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Graduate Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Van Der Waals Epitaxy Of Ultrathin Early Transition Metal (Ti & V) (Di)Selenides: Charge And Magnetic Order In The Ultrathin Limit, Manuel Bonilla Lopez Jun 2020

Van Der Waals Epitaxy Of Ultrathin Early Transition Metal (Ti & V) (Di)Selenides: Charge And Magnetic Order In The Ultrathin Limit, Manuel Bonilla Lopez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since the isolation of graphene in 2004, two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, specially the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), have attracted immense interest from theoreticians and experimentalist due to the diversity of properties presented in this family of materials. The main reason for the interest in such materials has been the observation of emergent properties as a consequence of the reduced dimensions, i.e. the monolayer regime. Initially the monolayer regime was obtained via the scotch-tape method. The implementation of exfoliation techniques was successful since layered 2D materials are composed of stacked layers held together by weak van der Walls forces that ...


Investigation Into Reduced Thermal Conductivity For Half-Heusler Alloys And Identification Of Novel Multinary Chalcogenides Possessing Intrinsically Low Thermal Conductivity, Dean Hobbis Jun 2020

Investigation Into Reduced Thermal Conductivity For Half-Heusler Alloys And Identification Of Novel Multinary Chalcogenides Possessing Intrinsically Low Thermal Conductivity, Dean Hobbis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The current climate makes the need for sustainable energy production a priority, leading to keen interest towards the advancement of “green” energy sources and technology. This necessity has led to a multidisciplinary scientific approach with collaborations across various fields that are looking to solve this extremely important problem. One such technology is thermoelectric devices, which are attractive due to the fact that they provide direct solid-state conversion of heat to electrical power, and vice versa. This in turn allows for both waste heat recovery and sustainable refrigeration. One key aspect that is preventing the wide scale commercial use of thermoelectric ...


Measuring And Utilizing High-Dimensional Information Of Optical Fields, Ziyi Zhu Nov 2019

Measuring And Utilizing High-Dimensional Information Of Optical Fields, Ziyi Zhu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Currently, many areas of optical techniques including imaging, inspection and communication emphasize the utilization of the high-dimensional information encoded in optical fields. There is also a requirement for novel measurement techniques to extract this high-dimensional information with high-speed and accuracy. We firstly introduce a scan-free direct measurement technique that is capable of simultaneously characterizing the amplitude and phase of a coherent scalar optical field. Our direct measurement approach is constituted of a weak polarization perturbation which is followed by the recording of a polarization-resolving imaging process. The weak perturbation rotates the linear polarization on the spatial frequency domain of the ...


Modulations Of Lipid Membranes Caused By Antimicrobial Agents And Helix 0 Of Endophilin, Nawal Kishore Khadka Jul 2019

Modulations Of Lipid Membranes Caused By Antimicrobial Agents And Helix 0 Of Endophilin, Nawal Kishore Khadka

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the cellular membrane interaction with membrane active biomolecules and antimicrobial agents provides an insight in their working mechanism. Here, we studied the effect of antimicrobial agents; a recently developed peptidomimetics E107-3 and colistin as well as the N-terminal helix H0, of Endophilin A1 on the lipid bilayer.

It is important to discern the interaction mechanism of antimicrobial peptides with lipid membranes in battling multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens. We study the modification of structural and mechanical properties with a recently reported peptidomimetic on lipid bilayer. The compound referred to as E107-3 is synthesized based on the acylated reduced amide scaffold ...


Phase Evolution And Dynamic Behavior In Materials With Noncollinear Spin Textures, Eleanor M. Clements Apr 2019

Phase Evolution And Dynamic Behavior In Materials With Noncollinear Spin Textures, Eleanor M. Clements

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Noncentrosymmetric magnetic materials have gained special attention due to their ability to stabilize topologically nontrivial magnetic states via the competition between symmetric exchange and the antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. The spin struc- tures in these materials have become a center of interest for spintronics applications due to their stable, particle-like properties, and high degree of tunability via control of external parameters, such as magnetic and/or electric field and temperature. Understanding how these robust magnetic structures stabilize, evolve, dynamically respond, and adhere to existing models, all in the presence of external stimuli, are topics of fundamental interest. In this dissertation ...


