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Articles 1 - 30 of 2010

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Table Of Contents Aug 2019

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Introduction To Classical Field Theory, Charles G. Torre Aug 2019

Introduction To Classical Field Theory, Charles G. Torre

All Complete Monographs

This is an introduction to classical field theory. Topics treated include: Klein-Gordon field, electromagnetic field, scalar electrodynamics, Dirac field, Yang-Mills field, gravitational field, Noether theorems relating symmetries and conservation laws, spontaneous symmetry breaking, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms.


Lanczos-Boosted Numerical Linked-Cluster Expansion For Quantum Lattice Models, Krishnakumar Bhattaram, Ehsan Khatami Jul 2019

Lanczos-Boosted Numerical Linked-Cluster Expansion For Quantum Lattice Models, Krishnakumar Bhattaram, Ehsan Khatami

Ehsan Khatami

Numerical linked-cluster expansions allow one to calculate finite-temperature properties of quantum lattice models directly in the thermodynamic limit through exact solutions of small clusters. However, full diagonalization is often the limiting factor for these calculations. Here we show that a partial diagonalization of the largest clusters in the expansion using the Lanczos algorithm can be as useful as full diagonalization for the method while mitigating some of the time and memory issues. As test cases, we consider the frustrated Heisenberg model on the checkerboard lattice and the Fermi-Hubbard model on the square lattice. We find that our approach can surpass ...


New Constraints On Early-Type Galaxy Assembly From Spectroscopic Metallicities Of Globular Clusters In M87, Alexa Villaume, Aaron J. Romanowsky, Jean Brodie, Jay Strader Jul 2019

New Constraints On Early-Type Galaxy Assembly From Spectroscopic Metallicities Of Globular Clusters In M87, Alexa Villaume, Aaron J. Romanowsky, Jean Brodie, Jay Strader

Aaron J. Romanowsky

The observed characteristics of globular cluster (GC) systems, such as metallicity distributions, are commonly used to place constraints on galaxy formation models. However, obtaining reliable metallicity values is particularly difficult because of our limited means to obtain high quality spectroscopy of extragalactic GCs. Often, "color–metallicity relations" are invoked to convert easier-to-obtain photometric measurements into metallicities, but there is no consensus on what form these relations should take. In this paper we make use of multiple photometric data sets and iron metallicity values derived from applying full-spectrum stellar population synthesis models to deep Keck/LRIS spectra of 177 GCs centrally ...


New Tests Of General Relativity, Quentin Bailey Jun 2019

New Tests Of General Relativity, Quentin Bailey

Quentin Bailey

The last decade has seen a rapid increase in the number of precision tests of relativity. This research has been motivated by the intriguing possibility that tiny deviations from relativity might arise in the underlying theory that is widely believed to successfully mesh General Relativity (GR) with quantum physics. Many of these tests have been analyzed within an effective field theory framework which generically describes possible deviations from exact relativity and contains some traditional test frameworks as limiting cases. One part of the activity has been a resurgence of interest in tests of relativity in the Minkowski-spacetime context, where Lorentz ...


Tests Of Lorentz Symmetry In The Gravitational Sector, Aurélien Hees, Quentin G. Bailey, Adrien Bourgoin, Hélène Pihan-Le Bars, Christine Guerlin, Christophe Le Poncin-Lafitte Jun 2019

Tests Of Lorentz Symmetry In The Gravitational Sector, Aurélien Hees, Quentin G. Bailey, Adrien Bourgoin, Hélène Pihan-Le Bars, Christine Guerlin, Christophe Le Poncin-Lafitte

Quentin Bailey

Lorentz symmetry is one of the pillars of both General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics. Motivated by ideas about quantum gravity, unification theories and violations of CPT symmetry, a significant effort has been put the last decades into testing Lorentz symmetry. This review focuses on Lorentz symmetry tests performed in the gravitational sector. We briefly review the basics of the pure gravitational sector of the Standard-Model Extension (SME) framework, a formalism developed in order to systematically parametrize hypothetical violations of the Lorentz invariance. Furthermore, we discuss the latest constraints obtained within this formalism including analyses of the ...


