may also depend on the characteristics of their partners. Using data from the China Family Panel Studies 2010–2018, we examine how the effects of motherhood on women’s earnings and within-couple income inequality vary by couples’ educational pairings in China. A large educational gap between spouses–hypergamy or hypogamy–exacerbates the motherhood penalty on a woman’s individual income and her share of the couple’s combined income. However, when the …


Evaluating Farm Size Change As An Expression Of Preferential Alignment In The Corporate Food Regime, Rachael Carpenter Jan 2024

Evaluating Farm Size Change As An Expression Of Preferential Alignment In The Corporate Food Regime, Rachael Carpenter

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Food system awareness is increasingly prevalent in international development and relations. In particular, the impact of food systems on climate change, and the impact of climate change on the capacity of production form a feedback loop that has the potential to have a severe impact on the future. Whether this contribution will be positive or negative hangs in the balance, but the window of opportunity for forming and implementing such policies may be closing. In many ways, this understanding of food as a fundamental force in shaping the lives of people, particularly those who will be severely impacted and face …


Co-Designing An Institutional Repository In Kosovo: Soliciting Student Feedback In A Repository Launch, Michele Gibney Jan 2024

Co-Designing An Institutional Repository In Kosovo: Soliciting Student Feedback In A Repository Launch, Michele Gibney

University Libraries Librarian and Staff Articles and Papers

An institutional repository (IR) launched at the University for Business and Technology in Pristina, Kosovo in 2019. Students from 2018 and 2019 enrolled in an Information Systems course at the University provided ideas and feedback on the repository development. Their suggestions are captured here by focus group sessions held in mid-2019 in Kosovo and subsequently shared with University Administration and the IR platform company. This case study from the field advocates for continuous feedback from stakeholder groups and an expansion of the underlying data collection methods at other institutions.


Pro-Environmental Behaviour Of Two Norway's Mainstream Mass Media, Mohammad Farras Fauzi, Henny Saptatia Drajati Nugrahani Jan 2024

Pro-Environmental Behaviour Of Two Norway's Mainstream Mass Media, Mohammad Farras Fauzi, Henny Saptatia Drajati Nugrahani

Journal of Strategic and Global Studies

This research aims to analyze the critiques of mainstream mass media in Norway in response to the plastic waste issue in the Nordic region based on pro-environmental behaviour.. The study will also examine the constraints or challenges faced by mass media in Norway in their agenda to combat plastic waste. In this process, the research will identify the strengths and weaknesses of mass media in shaping perceptions and driving positive actions in plastic waste management. The study will also analyze how mass media engages stakeholders, including the government, non-governmental organizations, and industry, in efforts to combat plastic waste in Norway. …


Image Building On European Security By France Through Military Officer Education Programme, Helmy Ariansyah, Henny Saptatia Drajati Nugrahani Jan 2024

Image Building On European Security By France Through Military Officer Education Programme, Helmy Ariansyah, Henny Saptatia Drajati Nugrahani

Journal of Strategic and Global Studies

This study aims to explore image building activities carried out by France on European security through educational programs for military officers. In this education, military officers were envoys of various friendly countries of France. This military officers education is a forum where France can disseminate its national security vision and mission. France intension is to demonstrate its strong military traditions, as well as its solid doctrine and battle strategy in anticipation of regional and global threats. The programs offered by France in the education program are considered attractive to its partners. This study used participatory observation methods conducted to reconstruct …


The Role Of Mayors In Achieving Brunei Darussalam’S Wawasan 2035, Lessons From China, Brice Tseen Fu Lee, Ayidana Asihaer, Juan Pablo Sims Jan 2024

The Role Of Mayors In Achieving Brunei Darussalam’S Wawasan 2035, Lessons From China, Brice Tseen Fu Lee, Ayidana Asihaer, Juan Pablo Sims

Journal of Strategic and Global Studies

Brunei Darussalam's national vision, WAWASAN 2035, sets forth ambitious goals for the nation's development, emphasizing a centralized governance paradigm. However, the potential of decentralized governance, as exemplified by China's mayor-led districts, offers a compelling model for achieving national aspirations. This research explores the feasibility and potential benefits of introducing mayors in Brunei's districts, drawing insights from China's successful decentralized governance structure. By fostering inter-district competition and allowing for localized policy tailoring, Brunei can enhance its adaptability and responsiveness to local nuances. Drawing from China's experiences, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of how Brunei might optimize its governance structure to …


Role Of Fat Talk On The Relationships In The Bruneian Chinese Society, Shee Ping Khoo, Brice Tseen Fu Lee Jan 2024

Role Of Fat Talk On The Relationships In The Bruneian Chinese Society, Shee Ping Khoo, Brice Tseen Fu Lee

International Review of Humanities Studies

This research paper examines the role of “fat talk” in relationships in Bruneian Chinese society. “Fat talk” refers to negative comments about one's weight or body shape towards oneself or others. Using qualitative research methods, the study explores the perceptions and experiences of Bruneian Chinese individuals regarding “fat talk”, factors leading to the discussion of the topic, and its impact on their relationships with their peers. The findings suggest that while “fat talk” is prevalent in Bruneian Chinese society, it can have both positive and negative effects on relationships. The study aims to highlight the importance of addressing the “fat …