Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of New Orleans

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 180

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Detection Of Whale Acoustic Signals In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico Ladc-Gemm Database, Yingxue Gao Dec 2019

Detection Of Whale Acoustic Signals In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico Ladc-Gemm Database, Yingxue Gao

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Low-pass Fourier filter, wavelet filter, as well as matched filter detection methods were used to detect baleen whale signals in northern Gulf of Mexico data collected by the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) consortium. Some potential low frequency signals appeared on the matched filter output figure. The shape of the signals is in line with one of the typical signal shapes of fin whales--vertical down-sweeps with 18s-time interval. Another shape of the signals is in line with one of the call type shapes of Bryde's whales--down-sweeps with 7s-time interval. A high-pass Fourier filter was also used to find toothed ...


Exact Feedback Linearization Of Systems With State-Space Modulation And Demodulation, Nikolaos I. Xiros Deng May 2019

Exact Feedback Linearization Of Systems With State-Space Modulation And Demodulation, Nikolaos I. Xiros Deng

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The control theory of nonlinear systems has been receiving increasing attention in recent years, both for its technical importance as well as for its impact in various fields of application. In several key areas, such as aerospace, chemical and petrochemical industries, bioengineering, and robotics, a new practical application for this tool appears every day. System nonlinearity is characterized when at least one component or subsystem is nonlinear. Classical methods used in the study of linear systems, particularly superposition, are not usually applied to the nonlinear systems. It is necessary to use other methods to study the control of these systems ...


Magnetization Dynamics In Coupled Thin Film Systems, Daniel J. Adams May 2019

Magnetization Dynamics In Coupled Thin Film Systems, Daniel J. Adams

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

A study is presented detailing experimental investigations of magnetization dynamics in nanostructured systems which are coupled magnetically. This work seeks to characterize the anisotropy of such systems through experimental techniques which probe microwave resonant absorption in the materials.

A custom-built experimental setup, designed and assembled in our labs, is explained in detail. This setup allows for angular-dependent ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements in the sample plane through vector network analyzer spectroscopy and is adaptable to two different types of coplanar waveguides. This technique has proven effective for characterization of multiple types of magnetic systems, including multilayered structures as detailed here, with ...


Three Dimensional Passive Localization For Single Path Arrival With Unknown Starting Conditions, Britt Aguda Aug 2018

Three Dimensional Passive Localization For Single Path Arrival With Unknown Starting Conditions, Britt Aguda

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Introduced in this paper is the time difference of arrival (TDoA) conic approximation method (TCAM), a technique for passive localization in three dimensions with unknown starting conditions. The TDoA of a mutually detected signal across pairs of detectors is used to calculate the relative angle between the signal source and the center point of the separation between the detectors in the pair. The relative angle is calculated from the TDoA using a mathematical model called the TDoA approximation of the zenith angle (TAZA). The TAZA angle defines the opening angle of a conic region of probability that contains the signal ...


Solving Atomic Wave Functions Using Artificial Neural Networks, Gaurav Gyawali May 2018

Solving Atomic Wave Functions Using Artificial Neural Networks, Gaurav Gyawali

Senior Honors Theses

Carleo and Troyer [3] have recently pointed out the possibility of solving quantum many-body problems by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Their work is based on minimizing a variational wave function to obtain the ground states for various spin-dependent systems. This work is primarily focused on developing efficient method using ANN to solve the ground state wave function for atomic systems. We have developed a theoretical groundwork to represent the wave function of a many-electron atom by using artificial neural network while still preserving its antisymmetric property. By using the Metropolis algorithm, Variational Monte Carlo (VMC), and Stochastic Reconfiguration (SR ...