Prospects For Sme Tests With Experiments At Syrte And Lkb, C. Guerlin, H. Pihan-Le Bars, Q. G. Bailey, P. Wolf Jun 2019

Prospects For Sme Tests With Experiments At Syrte And Lkb, C. Guerlin, H. Pihan-Le Bars, Q. G. Bailey, P. Wolf

Quentin Bailey

Preliminary work has been done in order to assess the perspectives of metrology and fundamental physics atomic experiments at SYRTE and LKB in the search for physics beyond the Standard Model and General Relativity. The first studies we identified are currently ongoing with the Microscope mission and with a Cs fountain clock. The latter brings significant improvement on the proton-sector coefficient cTT down to the 10−17 GeV level.


Improved Tests Of Lorentz Invariance In The Matter Sector Using Atomic Clocks, H. Pihan-Le Bars, C. Guerlin, Q. G. Bailey, S. Bize, P. Wolf Jun 2019

Improved Tests Of Lorentz Invariance In The Matter Sector Using Atomic Clocks, H. Pihan-Le Bars, C. Guerlin, Q. G. Bailey, S. Bize, P. Wolf

Quentin Bailey

For the purpose of searching for Lorentz-invariance violation in the minimal Standard-Model Extension, we perfom a reanalysis of data obtained from the 133Cs fountain clock operating at SYRTE. The previous study led to new limits on eight components of the ˜cµν tensor, which quantifies the anisotropy of the proton’s kinetic energy. We recently derived an advanced model for the frequency shift of hyperfine Zeeman transition due to Lorentz violation and became able to constrain the ninth component, the isotropic coefficient c˜TT, which is the least well-constrained coefficient of ˜cµν. This model is based on a second-order boost Lorentz ...


Lorentz-Violating Electromagnetostatics, Quentin G. Bailey Jun 2019

Lorentz-Violating Electromagnetostatics, Quentin G. Bailey

Quentin Bailey

In this talk, the stationary limit of Lorentz-violating electrodynamics is discussed. As illustrated by some simple examples, the general solution includes unconventional mixing of electrostatic and magnetostatic effects. I discuss a high-sensitivity null-type measurement, exploiting Lorentz-violating electromagnetostatic effects, that could improve existing limits on parity-odd coefficients for Lorentz violation in the photon sector.


Gravity Sector Of The Sme, Q. G. Bailey Jun 2019

Gravity Sector Of The Sme, Q. G. Bailey

Quentin Bailey

In this talk, the gravity sector of the effective field theory description of local Lorentz violation is discussed, including minimal and nonminimal curvature couplings. Also, recent experimental and observational analyses including solar-system ephemeris and short-range gravity tests are reviewed.


Spatially Resolved Stellar Populations And Kinematics With Kcwi: Probing The Assembly History Of The Massive Early-Type Galaxy Ngc 1407, Anna Ferré-Mateu, Duncan A. Forbes, Richard M. Mcdermid, Aaron J. Romanowsky, Jean P. Brodie Jun 2019

Spatially Resolved Stellar Populations And Kinematics With Kcwi: Probing The Assembly History Of The Massive Early-Type Galaxy Ngc 1407, Anna Ferré-Mateu, Duncan A. Forbes, Richard M. Mcdermid, Aaron J. Romanowsky, Jean P. Brodie

Aaron J. Romanowsky

Using the newly commissioned Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI) instrument on the Keck II telescope, we analyze the stellar kinematics and stellar populations of the well-studied massive early-type galaxy (ETG) NGC 1407. We obtained high signal-to-noise integral field spectra for a central and an outer (around one effective radius toward the southeast direction) pointing with integration times of just 600 s and 2400 s, respectively. We confirm the presence of a kinematically distinct core also revealed by VLT/MUSE data of the central regions. While NGC 1407 was previously found to have stellar populations characteristic of massive ETGs (with radially ...


How Bright Are Fast Optical Bursts Associated With Fast Radio Bursts?, Yuan-Pei Yang, Bing Zhang, Jian-Yan Wei Jun 2019

How Bright Are Fast Optical Bursts Associated With Fast Radio Bursts?, Yuan-Pei Yang, Bing Zhang, Jian-Yan Wei

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The origin of fast radio bursts (FRBs) is still unknown. Multiwavelength observations during or shortly after the FRB phase would be essential to identify the counterpart of an FRB and to constrain its progenitor and environment. In this work, we investigate the brightness of the “fast optical bursts” (FOBs) associated with FRBs and the prospects of detecting them. We investigate several inverse Compton (IC) scattering processes that might produce an FOB, including both the one-zone and two-zone models. We also investigate the extension of the same mechanism of FRB emission to the optical band. We find that a detectable FOB ...


