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University of Tennessee, Knoxville

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 204

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Assessing Motives For Consensual Sex: Development Of The Sexual Motives Questionnaire, Vanessa Tirone Dec 2014

Assessing Motives For Consensual Sex: Development Of The Sexual Motives Questionnaire, Vanessa Tirone

Doctoral Dissertations

The present study describes the development and preliminary validation of the Sexual Motives Questionnaire (SMQ), a measure of motives for consensual sex. The measure is informed two dispositional theories, functional theory and self-construal theories, which suggest that individuals are motivated to engage in behavior due to approach/avoidance and independent/interdependent tendencies, respectively. Items were also selected to reflect sexual scripts and fear of sexual and physical violence. A total of 81 items was administered to 920 undergraduates. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted utilizing the 821 participants with complete data. The final sample was predominately heterosexual (96%) and Caucasian (83 ...


Secular Change In Stature And Body Mass In Korea Over The Last Two Millennia, Yangseung Jeong Dec 2014

Secular Change In Stature And Body Mass In Korea Over The Last Two Millennia, Yangseung Jeong

Doctoral Dissertations

Body size of a population is influenced by its environmental conditions and thus reflects the standards of living experienced by individuals within a population. In this research, for the purpose of investigating the standards of living in the Korean societies for the past two millennia, the pattern of secular changes in stature and body mass of the Korean populations were examined using both anthropometric and osteometric data. In addition, because of the necessity of reconstructing body sizes from the skeletal remains, new Korean-specific equations for stature and body mass estimation were developed using the hybrid method.

The newly developed equations ...


Using Mindful Self-Compassion To Improve Self-Criticism, Self-Soothing, Cravings, And Relapse In Substance Abusers In An Intensive Outpatient Program, Sarah Elizabeth Gilbert Dec 2014

Using Mindful Self-Compassion To Improve Self-Criticism, Self-Soothing, Cravings, And Relapse In Substance Abusers In An Intensive Outpatient Program, Sarah Elizabeth Gilbert

Doctoral Dissertations

Applying mindfulness techniques to the treatment of substance use disorders is relatively new; however, initial studies show promising results (e.g. Bowen et al., 2009; Witkiewitz & Bowen, 2010). Similarly, treatment-seeking substance users may find benefits in treatments that increase levels of self-compassion, a construct that uses mindfulness and allows awareness of personal faults (e.g. relapses) without becoming paralyzed by shame. Instead, individuals who are compassionate toward their failures are more likely to take healthy steps to address them (Leary, Tate, Adams, Allen, & Hancock, 2007). This study added a brief self-compassion group treatment to an existing Intensive Outpatient Program (IOP) of substance users at a community mental health center to explore the potential benefits of increasing self-compassion in this population. Overall, 20 persons were recruited for participation in this study; 10 of those received the 5-session self-compassion group treatment and 10 were recruited for a treatment as usual control. Results found self-compassion to be related to decreased drug use, cravings, general psychological symptoms, and an increase in self-soothing behaviors. Additionally, all participants experienced a significant reduction in cravings, and those who participated in the self-compassion group therapy showed increased and maintained levels of self-compassion and self-soothing behaviors. Limitations and future directions are discussed.


Relationship Quality, Individual Wellbeing, And Gender – A Series Of Longitudinal Studies, Patricia Nola Eugene Roberson Dec 2014

Relationship Quality, Individual Wellbeing, And Gender – A Series Of Longitudinal Studies, Patricia Nola Eugene Roberson

Doctoral Dissertations

Using multiple theories, three studies examined the association between relationship quality, individual wellbeing (e.g., psychological distress), and gender across multiple time points. In Study 1 applied life course theory concepts (e.g., roles, role configurations, role trajectories) and second order latent class analyses were then conducted. Using four relationship role trajectories were identified from these analyses. Relationship role trajectories differed on wellbeing, wherein individuals in stable marriages with higher satisfaction consistently reported greater wellbeing (i.e., lower depression and higher life satisfaction).