Water And Salt At The Lipid-Solvent Interface, James M. Kruczek Apr 2019

Water And Salt At The Lipid-Solvent Interface, James M. Kruczek

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lipid bilayers are important biological structures. The changes in bilayer properties are induced by the composition of the bilayer as well as the solvent. In this work, we study the effects of different molecular makeups of lipids and ionic solvents with molecular dynamics simulations to determine their effect on the bilayer interface. In particular, we look at how different carbon chain bindings affect water viscosity at the interface and allow for a less permeable bilayer. Additionally, we examine the changes to the bilayer due to the presence of the most biologically relevant salt ions. Lastly, we show how the pharmacological ...


Exploring Variations In Diet And Migration From Late Antiquity To The Early Medieval Period In The Veneto, Italy: A Biochemical Analysis, Ashley B. Maxwell Apr 2019

Exploring Variations In Diet And Migration From Late Antiquity To The Early Medieval Period In The Veneto, Italy: A Biochemical Analysis, Ashley B. Maxwell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This project tests the hypothesis that the Langobard migration into the Roman/Byzantine Veneto (northeastern Italy) resulted in significant dietary changes from Late Antiquity (4-5th centuries AD) to the Early Medieval period (6-8th centuries AD). At the end of the Great Germanic Migrations in AD 568, Langobards from Pannonia entered and occupied two-thirds of the Italian peninsula. It is unclear how large these migrations were, as historical documents exaggerate mass movements; however, conservative estimates suggest they made up 8% of the areas they occupied. The degree to which the Langobards influenced economic change and subsistence in this area is poorly ...


Estimating Coastal Water Turbidity Using Viirs Nighttime Measurement, Chih-Wei Huang Mar 2019

Estimating Coastal Water Turbidity Using Viirs Nighttime Measurement, Chih-Wei Huang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Coastal water turbidity is a key environmental factor that influences the relative clarity of the water, which therefore reduces sunlight penetration. The comprehensive spatial and temporal coverage of remote sensing allows mapping of water turbidity near the coast. Even in locations where time-consuming and expensive conventional turbidity monitoring programs exist, local technological limitations prevent complete coverage. Traditional optical satellite techniques using the visible band also have limitations in monitoring turbidity due to non-optimal observing conditions such as clouds, sun-glint, and thick aerosols. In this study, in order to complement the daytime satellite measurements, I used the data from Visible Infrared ...


Tip-Enhanced Nano-Optical Imaging Of Superacid Treated Bilayer Mos2-Ws2 2d Lateral Heterostructures, Amala Dixit Mar 2019

Tip-Enhanced Nano-Optical Imaging Of Superacid Treated Bilayer Mos2-Ws2 2d Lateral Heterostructures, Amala Dixit

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nanoscale optical characterization of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures is important for the design of novel optoelectronic flexible nano-devices. Nano-optical photoluminescence (PL) and Raman imaging of bilayer 2D materials has been a challenging problem due to weak signals. The exciton-dominated light emission of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) materials is affected by the formation of defects and doping states. Previous studies have shown that chemical treatment modifies the defect and doping states of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown monolayers of MoS2 and WS2, which provides a promising possibility for engineering the optoelectronic properties of these 2D TMDCs ...


Investigation Of The Photophysical Properties Of Energy-Relevant Inorganic Nanocrystals, Brett Boote Jan 2019

Investigation Of The Photophysical Properties Of Energy-Relevant Inorganic Nanocrystals, Brett Boote

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Environmental concerns over use of fossil fuels to generate power and the finite supply of these resources have driven major efforts for alternative energies. At the same time, the development of nanotechnology has blossomed to propose strategies and materials for renewable and less energy-intensive end-user devices, such as solar cells and LED lighting. Two examples of promising candidates for energy applications are germanium-based nanocrystals and lead halide perovskite nanocrystals.

