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Electronic Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Physics

450degree C Aln Thin Film Growth On Nitrided C-Plane Sapphire Substrates, Roger Eastman Feeley May 2019

450degree C Aln Thin Film Growth On Nitrided C-Plane Sapphire Substrates, Roger Eastman Feeley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Low temperature (LT) growth of strongly textured AlN by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has not been extensively investigated. The low mobility of Al adatoms provides a challenge for growth of AlN at low temperatures (<600 >°C). Consequently, AlN growth by MBE is typically at temperatures >700 °C. Growth at these temperatures can limit the selection of substrates and materials to grow with the AlN. Highly oriented, LT AlN thin films (<50 >nm) were grown on c-­‐plane sapphire, using an interrupted growth procedure. Films were grown by periodically interrupting the Al flux with a nitridation. This two-­‐step cycle was repeated until ...


Using Question Variations To Access Alternate Student Thinking About The Same Physical Situations, Jeffrey Mathis Hawkins May 2019

Using Question Variations To Access Alternate Student Thinking About The Same Physical Situations, Jeffrey Mathis Hawkins

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Assessing students’ understanding of physics is a critical element for improving physics education. This dissertation presents and demonstrates a method to better assess student understanding of physics by varying the types of questions asked of students. The method presented herein, which is based on the Specific Difficulties and Resources frameworks, involves modifying the task students are asked to complete when analyzing the physics of a particular physical situation. Creating question variations that ask students to address a particular correct or incorrect outcome of the physical situation, eliminate an incorrect outcome, or justify a correct outcome provided to them can provide ...


Lithium Molybdate-Sulfur Battery., Ruchira Ravinath Dharmasena May 2019

Lithium Molybdate-Sulfur Battery., Ruchira Ravinath Dharmasena

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rechargeable energy storage systems play a vital role in today’s automobile industry with the emergence of electric vehicles (EVs). In order to meet the targets set by the department of energy (DOE), there is an immediate need of new battery chemistries with higher energy density than the current Li- ion technology. Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries have attracted enormous attention in the energy-storage, due to their high specific energy density of 2600 Wh kg-1 and operational voltage of 2.0 V. Despite the promising electrochemical characteristics, Li-S batteries suffer from serious technical challenges such as dissolution of polysulfides ...


A Study On Radiative Pion Capture As A Source Of Background In The Search For Muon To Electron Conversion At The Mu2e Experiment., Joseph Leibson May 2019

A Study On Radiative Pion Capture As A Source Of Background In The Search For Muon To Electron Conversion At The Mu2e Experiment., Joseph Leibson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The following thesis will cover the process of radiative pion capture in the Mu2e experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Radiative pion capture (RPC) is a process that is able to mimic the signal of an electron spawned from the neutrino-less conversion of a muon. In this paper we will discuss the current Standard Model accepted by physicists, and discuss charged lepton flavor violation, which is the motivation behind Mu2e. This paper will cover the theory behind Mu2e and RPC, as well as the apparatus involved in the Mu2e experiment. Next, software and simulations used to carry out the RPC ...


Light Matter Interaction In Single Molecule Magnets, Rebecca Cebulka May 2019

Light Matter Interaction In Single Molecule Magnets, Rebecca Cebulka

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation includes a series of experimental realizations which focus on studying the coupling between photons and single-molecule magnets (SMMs) in both the weak and strong coupling regimes. In the weak coupling regime, the aim is to achieve coherent control over the time evolution of the spin of SMMs while applying rapid microwave pulses at sub-Kelvin temperatures, where polarization of the spin bath may be achieved without large magnetic fields, allowing the suppression of dipolar dephasing. The continuing results of this experiment will be to provide a window into fundamental sources of decoherence in single-crystal SMMs in an energy range ...