Study Of Magnetization Switching In Coupled Magnetic Nanostructured Systems Using A Tunnel Diode Oscillator, Mohammad Asif Khan May 2018

Study Of Magnetization Switching In Coupled Magnetic Nanostructured Systems Using A Tunnel Diode Oscillator, Mohammad Asif Khan

Senior Honors Theses

Static techniques to measure different magnetic properties of coupled magnetic nanostructured systems is researched and documented with an extensive analysis of the tunnel diode oscillator (TDO). The VSM was used to obtain the major hysteresis loop for the samples and the TDO was used to measure the magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic susceptibility was employed to conceive the static critical curve.

The thesis describes both equipments, VSM and TDO, that were used to obtain data for our experiments. Albeit a more comprehensive outlook on the TDO is provided. The theoretical functionality of TDO, previous successful applications for experiments, and the physical ...


Underwater Acoustic Signal Analysis Toolkit, Kirk Bienvenu Jr Dec 2017

Underwater Acoustic Signal Analysis Toolkit, Kirk Bienvenu Jr

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This project started early in the summer of 2016 when it became evident there was a need for an effective and efficient signal analysis toolkit for the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center Gulf Ecological Monitoring and Modeling (LADC-GEMM) Research Consortium. LADC-GEMM collected underwater acoustic data in the northern Gulf of Mexico during the summer of 2015 using Environmental Acoustic Recording Systems (EARS) buoys. Much of the visualization of data was handled through short scripts and executed through terminal commands, each time requiring the data to be loaded into memory and parameters to be fed through arguments. The vision was to develop ...


Automated Species Classification Methods For Passive Acoustic Monitoring Of Beaked Whales, John Lebien Dec 2017

Automated Species Classification Methods For Passive Acoustic Monitoring Of Beaked Whales, John Lebien

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center has collected passive acoustic monitoring data in the northern Gulf of Mexico since 2001. Recordings were made in 2007 near the Deepwater Horizon oil spill that provide a baseline for an extensive study of regional marine mammal populations in response to the disaster. Animal density estimates can be derived from detections of echolocation signals in the acoustic data. Beaked whales are of particular interest as they remain one of the least understood groups of marine mammals, and relatively few abundance estimates exist. Efficient methods for classifying detected echolocation transients are essential for mining long-term passive ...


An Application Of M-Matrices To Preserve Bounded Positive Solutions To The Evolution Equations Of Biofilm Models, Richard S. Landry Jr. Dec 2017

An Application Of M-Matrices To Preserve Bounded Positive Solutions To The Evolution Equations Of Biofilm Models, Richard S. Landry Jr.

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

In this work, we design a linear, two step implicit finite difference method to approximate the solutions of a biological system that describes the interaction between a microbial colony and a surrounding substrate. Three separate models are analyzed, all of which can be described as systems of partial differential equations (PDE)s with nonlinear diffusion and reaction, where the biological colony grows and decays based on the substrate bioavailability. The systems under investigation are all complex models describing the dynamics of biological films. In view of the difficulties to calculate analytical solutions of the models, we design here a numerical ...


On The Ramberg-Osgood Stress-Strain Model And Large Deformations Of Cantilever Beams, Ronald J. Giardina Jr Aug 2017

On The Ramberg-Osgood Stress-Strain Model And Large Deformations Of Cantilever Beams, Ronald J. Giardina Jr

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis the Ramberg-Osgood nonlinear model for describing the behavior of many different materials is investigated. A brief overview of the model as it is currently used in the literature is undertaken and several misunderstandings and possible pitfalls in its application is pointed out, especially as it pertains to more recent approaches to finding solutions involving the model. There is an investigation of the displacement of a cantilever beam under a combined loading consisting of a distributed load across the entire length of the beam and a point load at its end and new solutions to this problem are ...


3d Post-Stack Seismic Inversion Using Global Optimization Techniques: Gulf Of Mexico Example, Elijah A. Adedeji Aug 2016

3d Post-Stack Seismic Inversion Using Global Optimization Techniques: Gulf Of Mexico Example, Elijah A. Adedeji

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Seismic inversion using a global optimization algorithm is a non-linear, model-driven process. It yields an optimal solution of the cost function – reflectivity/acoustic impedance, when prior information is sparse. The inversion result offers detailed interpretations of thin layers, internal stratigraphy, and lateral continuity and connectivity of sand bodies. This study compared two stable and robust global optimization techniques, Simulated Annealing (SA) and Basis Pursuit Inversion (BPI) as applied to post-stack seismic data from the Gulf of Mexico.