Study 2 sought to determine the direction of the association between individual wellbeing and relationship quality. This ...


Measuring The Norm Of Reciprocity On Data Sharing Practices: A Carrot Or Stick Approach?, Crystal Pleake Sherline Dec 2014

Measuring The Norm Of Reciprocity On Data Sharing Practices: A Carrot Or Stick Approach?, Crystal Pleake Sherline

Doctoral Dissertations

Based on the theory of the Norm of Reciprocity (NOR), this study is focused on an individual’s data sharing behavior with respect to academic research by investigating their attitude towards data sharing and external funding. A measure was developed for data sharing, and the Adjusted Eisenberger Scale was attuned for measuring the Norm of Reciprocity. The measures were distributed by a random numbers generator to academic researchers at research intensive universities. The results show that NOR does not correlate with data sharing. There was also a negative correlation between scientists’ willingness to share data and external funding. The results ...


Dissociation And Sexual Trauma: The Moderating Role Of Somatization, Amineh Abbas Dec 2014

Dissociation And Sexual Trauma: The Moderating Role Of Somatization, Amineh Abbas

Doctoral Dissertations

This study examined various types of trauma, with an emphasis on sexual trauma across the lifespan, in a clinical sample of male and female adult outpatients assessed for trauma, somatization, and dissociation. Two hundred forty-five adult outpatients at the University of Tennessee Psychological Clinic were administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Traumatic Experiences Checklist (TEC), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), as part of the routine intake procedure. Of those individuals, 200 patients completed the questionnaires correctly and were included in the final study sample. The experience of sexual trauma indeed accounted for additional variance in somatization scores over and above ...


Describing The Cognitive Complexity Of Counselors-In-Training Enrolled In A Group Dynamics And Methods Course, John Lester Davison Dec 2014

Describing The Cognitive Complexity Of Counselors-In-Training Enrolled In A Group Dynamics And Methods Course, John Lester Davison

Doctoral Dissertations

Research supports the link between higher levels of cognitive complexity and counseling efficacy. Counselor educators, therefore, strive to promote higher levels of cognitive complexity in different areas of counselor preparation, such as individual counseling and multicultural training. Presently, the research literature lacks studies focused on cognitive complexity in group work training. To address this gap in the literature, this study used content analysis, a qualitative methodology to describe cognitive complexity of 10 counselors-in-training enrolled in a Group Dynamics and Methods course. Using Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy to analyze participants’ written reflection assignments, I found that participants demonstrated cognitive complexity primarily ...


From Foraging To Food Production On The Southern Cumberland Plateau Of Alabama And Tennessee, U.S.A., Stephen Byrnes Carmody Dec 2014

From Foraging To Food Production On The Southern Cumberland Plateau Of Alabama And Tennessee, U.S.A., Stephen Byrnes Carmody

Doctoral Dissertations

Research involving the origin of plant domestication remains as important today as ever. While early anthropologists viewed plant domestication as a necessary precondition for cultural development, more recent ethnographic studies have shown that agriculture was a much more labor intensive subsistence practice than hunting and gathering, leading many to question the reasons behind the prehistoric transition. Today, research and advances in technology have provided conclusive evidence to include the Eastern Woodlands of North America as one of the eight global centers of indigenous plant domestication. Although the timing of domestication and the plants involved in early horticultural systems are well ...


Bidirectional Associations Between Parenting Behavior And Child Callous-Unemotional Traits: Do Delinquent Peer Affiliations And/Or Parental Psychopathology Moderate These Links?, Amber Rochelle Wimsatt Dec 2014

Bidirectional Associations Between Parenting Behavior And Child Callous-Unemotional Traits: Do Delinquent Peer Affiliations And/Or Parental Psychopathology Moderate These Links?, Amber Rochelle Wimsatt

Doctoral Dissertations

The current study examined bidirectional associations between callous-unemotional (CU) traits and parenting dimensions and evaluated whether these associations changed as children aged. Furthermore, this study extended the literature by examining whether these relations were moderated by delinquent peer affiliation and/or parental depression. Proposed relations were examined using a longitudinal sample of 120 aggressive boys (59.6%) and girls (40.4%) who were in the 4th grade (M = 10.56 years, SD = .56) at baseline and were followed over four years. A series of generalized estimating equation [GEE] models revealed reciprocal relations between CU traits and corporal punishment. Consistent ...