Germanium-based materials have limited absorption efficiency due to their indirect band gap. To address this, germanium-tin alloy nanocrystals were synthesized to promote direct band gap character. A full characterization demonstrated tin ...


Search For The High Transverse Momentum Higgs Boson Produced In Association With A Vector Boson And Decaying To A Pair Of B-Quarks Using The Center-Of-Mass Tagger With The Atlas Detector, Carlos Miguel Vergel Infante Jan 2019

Search For The High Transverse Momentum Higgs Boson Produced In Association With A Vector Boson And Decaying To A Pair Of B-Quarks Using The Center-Of-Mass Tagger With The Atlas Detector, Carlos Miguel Vergel Infante

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A search for high transverse momentum Higgs bosons decaying into a b-pair when produced in association with a W or a Z boson is performed with the ATLAS detector at CERN. Three processes are reported: Z(vv)H, W(lv)H, and Z(ll)H. Data was collected in proton-proton collisions during the full Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with a corresponding integrated luminosity of 139/fb. A novel Higgs tagger, called Center-of-Mass (CoM) frame, was used instead of the default ATLAS Higgs tagger Variable-Radius (VR) given the better signal efficiency ...


Oleds: Light Extraction And Deep Blue Emission, Chamika Manoj Dulanja Hippola Jan 2019

Oleds: Light Extraction And Deep Blue Emission, Chamika Manoj Dulanja Hippola

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

OLEDs have emerged in the market over the last decade mainly in display applications due to their unique and attractive properties, such as lightweight, high brightness with strong color contrast, thin and flexible designs as well as potentially of low cost. OLEDs for lighting applications are under extensive research and development. Though promising for solid-state lighting, there are critical aspects that need to be addressed to increase their efficiency, which will lead to commercialization.

One major issue is the ~20% OLEDs’ limited forward outcoupling efficiency. This is due to several loss processes. More specifically, light generated in the emissive layer ...


Development Of Nanophotonic Biosensor Platform Towards On-Chip Liquid Biopsy, Yifei Wang Jan 2019

Development Of Nanophotonic Biosensor Platform Towards On-Chip Liquid Biopsy, Yifei Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Liquid biopsy has the potential to enable diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of some diseases at an early stage using body fluids from patients. This minimally invasive, label-free detection method is less likely to harm the cell’s viability through binding to the surface protein. Smart integration of liquid biopsy designs with microfluidics on a single chip will lead to a considerable reduction in the detection time (due to controlled diffusion length), and the volumes of sample, agent and reagent, and the limit of detection.

Optical label-free biosensors are a powerful tool to analyze biomolecular interactions and have been widely studied ...


Baryons In A Light Front Approach, Anji Yu Jan 2019

Baryons In A Light Front Approach, Anji Yu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We present a model for baryons based on three constituent quarks using light-front holography together with basis light-front quantization (BLFQ). The work is generalized from the method which originally developed for meson systems using a constituent quark and an antiquark. We construct an effective 3-body Hamiltonian, which consists of a transverse confining interaction based on the Ads/QCD soft-wall model, and a longitudinal confining interaction which was first applied to mesons. We employ this model for the proton by calculating its form factor F1(q2). The results are compared with experimental measurements and other theoretical methods. We develop generalized Jacobi ...


Thermally Stable, Efficient, Vapor-Deposited Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells, Harshavardhan Ashok Gaonkar Jan 2019

Thermally Stable, Efficient, Vapor-Deposited Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells, Harshavardhan Ashok Gaonkar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Perovskite solar cells have garnered a great deal of attention in the solar cell research community. Their attractive optical and electronic properties—such as their high absorption coefficient, long diffusion lengths, low defect densities, and low exciton binding energies—make perovskites an excellent choice for photovoltaics. The fact that their optical and electronic properties can be tuned through changing the perovskite composition provides researchers with a vast playing field.