2d Materials Based Heterostructures : A Lithography Free Method., Adel Alruqi May 2019

2d Materials Based Heterostructures : A Lithography Free Method., Adel Alruqi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many properties of Two-dimensional (2D) materials are vastly different from those of their 3D counterparts. A large family of 2D materials ranging from gapless graphene to metallic NbSe2 (also superconducting), semiconducting MoS2, and insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) possessing a broad range of exciting new properties have emerged in recent years. Moreover, 2D materials provide the perfect platform to create laterally and vertically stacked heterostructures with intriguing properties. The physics of 2D materials based heterostructures is extremely interesting and novel 2D-heterostructured devices including tunneling diodes, tunneling transistors, photovoltaic cells, and light-emitting diodes have started to emerge. In this work, we ...


A Theoretical Investigation Of Small Organic Molecules On Transition Metal Surfaces, Walter Malone May 2019

A Theoretical Investigation Of Small Organic Molecules On Transition Metal Surfaces, Walter Malone

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With the ever growing number of proposed desnity functional theory (DFT) functionals it becomes necessary to thoroughly screen any new method to determine its merit. Especially relevant methods include a proper description of the van der Waals (vdW) interaction, which can prove vital to a correct description of a myriad of systems of technological importance. The first part of this dissertation explores the utility of several vdW-inclusive DFT functionals including optB86b-vdW, optB88-vdW, optPBE-vdW, revPBE-vdW, rPW86-vdW2, and SCAN+rVV10 by applying them to model systems of small organic molecules, pyridine and thiophene, on transition metal surfaces. Overall, we find the optB88-vdW ...


Chemistry And Dissipation At Mineral Surfaces In The Space Environment, William Tucker May 2019

Chemistry And Dissipation At Mineral Surfaces In The Space Environment, William Tucker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The composition and morphology of mineral surfaces is known to play an important role in various phenomena relevant to planetary science. For example, the synthesis and processing of complex organics likely occurs at mineral surfaces strongly affected by the space environment. Furthermore, the dissipative and adhesive properties of dust grains may depend strongly on the chemical state of the surface including the presence of dangling bonds, adsorbates, and radicals. In this dissertation, experimental results are first presented which demonstrate that mineral grains subjected to high temperatures in a reducing environment lead to iron nanoparticles which are strongly catalytic for the ...


Holographic Optical Elements For Visible Light Applications In Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass, Fedor Kompan Jan 2019

Holographic Optical Elements For Visible Light Applications In Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass, Fedor Kompan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation reports on design and fabrication of various optical elements in Photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass. An ability to produce complex holographic optical elements (HOEs) for the visible spectral region appears very beneficial for variety of applications, however, it is limited due to photosensitivity of the glass confined within the UV region. First two parts of this dissertation present two independent approaches to the problem of holographic recording using visible radiation. The first method involves modification of the original PTR glass rendering it photosensitive to radiation in the visible spectral region and, thus, making possible the recording of holograms in PTR ...


Real-Time Automated Weld Quality Analysis From Ultrasonic B-Scan Using Deep Learning, Zarreen Naowal Reza Jan 2019

Real-Time Automated Weld Quality Analysis From Ultrasonic B-Scan Using Deep Learning, Zarreen Naowal Reza

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Resistance spot welding is a widely used process for joining metals using electrically generated heat or Joule heating. It is one of the most commonly used techniques in automotive industry to weld sheet metals in order to form a car body. Although, industrial robots are used as automated spot welders in massive scale in the industries, the weld quality inspection process still requires human involvement to decide if a weld should be passed as acceptable or not. Not only it is a tedious and error- prone job, but also it costs industries lots of time and money. Therefore, making this ...


Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities For Integrated Microwave Photonics Applications, Marcin Malinowski Jan 2019

Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities For Integrated Microwave Photonics Applications, Marcin Malinowski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The field of integrated photonics aims at compressing large and environmentally-sensitive optical systems to micron-sized circuits that can be mass-produced through existing semiconductor fabrication facilities. The integration of optical components on single chips is pivotal to the realization of miniature systems with high degree of complexity. Such novel photonic chips find abundant applications in optical communication, spectroscopy and signal processing. This work concentrates on harnessing nonlinear phenomena to this avail. The first part of this dissertation discusses, both from component and system level, the development of a frequency comb source with a semiconductor mode-locked laser at its heart. New nonlinear ...