How Technology Interacts With Emerging Adulthood Psychosocial Developmental Tasks: An Examination Of Online Self-Presentation And Cell Phone Usage, Samantha Lynn Gray Dec 2014

How Technology Interacts With Emerging Adulthood Psychosocial Developmental Tasks: An Examination Of Online Self-Presentation And Cell Phone Usage, Samantha Lynn Gray

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation outlines three distinct, yet interrelated, projects aimed at understanding the role of technology in relation to emerging adulthood developmental tasks: individuation & identity development. The first paper provides a context for understanding the developmental tasks of emerging adulthood, and the role that technology may serve in relation to those developmental tasks. This brief review of the literature on emerging adulthood developmental tasks provides a solid theoretical background and history for the theoretical premises proposed for the respective studies included in this dissertation. The second project is an empirical investigation that seeks to understand how the task of identity development ...


They Made Us Unrecognizable To Each Other: Human Rights, Truth, And Reconciliation In Canada, Jaymelee Jane Kim Dec 2014

They Made Us Unrecognizable To Each Other: Human Rights, Truth, And Reconciliation In Canada, Jaymelee Jane Kim

Doctoral Dissertations

Presented herein are the findings from an ethnographic analysis of the perceived efficacy of Canada’s transitional justice framework; an approach being used to address human rights violations that occurred via the Indian residential school system. With these findings and archival research, I argue that transitional justice is not perceived as an effective solution for nation-states with long histories of colonialism and institutional violence. From the 1840s until 1996, Canadian Aboriginals suffered forced assimilation, sexual abuse, and physical abuse in government-sponsored and church-administrated boarding schools. The Canadian government began to actively address these crimes in 2006 with the negotiation of ...


Effects Of Prenatal Stress And Poverty On Fetal Growth, Teresa Anne Lefmann Dec 2014

Effects Of Prenatal Stress And Poverty On Fetal Growth, Teresa Anne Lefmann

Doctoral Dissertations

Background. Prenatal stress has negative effects on the developing fetus through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Programming of the stress response system during gestation has lifelong effects that put the infant at risk for multiple stress-related pathologies. Populations most vulnerable to prenatal stress are African-Americans and individuals of low socioeconomic status.

Methods. The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) research project, a collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and individual state health departments, was utilized for this study. Tennessee data from 2009 were compiled from individual birth certificates and PRAMS questionnaire responses to examine three ...


Interest Groups, Political Party Control, Lobbying, And Science Funding: A Population Ecology Approach, Allyn Katherine Milojevich Dec 2014

Interest Groups, Political Party Control, Lobbying, And Science Funding: A Population Ecology Approach, Allyn Katherine Milojevich

Doctoral Dissertations

Science plays an increasingly important role in public policy in a range of issues from national security to public health. Thus, scientists will play an increasingly important role in society. This dissertation first examines how federal science funding changes with partisan control of key political institutions. Next, science-related interests groups, including their formation, specialization, and lobbying activities, are examined. Interest groups are a growing aspect of the American political system. However, they are an understudied aspect of political institutions. While much of their activity occurs within the legislative branch, they also work in the executive and judicial branches to advocate ...