The meteoric rise of the power conversion efficiencies of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, from 3.8% to 23.6% in less than a decade of research, has attracted huge interest from the ...


Non-Perturbative Applications Of Quantum Chromodynamics, Meijian Li Jan 2019

Non-Perturbative Applications Of Quantum Chromodynamics, Meijian Li

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We investigate quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in the non-perturbative regime with the light-front Hamiltonian formalism. Our explorations are from two aspects, the hadron bound states and the high energy scatterings.

We first study the heavy quarkonia system within the basis light-front quantization approach. We review solving the heavy quarkonium system in the valence Fock sector with effective Hamiltonian, and discuss how one could extend the framework to higher Fock space. We then study the properties of heavy quarkonia through electromagnetic processes, via elastic form factors, radiative transitions and decay constants. We investigate the effect of different current components, different magnetic projections ...


Symmetry Reduction In K − P Problems, Benjamin Sheller Jan 2019

Symmetry Reduction In K − P Problems, Benjamin Sheller

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

$K-P$ problems are a class of geometric optimal control problems on finite-dimensional real semisimple Lie groups which arise, for example, in the control of quantum systems when the Lie group is $SU(n)$. In these problems, the sub-Riemannian distribution corresponds to the $\p$-part of a Cartan decomposition (also known as the $-1$ eigenspace of a Cartan involution), and these systems are totally controllable. However, finding a particular optimal trajectory can be in general a computationally difficult problem, and from an analytic perspective, the Lie groups are sufficiently complicated to make finding such objects as the cut locus difficult. $K-P ...


Tuning Of Layered Materials: Studies Of Craute4, Pdsn4 And Wte2, Na Hyun Jo Jan 2019

Tuning Of Layered Materials: Studies Of Craute4, Pdsn4 And Wte2, Na Hyun Jo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Layered materials are of great and growing interest for material scientists and condensed matter physicists, not only because of their possible applications but also because of the diverse and controllable ground states. In addition, tuning of layered materials through external fields, doping, or strain can lead to the emergence of novel phenomena. In this dissertation, the importance of the study of layered materials is emphasized in Chapter 1. Before getting into experimental results, the theoretical background and experimental methods, including growth of single crystals of selected layered materials, are introduced in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. Chapters 4, 5 and ...


Intense Terahertz Light-Quantum Quench And Control Of Superconductivity, Xu Yang Jan 2019

Intense Terahertz Light-Quantum Quench And Control Of Superconductivity, Xu Yang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis summarizes my PhD work on intense Terahertz (THz) light-quantum quench and control of superconductivity. BCS superconductor Nb3Sn and iron based superconductor Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 are studied by intense THz/optical pump/-weak THz probe ultrafast spectroscopy. I design and develop the experiment setup that reaches the strongest THz pump reported so far in similar tabletop congurations. Single cycle THz pulses up to MV/cm peak E eld open up a new regime to explore the quantum dynamics and emergent phase in condensed matter system, including superconducting (SC) condensate, topological Dirac fermions, exciton phase transition, quantum coherence in perovskite ...


Nuclear Properties With Effective Operators, Robert A. M. Basili Jan 2019

Nuclear Properties With Effective Operators, Robert A. M. Basili

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Recent developments in theoretical Nuclear Physics offer new effective tools that improve the predictive power of modern low-energy Nuclear Structure. Specifically, the high-quality results achievable with ab initio methods allow us to test our knowledge of the strong interaction and to quantify the uncertainty in that knowledge. We review the progress and challenges of Nuclear Structure up to the present and perform uncertainty studies for several modern methods being developed to improve current solutions to the nuclear many-body problem. The ab initio No-Core Shell Model (NCSM) approach is employed throughout this study, though much of the discussion relate to other ...