High Performance Liquid Crystal Devices For Augmented Reality And Virtual Reality, Md Javed Rouf Talukder Jan 2019

High Performance Liquid Crystal Devices For Augmented Reality And Virtual Reality, Md Javed Rouf Talukder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

See-through augmented reality and virtual reality displays are emerging due to their widespread applications in education, engineering design, medical, retail, transportation, automotive, aerospace, gaming, and entertainment. For augmented reality and virtual reality displays, high-resolution density, high luminance, fast response time and high ambient contrast ratio are critically needed. High-resolution density helps eliminate the screen-door effect, high luminance and fast response time enable low duty ratio operation, which plays a key role for suppressing image blurs. A dimmer placed in front of AR display helps to control the incident background light, which in turn improves the image contrast. In this dissertation ...


Asteroid Surfaces: The Importance Of Cohesive Forces, Keanna Jardine Jan 2019

Asteroid Surfaces: The Importance Of Cohesive Forces, Keanna Jardine

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Adhesive forces play a significant role on airless bodies due to their weak gravities. Investigating adhesion at the surface of asteroids and their constituent components is vital to understanding their formation and evolution. Previous research has been done to understand the interaction of micron-sized spheres to planar surfaces and sphere-to-sphere interactions, which have been used to develop models of asteroid surfaces. Our investigation experimentally investigates adhesion through atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements between JSC-1 simulant particles and several AFM tips, including a typical pyramidal gold tip and microspheres of sizes 2 μm and 15 μm. The samples of JSC-1 consist ...


Fundamental Properties Of Metallic Nanolasers, William Hayenga Jan 2019

Fundamental Properties Of Metallic Nanolasers, William Hayenga

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The last two decades have witnessed tremendous advancements in the area of nanophotonics and plasmonics, which has helped propel the development of integrated photonic sources. Of central importance to such circuits is compact, scalable, low threshold, and efficient coherent sources that can be driven at high modulation frequencies. In this regard, metallic nanolasers offer a unique platform. Their introduction has enabled confinement of light at a subwavelength scale and the ultra-small size of the modes afforded by these structures allows for cavity enhancing effects that can help facilitate thresholdless lasing and large direct modulation bandwidths. In this report, I present ...


Broadband Mid-Infrared Frequency Combs Generated Via Frequency Division, Qitian Ru Jan 2019

Broadband Mid-Infrared Frequency Combs Generated Via Frequency Division, Qitian Ru

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Frequency combs have revolutionized metrology and demonstrated numerous applications in science and technology. Combs operating in the mid-infrared region could be beneficial for molecular spectroscopy for several reasons. First, numerous molecules have their spectroscopic signatures in this region. Furthermore, the atmospheric window (3-5μm and 8-14μm) is located here. Additionally, a mid-infrared frequency comb could be employed as a diagnostic tool for the many components of human breath, as well as for detection of harmful gases and contaminants in the atmosphere. In this thesis, I used synchronously pumped subharmonic optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) operating at degeneracy to produce ultra-broadband outputs near ...


Coupling Of Light's Orbital Angular Momentum To A Quantum Dot Ensemble, Alaa A. Bahamran Jan 2019

Coupling Of Light's Orbital Angular Momentum To A Quantum Dot Ensemble, Alaa A. Bahamran

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We theoretically and experimentally investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum from light to an ensemble of semiconductor-based nanostructures composed of lead sulfide quantum dots. Using an ensemble of quantum dots offers a higher cross-section and more absorption of twisted light fields compared to experimentally challenging single-nanostructure measurements. However, each quantum dot (except for on-center) sees a displaced light beam parallel to its own axis of symmetry. The transition matrix elements for the light-matter interaction are calculated by expressing the displaced light beam in terms of the appropriate light field centered on the nanoparticles. The resulting transition rate induced by ...