Stress And Resilience: The Negative And Positive Aspects Of Being An Asian American Lesbian Or Bisexual Woman, Mi Ra Sung Dec 2014

Stress And Resilience: The Negative And Positive Aspects Of Being An Asian American Lesbian Or Bisexual Woman, Mi Ra Sung

Doctoral Dissertations

Despite the richness of the literature about minority stress and negative psychological outcomes and growing attention on lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB) people of color, few studies have examined the intersection of multiple identities of Asian American lesbian and bisexual women (AA LBW). Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide an understanding of the experiences of 50 AA LBW. More specifically, this study explored challenges, coping strategies, and positive aspects of being an AA LBW through the lens of intersectionality. Qualitative analyses revealed three overarching domains concerning day-to-day challenges faced by AA LBW: living as AA sexual minority women ...


Local Foods Purchasing In The Farmers' Market Channel: Value-Attitude-Behavior Theory, Christopher Thomas Sneed Dec 2014

Local Foods Purchasing In The Farmers' Market Channel: Value-Attitude-Behavior Theory, Christopher Thomas Sneed

Doctoral Dissertations

From farmers’ market booths to kitchen tables, demand for locally-produced foods has increased significantly over the last decade. Yet, despite increasing popularity of local foods, theoretically-based research of this topic has just begun.

This study fills this gap in literature and broadens the current research base by utilizing Value-Attitude-Behavior Theory to explore local foods purchasing in the farmers’ market channel. The impact of four values (food novelty, food safety, civic engagement, and environmental concern) on consumers’ attitudes regarding farmers’ market design perceptions, farmers’ market social perceptions, and local foods quality perceptions are examined. In turn, the impact of these attitudes ...


Planning For Communication Through Rehearsal Imagined Interactions, Martijn Jos Van Kelegom Dec 2014

Planning For Communication Through Rehearsal Imagined Interactions, Martijn Jos Van Kelegom

Doctoral Dissertations

Imagined interactions are mental representations of conversations with significant others. One function they may serve is as a rehearsal for an anticipated encounter. The process by which this rehearsal occurs is investigated using Dillard’s (1990) Goals-Plans-Action model and Berger’s (1997) Planning Theory of Communication. A causal model is proposed for the relationships between domain knowledge, use of retroactive imagined interactions, specificity, and discrepancy of the proactive imagined interaction. This model is tested using survey data (N = 210), and additional data were collected assessing characteristics of the anticipated conversations. Results and additional analyses suggest that rehearsal occurs in many ...


Relationships Among Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Forgiveness, Meaning In Life, And Spirituality In Survivors Of Intimate Partner Violence, Shannon Marie Rogers Dec 2014

Relationships Among Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Forgiveness, Meaning In Life, And Spirituality In Survivors Of Intimate Partner Violence, Shannon Marie Rogers

Doctoral Dissertations

One hundred twenty nine survivors of interpersonal violence completed a paper-and-pencil survey to evaluate depression, PTSD, forgiveness, meaning in life, and spirituality. Five self-report measures were completed including: the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, the PTSD Checklist – Stressor Specific version, the Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations Inventory, and the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. The majority of the participants were female and Caucasian. Significant correlations were found between PTSD and presence of meaning, as well as depression and both presence of and search for meaning. However, hierarchical multiple regressions results indicated that depression and the two meaning in life subscales contributed a ...


Exploring Coping Mediators Between Heterosexist Oppression And Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms Among Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Persons, Kyle M. Bandermann Dec 2014

Exploring Coping Mediators Between Heterosexist Oppression And Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms Among Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Persons, Kyle M. Bandermann

Doctoral Dissertations

Recently, scholars have begun to advocate that categories of traumatic events be expanded to include experiences that do not meet the traditional diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as oppression. Our study builds on this work by examining experiences with two kinds of heterosexist oppression, one that meets the traditional diagnostic criteria for PTSD (i.e., sexual orientation-based hate crime victimization) and one that does not (i.e., heterosexist discrimination), as predictors of PTSD symptoms in a sample of 427 gay, lesbian and bisexual persons who responded to an online survey. In addition, we examined the mediating roles ...


