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Full-Text Articles in Physics

High-Temperature Phase Transitions In Rbh2po4, Heber Jair Martinez Jan 2009

High-Temperature Phase Transitions In Rbh2po4, Heber Jair Martinez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Recent studies have shown that the proton conductivity of MH2PO4 (M=Cs, Rb) solid-acids exhibits a sharp, several-order-of-magnitude increase upon heating above a certain temperature threshold [Boysen et al., Chem. Mater. 15, 727(2003), Boysen et al., Chem. Mater. 16, 693(2004)]. This so-called superprotonic behavior allows the above-mentioned compounds to function as fuel-cell electrolytes at intermediate temperatures [Boysen et al., Science 303, 68(2004)], a remarkable application that has attracted much interest. Yet, the crystal structures and microscopic mechanisms responsible for this heating-induced proton conductivity enhancement are not fully understood.

Our group has previously demonstrated [Botez et al., J ...


Computational Modeling Studies Of The Structures And Properties Of Organotin(Iv) And Stannyl-Thioether Systems With Comparisons To X-Ray Crystallography, Michelle R. Stem Joseph Jan 2009

Computational Modeling Studies Of The Structures And Properties Of Organotin(Iv) And Stannyl-Thioether Systems With Comparisons To X-Ray Crystallography, Michelle R. Stem Joseph

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Controlling the toxic effects of organotin(IV) compounds involves engineering the structure of the molecules to optimize their properties. Molecular engineering, coupled with improved capabilities to generate reliable computational optimization models (COMs), will enable researchers to have greater success at harnessing the highly specific cytotoxicity of organotins. For example, as the thion ligand phenyl groups were replaced with Cl atoms, the S-Sn intramolecularity was strengthened, the bond distance decreased, and the stannyl tetrahedral structure was deformed from its triphenyl conformation. With each substitution, conformation deformations lowered the damaging bioactivity levels of thion. Bonding various ligands to organotin(IV ...


Studies Of Prompt Gamma And Neutron Yield Due To 2.5 Mev Neutrons Using Geant4, Jesus Felipe Tovar Jan 2009

Studies Of Prompt Gamma And Neutron Yield Due To 2.5 Mev Neutrons Using Geant4, Jesus Felipe Tovar

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In the present work the software GEANT4, a particle transport toolkit based on the Monte Carlo method, developed mostly by CERN, but also by other institutions and universities. GEANT4 is here used to simulate the dispersive effects that 2.5 MeV neutrons undergo after interacting with different elements. This study has the main interest of identifying spectral signatures, that is the type and number of particles yielded after neutron bombardment of special nuclear material under various shielding conditions. Shielding is composed of various attenuating materials with simple geometrical configurations, that can evolve into more intricate geometries through Boolean operations, enclosing ...


Experimental Study Of The Response Of Semiconductor Detectors For Edxrf Analysis., Sunil Kumar Valaparla Jan 2009

Experimental Study Of The Response Of Semiconductor Detectors For Edxrf Analysis., Sunil Kumar Valaparla

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

This present work relates to the study and characterization of the response function of an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer. The problems of energy, efficiency and resolution calibration of the system operating in the energy (5-60 keV) range are discussed. We present the operation characteristics of the portable pyro-electric x-ray generator (COOL-X) and the application of the calibrated response spectrum in the elemental analysis using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF).

We study the response of the Si(Li)-Pin XR-100CR semiconductor detector to low energy photons. The photopeak efficiency was determined experimentally by using radioisotopes and compared against a theoretical efficiency curve. The efficiency ...


Pressure Induced Phase Transformation Of Sno2: An Ab Initio Constant Pressure Study, Daniel Tesfai Yehdego Jan 2009

Pressure Induced Phase Transformation Of Sno2: An Ab Initio Constant Pressure Study, Daniel Tesfai Yehdego

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The behavior of SnO2 under rapid hydrostatic pressures is studied using constant-pressure ab initio simulations. The rutile-type SnO2 gradually transforms into the CaCl2-type structure at 15 GPa. At a pressure of about 20 GPa, a phase transformation into a cubic fluorite-type structure is observed. The orthorhombic Pnma cotunnite-structured phase is observed above 150 GPa. The mechanisms of these phase transformations at the atomistic level are discussed.


Observed Superspin-Glass Behavior In Ni0.5zn0.5fe2o4 Nanoparticles, Antony Adair Jan 2009

Observed Superspin-Glass Behavior In Ni0.5zn0.5fe2o4 Nanoparticles, Antony Adair

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In this investigation we seek to identify the magnetic behavior of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles though AC-susceptibility and DC-magnetization measurements. Powder x-ray diffraction was performed to determine the purity and average diameter ( ~ 9nm) of the particles. Aditionally, structure was confirmed by comparison through the International Centre for Diffraction Data's Powder Diffraction File [52] (PDF # 08-0234).

Zero-field cooled and field cooled DC magnetization measurements (bifurcation and blocking temperature), as well as M(H) hysteresis (below and above the blocking temperature) lead us to initially suggest that the material may in fact be superparamagnetic. However, further investigation of the real AC ...


Electroweak Scale Neutrinos, Enrique Diaz-Mendez Jan 2009

Electroweak Scale Neutrinos, Enrique Diaz-Mendez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

We study a model of neutrino mass generation at the Electroweak scale (EW), where Lepton number is broken by the vacuum expectation value of a Standard Model singlet complex scalar field. No energy scales higher than the EW scale are introduced in the model and neutrinos can still get their tiny masses through the general seesaw mechanism. The neutrino Yukawa couplings need not be more suppressed than that of the electron. As part of our results we present the branching ratios of the possible Higgs decays, which should be detectable at near future colliders.


The Problem Of Time In Quantum Mechanics, Crisol J. Escobedo Jan 2009

The Problem Of Time In Quantum Mechanics, Crisol J. Escobedo

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of my Thesis is to gain a better understanding of the nature of time and the problems associated with time. For example, I aim to explore the problem associated with the energy-time uncertainty relation due to the lack of a universal operator for time. Using Jan Hilgevoord's work, I will explore the idea that if a measure of time is to be obtained in quantum mechanics, then time has to be a property of physical systems that can only be measured in relation to other systems. As such, time cannot be independent of physical systems. This implies ...