Advances In Ab Initio Approaches To Nuclear Structure, Reaction And Nucleonic Dynamics, Weijie Du Jan 2019

Advances In Ab Initio Approaches To Nuclear Structure, Reaction And Nucleonic Dynamics, Weijie Du

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We calculate effective Hamiltonians and effective electroweak operators with the Okubo-Lee-Suzuki formalism for two-nucleon systems. Working within a harmonic oscillator basis, first without and then with a confining harmonic oscillator trap, we demonstrate the effects of renormalization on observables calculated for truncated basis spaces. We illustrate the renormalization effects for the root-mean-square point-proton radius, electric quadrupole moment, magnetic dipole moment, Gamow-Teller transition and neutrinoless double-beta decay operator using nucleon-nucleon interactions from chiral effective field theory. Renormalization effects tend to be larger in the weaker traps and smaller basis spaces suggesting applications to heavier nuclei with transitions dominated by weakly-bound nucleons ...


Physical Electronic Properties Of Self-Assembled 2d And 3d Surface Mounted Metal-Organic Frameworks, Radwan Elzein Nov 2018

Physical Electronic Properties Of Self-Assembled 2d And 3d Surface Mounted Metal-Organic Frameworks, Radwan Elzein

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Metal-organic frameworks stand at the frontiers of molecular electronic research because they combine desirable physical properties of organic and inorganic components. They are crystalline porous solids constructed by inorganic nodes coordinated to organic ligands to form 1D, 2D, or 3D structures. They possess unique characteristics such as ultrahigh surface area crystal lattices up to 10000 m2 g-1, and tunable nanoporous sizes ranging from 0.2 to 50 nm. Their unprecedented structural diversity and flexibility beyond solid state materials can lead to unique properties such as tailorable electronic and ionic conductivity which can serve as interesting platforms for a ...


A Fundamental Investigation Into Low Thermal Conductivity P-Type Chalcogenides And Skutterudites With Potential Thermoelectric Applications, Dean Hobbis Sep 2018

A Fundamental Investigation Into Low Thermal Conductivity P-Type Chalcogenides And Skutterudites With Potential Thermoelectric Applications, Dean Hobbis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sustainable and renewable energy is an incredibly important area in today’s society and investigation into avenues to improve this wide ranging technology are underway in many different fields. Thermoelectric devices possess the ability for the direct solid-state interconversion of heat and electrical power, which not only allows for sustainable refrigeration but also waste heat recovery. One current restriction on the efficiency of thermoelectric devices is the disparity in thermoelectric performance of p-type and n-type materials. Furthermore, a key physical attribute shared by the majority of high performing thermoelectric materials is low thermal conductivity. Thus in this thesis three separate ...


The Effect Of Processing Conditions On The Energetic Diagram Of Cdte Thin Films Studied By Photoluminescence, Shamara P. Collins Jul 2018

The Effect Of Processing Conditions On The Energetic Diagram Of Cdte Thin Films Studied By Photoluminescence, Shamara P. Collins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The photovoltaic properties of CdTe-based thin films depend on recombination levels formed in the CdTe layer and at the heterojunction. The localized states are resultant of structural defects (metal sublattice, chalcogen sublattice, interstitial), controlled doping, deposition process, and/or post-deposition annealing. The photoluminescence study of CdTe thin films, from both the bulk and heterojunction, can reveal radiative states due to different defects or impurities. Identification of defects allows for potential explanation of their roles and influence on solar cell performance. A thorough understanding of the material properties responsible for solar cell performance is critical in further advancing the efficiency of ...


Towards Fundamental Understanding Of Thermoelectric Properties In Novel Materials Using First Principles Simulations, Artem R. Khabibullin Jun 2018

Towards Fundamental Understanding Of Thermoelectric Properties In Novel Materials Using First Principles Simulations, Artem R. Khabibullin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Thermoelectric materials play an important role in energy conversion as they represent environmentally safe and solid state devices with a great potential towards enhancing their efficiency. The ability to generate electric power in a reliable way without using non-renewable resources motivates many experimentalists as well as computational physicists to search and design new thermoelectric materials. Several classes of materials have been identified as good candidates for high efficient thermoelectrics because of their inherently low thermal conductivity. The complex study of the crystal and electronic structures of such materials helps to reveal hidden properties and give fundamental understanding, necessary for the ...