Both methods use different routines and constraints to search for the minimum error energy function. Estimation of inversion parameters in SA is rigorous ...


Poroacuatics Under Brinkman's Model, David A. Rossmanith Jr. May 2016

Poroacuatics Under Brinkman's Model, David A. Rossmanith Jr.

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Through perturbation analysis, a study of the role of Brinkman viscosity in the propagation of finite amplitude harmonic waves is carried out. Interplay between various parameters, namely, frequency, Reynolds number and beta are investigated. For systems with physically realizable Reynolds numbers, departure from the Darcy Jordan model (DJM) is noted for high frequency signals. Low and high frequency limiting cases are discussed, and the physical parameters defining the acoustic propagation are obtained.

Through numerical analyses, the roles of Brinkman viscosity, the Darcy coefficient, and the coefficient of nonlinearity on the evolution of finite amplitude harmonic waves is stud- ied. An ...


Ferromagnetic Resonance Studies Of Coupled Magnetic Systems, Daniel J. Adams May 2016

Ferromagnetic Resonance Studies Of Coupled Magnetic Systems, Daniel J. Adams

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The high-frequency properties of coupled magnetic systems have been investigated using vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) spectroscopy. SAF structures consist of two ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic spacer, coupled through the indirect exchange interaction. The ferromagnetic layers of our samples were composed of FeCoB separated by a layer of Ru. The thickness of Ru was varied in the range of 8 to 18 Å among the samples studied. Antiferromagnetic coupling can be quickly identified by the major hysteresis loop (MHL).

A new way of displaying FMR data for these trilayer samples is presented which completely preserves the anisotropy ...


Automated Sea State Classification From Parameterization Of Survey Observations And Wave-Generated Displacement Data, Jason A. Teichman May 2016

Automated Sea State Classification From Parameterization Of Survey Observations And Wave-Generated Displacement Data, Jason A. Teichman

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Sea state is a subjective quantity whose accuracy depends on an observer’s ability to translate local wind waves into numerical scales. It provides an analytical tool for estimating the impact of the sea on data quality and operational safety. Tasks dependent on the characteristics of local sea surface conditions often require accurate and immediate assessment. An attempt to automate sea state classification using eleven years of ship motion and sea state observation data is made using parametric modeling of distribution-based confidence and tolerance intervals and a probabilistic model using sea state frequencies. Models utilizing distribution intervals are not able ...


Parameterized Spectral Bathymetric Roughness Using The Nonequispaced Fast Fourier Transform, David H. Fabre Dec 2015

Parameterized Spectral Bathymetric Roughness Using The Nonequispaced Fast Fourier Transform, David H. Fabre

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The ocean and acoustic modeling community has specifically asked for roughness from bathymetry. An effort has been undertaken to provide what can be thought of as the high frequency content of bathymetry. By contrast, the low frequency content of bathymetry is the set of contours. The two-dimensional amplitude spectrum calculated with the nonequispaced fast Fourier transform (Kunis, 2006) is exploited as the statistic to provide several parameters of roughness following the method of Fox (1996). When an area is uniformly rough, it is termed isotropically rough. When an area exhibits lineation effects (like in a trough or a ridge line ...


Computation Of A Virtual Tide Corrector To Support Vertical Adjustment Of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Multibeam Sonar Data, Lawrence H. Haselmaier Dec 2015

Computation Of A Virtual Tide Corrector To Support Vertical Adjustment Of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Multibeam Sonar Data, Lawrence H. Haselmaier

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

One challenge for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) multibeam surveying is the limited ability to assess internal vertical agreement rapidly and reliably. Applying an external ellipsoid reference to AUV multibeam data would allow for field comparisons. A method is established to merge ellipsoid height (EH) data collected by a surface vessel in close proximity to the AUV. The method is demonstrated over multiple collection missions in two separate areas. Virtual tide corrector values are derived using EH data collected by a boat and a measured ellipsoid to chart datum separation distance. Those values are compared to measurements by a traditional tide ...