Multi-Wavelength Investigation Of Energy Release And Chromospheric Evaporation In Solar Flares, Viacheslav M. Sadykov May 2019

Multi-Wavelength Investigation Of Energy Release And Chromospheric Evaporation In Solar Flares, Viacheslav M. Sadykov

Dissertations

For a comprehensive understanding of the energy release and chromospheric evaporation processes in solar flares it is necessary to perform a combined multi-wavelength analysis using observations from space-based and ground-based observatories, and compare the results with predictions of the radiative hydrodynamic (RHD) flare models. Initially, the case study of spatially-resolved chromospheric evaporation properties for an M\,1.0-class solar flare (SOL2014-06-12T21:12) using data form IRIS (Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph), HMI/SDO (Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory), and VIS/GST (Visible Imaging Spectrometer at Goode Solar Telescope), demonstrate a complicated nature of evaporation and its connection to ...


Haro 11, Pox 186, And Vcc 1313: The Enigmatic Behavior Of Hi Non-Emitters, Sarah H. Taft May 2019

Haro 11, Pox 186, And Vcc 1313: The Enigmatic Behavior Of Hi Non-Emitters, Sarah H. Taft

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

We present neutral hydrogen (HI) observations from the Very Large Array (VLA) telescope of the galaxies Haro 11, Pox 186, and VCC 1313. 24 hours of deep spectral line observation at the 21 cm line were obtained from the program 17B-287 of Haro 11, the primary galaxy studied in this capstone, and 176 and 203 respective minutes of archival VLA data at the 21 cm line were obtained from the program AS0832 of Pox 186 and VCC 1313, the secondary and tertiary sources of study for this capstone. Haro 11 is one of a very small number of local dwarf ...


Binary Neutron Star Merger Rates. Predictions From Observations Of Dwarf Galaxies And Observable Rates With Ground-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors, Karen Perez Sarmiento May 2019

Binary Neutron Star Merger Rates. Predictions From Observations Of Dwarf Galaxies And Observable Rates With Ground-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors, Karen Perez Sarmiento

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Binary Neutron Star (BNS) mergers are interesting events in the field of multi-messenger astronomy since they are sources of detectable gravitational wave signals and electromagnetic transients. Here I introduce a new method to calculate a conservative, lower-limit for the rate of BNS merger events that is proportional to the stellar mass and is based on evidence of an r-process event in the dwarf galaxy Reticulum II. Two estimates of the stellar mass in the nearby universe were made using a Schechter Mass Function and a modified version of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog (2MASS XSC). The BNS merger event rates ...


Uv Led System For Pl Measurements On Gan Samples, Dona H. Pantova May 2019

Uv Led System For Pl Measurements On Gan Samples, Dona H. Pantova

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Gallium Nitride materials are direct bandgap semiconductors with important applications, such as in the production of light-emitting diodes and transistors. The process of photoluminescence, in which excited electron and holes emit electro-magnetic radiation when they recombine, can be used to study the structure and quality of Gallium Nitride materials. Due to the size of the bandgap in these materials (3.4eV), ultraviolet light is required to create electron-hole pairs in GaN. We designed and built a system, which uses ultraviolet light, to take measurements on GaN samples provided by a local company, Lightwave Photonics, who were interested in the quality ...


Investigation On The Electrical Properties Of Cdo/Zno Thin Films Using Thz Spectroscopy, Ramon Molina May 2019

Investigation On The Electrical Properties Of Cdo/Zno Thin Films Using Thz Spectroscopy, Ramon Molina

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

In this work, we study the electrical properties of transparent conducting oxides using physical and optical techniques. The objective is to characterize the conductivity of a series of cadmium oxide zinc-oxide thin films with varying cadmium concentrations using three methods. The Hall Effect estimates carrier concentration, sheet conductivity, and carrier mobility. Optical methods, such as FTIR spectroscopy, can provide estimates of the plasma frequency, which describes a metal’s transition from being transparent to opaque to light. THz spectroscopy extracts the complex conductivity of materials in the far infrared spectrum and provides insights on the optical transport properties of conductors ...