Surface And Interface Effects Of Magnetoimpedance Materials At High Frequency, Tatiana M. Eggers Jun 2018

Surface And Interface Effects Of Magnetoimpedance Materials At High Frequency, Tatiana M. Eggers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Amorphous and nanocrystalline transition metal magnetic alloys (TMMAs) have been the subjects of fundamental and applied study due to their unique structure. The lack of long-range order in these materials sets the stage for their soft magnetic properties to be tuned for a variety of technological applications, such as sensitive magnetic field sensors, high frequency transformers, and stress sensors. Fundamental investigation of the magnetic and structural properties of these materials is also motivated by their unique amorphous or nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous matrix morphology, which has consequences on both the magnetism seen from both the atomic and macro-scale. The surfaces of these ...


The Association Of Size Variation In The Dental Arch To Third Molar Agenesis For A Modern Population, Devin N. Williams Apr 2018

The Association Of Size Variation In The Dental Arch To Third Molar Agenesis For A Modern Population, Devin N. Williams

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The frequency with which individuals do not develop their third molars, or wisdom teeth, is increasing worldwide. This current topic of human evolution is relevant to the research of anthropologists, geneticists, dentists, and other researchers involved in the study of human dentition. Many explanations have been offered to account for the prevalence of molar agenesis including, evolutionary, environmental, and genetic theories. The purpose of this research project is to determine the frequency of third molar agenesis and investigate the relationship between third molar agenesis and maxillomandibular jaw dimensions in a sample of orthodontic patients. This research tests the hypotheses that ...


Characterization Of Computed Tomography Radiomic Features Using Texture Phantoms, Muhammad Shafiq Ul Hassan Apr 2018

Characterization Of Computed Tomography Radiomic Features Using Texture Phantoms, Muhammad Shafiq Ul Hassan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Radiomics treats images as quantitative data and promises to improve cancer prediction in radiology and therapy response assessment in radiation oncology. However, there are a number of fundamental problems that need to be solved in order to potentially apply radiomic features in clinic. The first basic step in computed tomography (CT) radiomic analysis is the acquisition of images using selectable image acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Radiomic features have shown large variability due to variation of these parameters. Therefore, it is important to develop methods to address these variability issues in radiomic features due to each CT parameter. To this end ...


Coarse-Grained Modeling Studies Of Polymeric And Granular Systems, Hong Trung Nguyen Apr 2018

Coarse-Grained Modeling Studies Of Polymeric And Granular Systems, Hong Trung Nguyen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This Dissertation is devoted to computational study of the solidification, dynamics and mechanics of model semiflexible polymers with variable chain flexibility as well as a computational investigation of the clogging phenomena observed in granular materials.

Chain stiffness is an intrinsic factor that governs single-chain flexibility. It plays a critical role in the physics of polymeric materials. In this work, we employ a coarse-grained polymer model in which chain stiffness can be tuned by a single parameter (bending stiffness kb) that yields chain shape ranging from coil-like to rod-like in the flexible and very stiff limit respectively. In chapter 2, we ...


Computational Discovery Of Energetic Polynitrogen Compounds At High Pressure, Brad A. Steele Apr 2018

Computational Discovery Of Energetic Polynitrogen Compounds At High Pressure, Brad A. Steele

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

High-nitrogen-content energetic compounds containing multiple N-N bonds are an attractive alternative towards developing new generation of environmentally friendly, and more powerful energetic materials. High-N content translates into much higher heat of formation resulting in much larger energy output, detonation pressure and velocity upon conversion to large amounts of non-toxic, strongly bonded N2 gas. This thesis describes recent advances in the computational discovery of group-I alkali and hydrogen polynitrogen materials at high pressures using powerful first-principles evolutionary crystal structure prediction methods. This is highlighted by the discovery of a new family of materials that consist of long-sought after all-nitrogen N􀀀 5 ...