Developing And Testing An Anguilliform Robot Swimming With Theoretically High Hydrodynamic Efficiency, John B. Potts Iii Dec 2015

Developing And Testing An Anguilliform Robot Swimming With Theoretically High Hydrodynamic Efficiency, John B. Potts Iii

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

An anguilliform swimming robot replicating an idealized motion is a complex marine vehicle necessitating both a theoretical and experimental analysis to completely understand its propulsion characteristics. The ideal anguilliform motion within is theorized to produce ``wakeless'' swimming (Vorus, 2011), a reactive swimming technique that produces thrust by accelerations of the added mass in the vicinity of the body. The net circulation for the unsteady motion is theorized to be eliminated.

The robot was designed to replicate the desired, theoretical motion by applying control theory methods. Independent joint control was used due to hardware limitations. The fluid velocity vectors in the ...


Numerical Solutions Of Generalized Burgers' Equations For Some Incompressible Non-Newtonian Fluids, Yupeng Shu Aug 2015

Numerical Solutions Of Generalized Burgers' Equations For Some Incompressible Non-Newtonian Fluids, Yupeng Shu

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The author presents some generalized Burgers' equations for incompressible and isothermal flow of viscous non-Newtonian fluids based on the Cross model, the Carreau model, and the Power-Law model and some simple assumptions on the flows. The author numerically solves the traveling wave equations for the Cross model, the Carreau model, the Power-Law model by using industrial data. The author proves existence and uniqueness of solutions to the traveling wave equations of each of the three models. The author also provides numerical estimates of the shock thickness as well as maximum strain $\varepsilon_{11}$ for each of the fluids.


Transverse Thermoelectric Properties Of Cu/Mg2si And Ni/Mg2si Artificially Anisotropic Materials, David J N Esch May 2015

Transverse Thermoelectric Properties Of Cu/Mg2si And Ni/Mg2si Artificially Anisotropic Materials, David J N Esch

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis the spark plasma sintering process (SPS) was used to press Mg2Si powder with Ni and Cu slices into alternating layer stacks. These stacks, once cut at an angle, are an artificially anisotropic material. This anisotropy provides transverse thermoelectric properties to the sample. The transverse transport properties were measured along with the individual component transport properties. The SPS process provided malleable samples that gave a power factors of for the Ni/Mg2Si stack and for the Cu/Mg2Si stack. These fall short of the theoretical calculations which would give the power factors ...


Gas Detection Applications Of Vertically Aligned Metal Oxide Nanowire Arrays, Haiqiao Su Dec 2014

Gas Detection Applications Of Vertically Aligned Metal Oxide Nanowire Arrays, Haiqiao Su

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

To build novel electronic noses for mimicking biological olfactory systems that consist of olfactory receptor arrays with large surface area and massively-diversified chemical reactivity, three dimensional (3D) vertical aligned ZnO nanowire arrays were employed as active materials for gas detection. ZnO nanowire arrays share 3D structures similar to mammalian olfactory receptor arrays, with thousands of vertical nanowires providing a high reception area which can significantly enhance the sensors’ sensitivity. Meanwhile, with different material decorations (such as SnO2, In2O3, WO3 and polymers), each array of nanowires can produce a distinguishable response for each separate analyte, which ...


Microwave Properties Of Magnetic Nanowires Arrays, Daniel Adams Apr 2014

Microwave Properties Of Magnetic Nanowires Arrays, Daniel Adams

Innovate UNO

This study focused on examining high-frequency properties of magnetic nanowire arrays. The microwave was produced by a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) and transmitted through coplanar waveguides (CPW). The CPWs are 300 µm long with signal line width of 20 µm, ensuring minimum losses due to radiation. CPWs were fabricated through the photolithography process. The magnetic nanowires were fabricated through e-beam lithography on top of the CPW. The VNA was used to feed the CPW and measurements of the FMR absorption allowed us to understand the effect of interaction between nanowires on their dynamic properties.