The Effects Of Sensory Integration On Short Term Memory In College Students, Chelsea B. Tolliver Dec 2014

The Effects Of Sensory Integration On Short Term Memory In College Students, Chelsea B. Tolliver

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


An Examination Of The Correlation Between Educational Attainment And Upward Economic Mobility Within And Without ‘High Tech Clusters’ In The Us In 2012, Hannah Cecilia Oakley Dec 2014

An Examination Of The Correlation Between Educational Attainment And Upward Economic Mobility Within And Without ‘High Tech Clusters’ In The Us In 2012, Hannah Cecilia Oakley

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Consumer Perceptions Of A Brand's Social Media Marketing, Taylor Michelle Smith Dec 2014

Consumer Perceptions Of A Brand's Social Media Marketing, Taylor Michelle Smith

Masters Theses

This project seeks to inform corporate marketing efforts, as well as add to the growing body of literature on social media marketing. The purpose of this project is to assess consumer perceptions of a brand’s social media marketing. Participants were obtained from the PetSafe® brand Facebook fan page, and a total of 195 respondents completed all measures and were included in the study. The results show that brands must be actively engaging their consumers via social media in order to compete in a competitive marketplace. Engagement can be promoted through entertaining and interactive posts, useful and relevant content, word ...


Tennessee Consumers’ Willingness To Pay For Beef Produced In Tennessee, Leah Moore Dobbs Dec 2014

Tennessee Consumers’ Willingness To Pay For Beef Produced In Tennessee, Leah Moore Dobbs

Masters Theses

Little is known about Tennessee consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for beef produced in the state or about the type of outlet where they would expect to purchase Tennessee beef. Tennessee beef cattle production and sales decision making can be guided by the willingness to pay of consumers, demographics profiles of those willing to pay a premium for Tennessee beef, and outlet choice for purchasing local beef. A telephone (land-line and wireless) survey of major metropolitan areas in Tennessee was conducted in 2013 to collect data from a total of 1,209 respondents. This data is used in probit models ...


Adult Attachment, Emotional Intelligence, And Resilience As Correlates Of Social Engagement, Academic Engagement, And Confidence Of Persistence In College Students, Yacob Tewolde Tekie Dec 2014

Adult Attachment, Emotional Intelligence, And Resilience As Correlates Of Social Engagement, Academic Engagement, And Confidence Of Persistence In College Students, Yacob Tewolde Tekie

Masters Theses

The current study investigated freshmen university students (N = 210) to examine the role of attachment style (anxiety, avoidance), emotional intelligence (repair, attention, clarity) and resilience in predicting student adaptation to college (academic, social, personal and academic engagement). Four multiple regression analyses were conducted for each subscale of adaptation to college. The results indicated that; a) emotional intelligence (attention, clarity) and resilience significantly predicted student academic adjustment; b) emotional inelligence (repair) predicted student social adjustment; c) emotional inteligence (clarity), resilience, and adult attachment (anxiety) significantly predicted student personal adjustment; and d) emotional intelligence (repair, clarity) and resilience, significantly predicted student academic ...


My Lips Are Sealed: Whistle-Blowing As A Function Of Collective And Interpersonal Connections To Social Groups, Amy Kathleen Heger Dec 2014

My Lips Are Sealed: Whistle-Blowing As A Function Of Collective And Interpersonal Connections To Social Groups, Amy Kathleen Heger

Masters Theses

Persons experience attachment to groups because they (a) share those aspects (characteristics, goals, values) that define the group and/or (b) have close relationships with the group members. Two studies examined whether such collective and interpersonal connections affect whistle-blowing (reporting ingroup wrongdoing). We hypothesized that collective connection would promote whistle-blowing via concern for the group’s welfare and interpersonal connection would inhibit whistle-blowing via fear of lost relationships. In Study 1 (N =127) participants listed up to eight ingroups and, for each, rated their collective connection, interpersonal connection, and likelihood of whistle-blowing. In Study 2, participants (N =153) were prompted ...