Quantitative Aspects Of Interface Remodeling During Germband Extension, Timothy E. Vanderleest Jan 2019

Quantitative Aspects Of Interface Remodeling During Germband Extension, Timothy E. Vanderleest

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Oriented cell intercalation is an essential developmental process that shapes tissue morphologies through the directional insertion of cells between their neighbors. Intercalary behaviors in the early Drosophila embryo occur through a remodeling of cell topologies, with cells contracting shared AP interfaces to a single point, followed by newly juxtaposed DV cells constructing horizontally-oriented interfaces between them. Previous research has focused on properties of cell-cell interfaces, and led to a model in which actomyosin networks mediate higher line tensions at AP interfaces to direct contraction. However, the contribution of tricellular vertices to tissue elongation remains unclear. This study shows that cell ...


A Study Of Several Applications Of Parallel Computing In The Sciences Using Petsc, Nicholas Stegmeier Jan 2019

A Study Of Several Applications Of Parallel Computing In The Sciences Using Petsc, Nicholas Stegmeier

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The importance of computing in the natural sciences continues to grow as scientists strive to analyze complex phenomena. The dynamics of turbulence, astrophysics simulations, and climate change are just a few examples where computing is critical. These problems are computationally intractable on all computing platforms except supercomputers, necessitating the continued development of efficient algorithms and methodologies in parallel computing. This thesis investigates the use of parallel computing and mathematical modeling in the natural sciences through several applications, namely computational fluid dynamics for impinging jets in mechanical engineering, simulation of biofilms in an aqueous environment in mathematical biology, and the solution ...


Application Of Silicon Nanohair Textured P-N Junctions In A Photovoltaic Device, Michael Small Dec 2018

Application Of Silicon Nanohair Textured P-N Junctions In A Photovoltaic Device, Michael Small

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this project is to design and develop a fabrication process for a silicon photovoltaic device which incorporates a nanohair textured p-n junction. The silicon nanowires are etched into a silicon wafer, comprising an epitaxial p-layer on n-substrate, via metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE). The resulting nanowires contain p-n junctions that lie along the length of the vertical nanowires. This construct has the potential to increase the optical bandwidth of a silicon photovoltaic device by allowing a greater amount of short wavelength light to reach the junction. In addition, the MACE method of nanofabrication has the potential for decreasing ...


Innate Immunity, The Hepatic Extracellular Matrix, And Liver Injury: Mathematical Modeling Of Metastatic Potential And Tumor Development In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Shanice V. Hudson Dec 2018

Innate Immunity, The Hepatic Extracellular Matrix, And Liver Injury: Mathematical Modeling Of Metastatic Potential And Tumor Development In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Shanice V. Hudson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The overarching goals of the current work are to fill key gaps in the current understanding of alcohol consumption and the risk of metastasis to the liver. Considering the evidence this research group has compiled confirming that the hepatic matrisome responds dynamically to injury, an altered extracellular matrix (ECM) profile appears to be a key feature of pre-fibrotic inflammatory injury in the liver. This group has demonstrated that the hepatic ECM responds dynamically to alcohol exposure, in particular, sensitizing the liver to LPS-induced inflammatory damage. Although the study of alcohol in its role as a contributing factor to oncogenesis and ...


Three-Dimensional Bedrock Channel Evolution With Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, Nick Richmond Dec 2018

Three-Dimensional Bedrock Channel Evolution With Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, Nick Richmond

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bedrock channels are responsible for balancing and communicating tectonic and climatic signals across landscapes, but it is difficult and dangerous to observe and measure the flows responsible for removing weakly-attached blocks of bedrock from the channel boundary. Consequently, quantitative descriptions of the dynamics of bedrock removal are scarce. Detailed numerical simulation of violent flows in three dimensions has been historically challenging due to technological limitations, but advances in computational fluid dynamics aided by high-performance computing have made it practical to generate approximate solutions to the governing equations of fluid dynamics. From these numerical solutions we gain detailed knowledge of the ...