Ultra-Low Temperature Measurements Of London Penetration Depth In Iron Selenide Telluride Superconductors, Andrei Diaconu Dec 2013

Ultra-Low Temperature Measurements Of London Penetration Depth In Iron Selenide Telluride Superconductors, Andrei Diaconu

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The newly discovered iron based superconductors have captivated the attention of the scientific community due to the unusual mechanism behind their superconductivity and their promise as the next generation high temperature superconductors. After a century of superconductor research, the physical mechanism behind high temperature superconductivity is still not understood. These new materials bring renewed hope in elucidating the pairing mechanism responsible with high temperature superconductors and achieving the ultimate goal of the field, room temperature superconductivity. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the intriguing properties of iron based materials is essential.

A great deal about the pairing mechanism of Cooper electron ...


Complex Reflection Coefficients Of P- And S-Polarized Light At The Pseudo-Brewster Angle Of A Dielectric–Conductor Interface, Rasheed M.A. Azzam Sep 2013

Complex Reflection Coefficients Of P- And S-Polarized Light At The Pseudo-Brewster Angle Of A Dielectric–Conductor Interface, Rasheed M.A. Azzam

Electrical Engineering Faculty Publications

The complex Fresnel reflection coefficients rp and rs of p- and s-polarized light and their ratio ρ = rp/rs at the pseudo-Brewster angle (PBA) φpBof a dielectric-conductor interface are evaluated for all possible values of the complex relative dielectric function Ε = |Ε| exp(-jθ) = Εr - jΕi, Εi > 0 that share the same φpB. Complex-plane trajectories of rp, rs, and ρ at the PBA are presented at discrete values of φpB from 5° to 85° in equal steps of 5° as θ is increased from 0° to 180°. It is shown that for φpB > 70° (high-reflectance metals in the IR) rp ...


Design And Construction Of A Nernst Effect Measuring System, Warner E. Sevin Aug 2013

Design And Construction Of A Nernst Effect Measuring System, Warner E. Sevin

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

An experimental Nernst effect measuring system is designed and constructed. The ability to measure the Nernst effect allows completion of a thermoelectric suite of measurements consisting of electrical conductivity, the Seebeck effect, the Hall effect, and the Nernst effect. This suite of measurements gives information about electron transport, carrier concentration, and electron scattering within a thermoelectric sample. Programs were designed in LabView to control the various instruments in the measuring system. Measurements of the Nernst effect were taken on two thermoelectric samples, bismuth nickel telluride and bismuth antimony telluride. These measurements were taken at both constant temperature and constant magnetic ...


Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Sonar Signal Processing For Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Operating Shallow Water, Patricia E. Giardina Dec 2012

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Sonar Signal Processing For Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Operating Shallow Water, Patricia E. Giardina

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The goal of the research was to develop best practices for image signal processing method for InSAS systems for bathymetric height determination. Improvements over existing techniques comes from the fusion of Chirp-Scaling a phase preserving beamforming techniques to form a SAS image, an interferometric Vernier method to unwrap the phase; and confirming the direction of arrival with the MUltiple SIgnal Channel (MUSIC) estimation technique. The fusion of Chirp-Scaling, Vernier, and MUSIC lead to the stability in the bathymetric height measurement, and improvements in resolution. This method is computationally faster, and used less memory then existing techniques.


Characterization Of Magnetic Nanostructured Materials By First Order Reversal Curve Method, Denny R. Lenormand Aug 2012

Characterization Of Magnetic Nanostructured Materials By First Order Reversal Curve Method, Denny R. Lenormand

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The Interactions and magnetization reversal of Ni nanowire arrays and synthetic anit-ferromagnetic coupled thin film trilayers have been investigated through first order reversal curve (FORC) method. By using a quantitative analysis of the local interaction field profile distributions obtained from FORC, it has proven to be a powerful characterization tool that can reveal subtle features of magnetic interactions.