Municipal E-News: Issue 66: December 2014, Mtas Dec 2014

Municipal E-News: Issue 66: December 2014, Mtas

Municipal E-News

The “Municipal E-News” was created by MTAS in 2009 as part of our continuing efforts to meet our mission of providing timely, valuable information and assistance to Tennessee cities.


Social Support In An Internet-Based Weight Loss Intervention Among College Students, Yijia Zhang Dec 2014

Social Support In An Internet-Based Weight Loss Intervention Among College Students, Yijia Zhang

Masters Theses

Objective: To assess college students’ perceptions regarding online social support in an 8-week Internet-based weight loss intervention.

Participants: Participants were those randomized to the intervention group of an online weight loss intervention targeting overweight and obese college students.

Methods: Members of the intervention group had access to a private discussion forum and weekly live chat sessions, allowing for anonymous interactions. Following the 8-week intervention, intervention group members were invited to complete an online focus group, discussing these tools. The transcripts were directly copied from the live chat conversation history. Using thematic analysis, perceptions regarding online social support were identified, coded ...


An Analysis Of Methodological Differences In Longitudinal Studies Of Infant Manual Preference, Sabrina Lynn Thurman Dec 2014

An Analysis Of Methodological Differences In Longitudinal Studies Of Infant Manual Preference, Sabrina Lynn Thurman

Masters Theses

Studies on infant manual laterality can be very similar in terms of the goals of the research, but they often show wide variability in several aspects of methodological approaches. This can be problematic when researchers directly compare findings from studies that employ different methodologies. The most common methodological inconsistencies are how many trials are utilized, which behaviors are observed, and how bilateral behaviors are addressed in computations. Here we aim to address whether methodological differences can lead to dissimilar conclusions about patterns in infant manual behaviors like laterality and coupling for three versus eight trials, reach versus grasp actions, and ...


The Role Of Leader Communication Patterns, Lmx, And Interactional Justice In Employee Emotional Exhaustion And Outcomes, Ashley Danae Nelson Dec 2014

The Role Of Leader Communication Patterns, Lmx, And Interactional Justice In Employee Emotional Exhaustion And Outcomes, Ashley Danae Nelson

Masters Theses

Employee burnout contributes to employees’ job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and organizational commitment and it can also cause a variety of serious health issues. Evidence has linked leaders’ transactional and transformational communication patterns, quality of leader-member exchange (LMX), and employees’ perception of justice, and each can affect employee burnout. However, very few researchers have studied the relationships among these variables. This paper provides an overview of the research on the various relationships between transformational and transactional leadership, LMX quality, and interactional justice, and explores how these factors influence employee burnout. Following the literature review, a proposed model of employees’ perceived leader ...


Dendrogeomorphic Analysis Of Debris Slides On Mt. Le Conte, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, U.S.A., Maegen Lee Rochner Dec 2014

Dendrogeomorphic Analysis Of Debris Slides On Mt. Le Conte, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, U.S.A., Maegen Lee Rochner

Masters Theses

Research conducted during the past 30 years tested the use of tree rings to date mass movement events in the mountain areas of Europe and the western and southwestern United States, but few studies have been performed in the eastern U.S., where debris flows, landslides, and rock falls in the Appalachian Mountains pose a common threat to human life and property. One area of particular interest is Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). For this study, I tested mature red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees located on or near a debris slide boundary on Mt. Le Conte (LC01) in ...


Integrating Social Media In The Development Of A Special Event Population Dynamics Model, Kelly Michelle Sims Dec 2014

Integrating Social Media In The Development Of A Special Event Population Dynamics Model, Kelly Michelle Sims

Masters Theses

With society’s increasing participation in social media, scientists now have access to new sources of data that reflect our daily activities in space and in time. Such data are plentiful and, more notably, at an unprecedented granular level. The ability for users to capture and express their geolocation through their phones’ global positioning system (GPS) or through a particular location’s hashtag or Facebook Page provides a great opportunity for modeling spatiotemporal population dynamics. High resolution population models and databases for episodic special events can be extremely useful for enhancing emergency management and response. This research assesses the feasibility ...