Computational Prediction, Characterization, And Methodology Development For Two-Dimensional Nanostructures: Phosphorene And Phosphide Binary Compounds., Congyan Zhang Dec 2018

Computational Prediction, Characterization, And Methodology Development For Two-Dimensional Nanostructures: Phosphorene And Phosphide Binary Compounds., Congyan Zhang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, a comprehensive computational simulation was carried out for predicting, characterizing, and applications of two-dimensional (2D) materials. The newly discovered GaP and InP layers were selected as an example to demonstrate how to explore new 2D materials using computational simulations. The performance of phosphorene as the anode material of Lithium-ion battery was discussed as the example of the application of 2D material. Furthermore, the semi-empirical Hamiltonian for phosphorous and lithium elements have been developed for our future work on the application of phosphorus and lithium-based systems. The novel 2D materials of GaP and InP binary compounds were found ...


Structure And Thermodynamics Of Polyglutamine Peptides And Amyloid Fibrils Via Metadynamics And Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Riley Workman Aug 2018

Structure And Thermodynamics Of Polyglutamine Peptides And Amyloid Fibrils Via Metadynamics And Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Riley Workman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Aggregation of polyglutamine (polyQ)-rich polypeptides in neurons is a marker for nine neurodegenerative diseases. The molecular process responsible for the formation of polyQ fibrils is not well understood and represents a growing area of study. To enable development of treatments that could interfere with aggregation of polyQ peptides, it is crucial to understand the molecular mechanisms by which polyQ peptides aggregate into fibrils. Many experimental techniques have been employed to probe polyQ aggregation, however, observations from these studies have not lead to a unified understanding of the properties of these systems, instead yielding competing, fragmented theories of polyQ aggregation ...


Plasma Based Synthesis And Surface Modification Of Graphene., Rong Zhao Aug 2018

Plasma Based Synthesis And Surface Modification Of Graphene., Rong Zhao

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Graphene, an atom thick layer of carbon, has attracted intense scientific interest due to its exceptional electrical, mechanical and chemical properties. Especially, it provides a perfect platform to explore the unique electronic properties in absolute two-dimension. Pristine graphene possesses zero band gap and weakens its competitiveness in the field of semiconductors. In order to induce a band gap and control its semiconducting properties, functionalization and doping are two of the most feasible methods. In the context of functionalization, large area monolayer graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition was subjected to controlled and sequential fluorination using radio frequency plasma while monitoring ...


High Dynamic Range Optical Devices And Applications., Elijah Robert Jensen Aug 2018

High Dynamic Range Optical Devices And Applications., Elijah Robert Jensen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Much of what we know about fundamental physical law and the universe derives from observations and measurements using optical methods. The passive use of the electromagnetic spectrum can be the best way of studying physical phenomenon in general with minimal disturbance of the system in the process. While for many applications ambient visible light is sufficient, light outside of the visible range may convey more information. The signals of interest are also often a small fraction of the background, and their changes occur on time scales so quickly that they are visually imperceptible. This thesis reports techniques and technologies developed ...


Developing A Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy Experiment For Solid State Materials, Daniel Hammerland Aug 2018

Developing A Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy Experiment For Solid State Materials, Daniel Hammerland

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) is a ultrafast spectroscopy technique first implemented by chemists to understand isomerization and other ultrafast molecular morphology changes by resolving vibrational dynamics[1, 2, 3]. FSRS has an unparalleled temporal and spectral resolution [4, 1, 5, 6] that arises as a result of a clever combination of picosecond and femtosecond pulses. However, despite this capability, FSRS has yet to be applied to modern materials in condensed matter physics. This thesis explores the design and implementation of FSRS to study two-dimensional materials in order to measure their quantum confined vibrational dynamics on utlrafast time scales.