High Frequency Study Of Magnetic Nanostructures, Abhishek Srivastava Aug 2012

High Frequency Study Of Magnetic Nanostructures, Abhishek Srivastava

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The work in this thesis is divided in three parts. In part one we developed electrodeposition method of Nickel Nanowire in commercial AAO template in constant current (Galvanostatic) mode, further we tried to estimate the growth rate from theory, from saturation magnetization and direct measurement from SEM image.

In part two we focused on using the Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) to measure the Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR))of various magnetic Nanowire arrays. We employed different measurement geometries using microstripline and coplanar waveguide as microwave transmission lines.

In part three our aim was to study the magnetic properties of complex ferromagnetic system ...


Electronic Transport In Thermoelectric Bismuth Telluride, Westly Nolting Aug 2012

Electronic Transport In Thermoelectric Bismuth Telluride, Westly Nolting

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

An experimental investigation of the electronic transport properties of bismuth telluride nanocomposite materials is presented. The primary transport measurements are electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and Hall effect. An experimental apparatus for measuring Hall effect and electrical conductivity was designed, constructed and tested. Seebeck coefficient measurements were performed on a commercial instrument. The Hall effect and Seebeck coefficient measurements are two of the most important tools for characterizing thermoelectric materials and are widely used in the semiconductor industry for determining carrier types, carrier concentration and mobility. Further, these transport parameters are used to determine the thermal to electrical conversion efficiency of ...


Ii-Vi Core-Shell Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterizations And Photovoltaic Applications, Kai Wang Aug 2012

Ii-Vi Core-Shell Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterizations And Photovoltaic Applications, Kai Wang

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The emergence of semiconducting nanowires as the new building blocks for photovoltaic (PV) devices has drawn considerable attention because of the great potential of achieving high efficiency and low cost. In special, nanowires with a coaxial structure, namely, core-shell structures have demonstrated significant advantages over other device configurations in terms of radial charge collection and cost reduction. In this dissertation, several core-shell nanowire structures, including ZnO/ZnSe, ZnO/ZnS, and CdSe/ZnTe, have been synthesized and the photovoltaic devices processed from a ZnO/ZnS core-shell nanowire array and a single CdSe/ZnTe core-shell nanowire have been demonstrated.

By combining the ...


Effect Of Disorder On Quantum Phase Transition In The Double Layered Ruthenates (Sr1−Xcax)3ru2o7effect Of Disorder On Quantum Phase Transition In The Double Layered Ruthenates (Sr1−Xcax)3ru2o7, Leonard Spinu, Zhe Qu, Jin Peng, Tijang Liu, David Forbes, Vkad Dobrosavljevic, Z Q. Mao Jul 2012

Effect Of Disorder On Quantum Phase Transition In The Double Layered Ruthenates (Sr1−Xcax)3ru2o7effect Of Disorder On Quantum Phase Transition In The Double Layered Ruthenates (Sr1−Xcax)3ru2o7, Leonard Spinu, Zhe Qu, Jin Peng, Tijang Liu, David Forbes, Vkad Dobrosavljevic, Z Q. Mao

Physics Faculty Publications

(Sr1−xCax)3Ru2O7 is characterized by complex magnetic states, spanning from a long-range antiferromagnetically ordered state over an unusual heavy-mass nearly ferromagnetic (NFM) state to an itinerant metamagnetic (IMM) state. The NFM state, which occurs in the 0.4 > x > 0.08 composition range, freezes into a clusterspin glass (CSG) phase at low temperatures [Z. Qu et al., Phys. Rev. B 78, 180407(R) (2008)]. In this article, we present the scaling analyses of magnetization and the specific heat for (Sr1−xCax)3Ru2O7 in the 0 ...