Investigating Student Understanding Of Vector Calculus In Upper-Division Electricity And Magnetism: Construction And Determination Of Differential Element In Non-Cartesian Coordinate Systems, Benjamin Schermerhorn May 2018

Investigating Student Understanding Of Vector Calculus In Upper-Division Electricity And Magnetism: Construction And Determination Of Differential Element In Non-Cartesian Coordinate Systems, Benjamin Schermerhorn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Differential length, area, and volume elements appear ubiquitously over the course of upper-division electricity and magnetism (E&M), used to sum the effects of or determine expressions for electric or magnetic fields. Given the plethora of tasks with spherical and cylindrical symmetry, non-Cartesian coordinates are commonly used, which include scaling factors as coefficients for the differential terms to account for the curvature of space. Furthermore, the application to vector fields means differential lengths and areas are vector quantities. So far, little of the education research in E&M has explored student understanding and construction of the non-Cartesian differential elements used in applications of vector calculus. This study contributes to the research base on the learning and teaching of these quantities.

Following course observations of junior-level E&M, targeted investigations were conducted to categorize student understanding of the properties of these differentials as they are constructed in a coordinate system without a physics context and as they are determined within common physics tasks. In general, students did not have a strong understanding of the geometry of non-Cartesian coordinate systems. However, students who were able to construct differential area and volume elements as a product of differential lengths within a given coordinate system were more successful when applying vector calculus. The results of this study were used to develop preliminary instructional resources to aid in the teaching of this material.

Lastly, this dissertation presents a theoretical model developed within the context of this study to describe students’ construction and interpretation of equations. The model joins existing theoretical frameworks: symbolic forms, used to describe students’ representational understanding of the structure of the constructed equation; and conceptual blending, which has been used to describe the ways in which students combine mathematics and physics knowledge when problem solving. In addition to providing a coherent picture for how the students in this study connect contextual information to symbolic representations, this model is broadly applicable as an analytical lens and allows for a detailed reinterpretation of similar analyses using these frameworks.


Microwave Acoustic Saw Resonators For Stable High-Temperature Harsh-Environment Static And Dynamic Strain Sensing Applications, Anin K. Maskay May 2018

Microwave Acoustic Saw Resonators For Stable High-Temperature Harsh-Environment Static And Dynamic Strain Sensing Applications, Anin K. Maskay

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

High-temperature, harsh-environment static and dynamic strain sensors are needed for industrial process monitoring and control, fault detection, structural health monitoring in power plant environments, steel and refractory material manufacturing, aerospace, and defense applications. Sensor operation in the aforementioned extreme environments require robust devices capable of sustaining the targeted high temperatures, while maintaining a stable sensor response. Current technologies face challenges regarding device or system size, complexity, operational temperature, or stability.

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor technology using high temperature capable piezoelectric substrates and thin film technology has favorable properties such as robustness; miniature size; capability of mass production; reduced installation ...


Surface Reaction And Diffusion Kinetics In Semiconducting Metal Oxide Film Gas Sensors, Aravind Reghu May 2018

Surface Reaction And Diffusion Kinetics In Semiconducting Metal Oxide Film Gas Sensors, Aravind Reghu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chemiresistive metal oxide gas sensors based on materials such as SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2, have been investigated extensively by many researchers for a wide range of applications. The band bending model, based on the surface chemistry of highly reactive ionosorbed species (O2- or O-) and the semiconducting material properties of SnO2, TiO2 and ZnO, adequately predicts the dependence of the change in sensor conductivity (Δσ) as a function of target gas pressure and temperature. However, the band bending model is not applicable to gas sensors based on reducible oxides such as WO3, MoO3 ...


Echoes Of The Past: The Effect Of Background Experience On Far Transfer, Graham H. Hummel-Hall May 2018

Echoes Of The Past: The Effect Of Background Experience On Far Transfer, Graham H. Hummel-Hall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Far transfer is the application of knowledge learned in one setting to a problem in a very different setting. This multi-method study looked at far transfer in humans and whether it could be facilitated, inhibited, or remain unaffected by the number of courses or years a student at a university spent learning about the subject matter of the knowledge being transferred. Through quantitative and qualitative analysis of pretest and post-test data from an introductory undergraduate earth science course, I found that students with more physical science background experience more frequently engaged in successful and accurate transfer of physics information to ...