Understanding Solar Activity During The Last 400 Years, Sam Q. Hollenbach May 2019

Understanding Solar Activity During The Last 400 Years, Sam Q. Hollenbach

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

The solar cycle has a profound effect on both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial operations. Understanding the history of the solar cycle is necessary for studying long term trends, however older data is difficult to calibrate due to the sparsity of observations. In this paper we propose a new method for calibrating sunspot number data that does not rely on observational overlap. Initial testing shows promise in this method’s success, though more work must be done to ensure calibration consistency across all observers.


Recent Evolution Of The Eta Carinae Supernova Imposter System, Greta L. Helmel May 2019

Recent Evolution Of The Eta Carinae Supernova Imposter System, Greta L. Helmel

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

The supernova imposter Eta Carinae and its surrounding Homunculus reflection nebula have been of great interest for the last several decades. As the most massive star known in our Galaxy, this object is of particular importance in understanding high mass loss episodes and final stages in the evolution of other similarly massive stars in the later stages of their lives. Observations using the STIS CCD Instrument have been taken over the past 20 years for both the central star and the Homunculus as part of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Treasury Program on Eta Carinae. Recent changes in the spectra ...


The Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics Of The Dwarf Galaxy Merger Ngc 3239, Robert N. Ford May 2019

The Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics Of The Dwarf Galaxy Merger Ngc 3239, Robert N. Ford

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

We present H I spectral line images of the nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 3239. The galaxy’s curious morphology suggests that it is a post-merger system. We propose that NGC 3239 is a merger because it has multiple tidal tails, an enhanced velocity dispersion throughout the disk, and widespread star formation. We have produced kinematic moment maps corresponding to the H I column density, radial velocity, and velocity dispersion. Further, position velocity (P-V) slices of the galaxy were taken and three-color images were made using the SDSS G, R, and I, filters for comparison with the moment maps. These slices ...


Studies On The Generation And Detection Of Orbital Angular Momentum Based On Beam-Shaping Techniques, Xijie Luo May 2019

Studies On The Generation And Detection Of Orbital Angular Momentum Based On Beam-Shaping Techniques, Xijie Luo

Physics & Astronomy ETDs

Light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has many applications ranging from optical manipulation, imaging and remote sensing, and optical communications, and can be used to perform fundamental studies in quantum mechanics and quantum information. Moreover, single photons with high-order OAM allow for increasing the amount of information carried per photon in quantum communication. This thesis describes the study of methods for the preparation and detection of OAM of light in high mode order by utilizing beam shaping techniques using spatial light modulators (SLMs). The quality of the generated high-order OAM mode is limited by optical aberrations which are induced by ...


Recent Evolution Of The Eta Carinae Supernova Imposter System, Greta L. Helmel Apr 2019

Recent Evolution Of The Eta Carinae Supernova Imposter System, Greta L. Helmel

Physics and Astronomy Honors Projects

The supernova imposter Eta Carinae and its surrounding Homunculus reflection nebula have been of great interest for the last several decades. As the most massive star known in our Galaxy, this object is of particular importance in understanding high mass loss episodes and final stages in the evolution of other similarly massive stars in the later stages of their lives. Observations using the STIS CCD Instrument have been taken over the past 20 years for both the central star and the Homunculus as part of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Treasury Program on Eta Carinae. Recent changes in the spectra ...


Interpreting Particle Motion In Low-Gravity, Asteroidal Conditions With Image Processing And Analysis, Gillian Gomer, Adrienne Dove, Michael Fraser, Seamus Anderson, Kristen John, Marc Fries Mar 2019

Interpreting Particle Motion In Low-Gravity, Asteroidal Conditions With Image Processing And Analysis, Gillian Gomer, Adrienne Dove, Michael Fraser, Seamus Anderson, Kristen John, Marc Fries

Gillian Gomer

Asteroids and moons are small, atmosphereless bodies with dynamic surface activity that complicates image analysis and selection of future exploration sites. To better understand the distributions of surface material (regolith), the Strata-1 experiment utilized the microgravity, vibrational environment of the International Space Station (ISS) to replicate asteroidal conditions. Image data was collected, in which we observe both times of disruptive “events” and more passive “non-events” that cause small changes. The experiment contained several types of material to simulate asteroid surfaces. Here we analyze a single tube that contained aspherical glass shards. We have written a Python routine to split the ...


Compact Optical Frequency Standards For Future Applications Beyond The Laboratory, Kyle Martin Mar 2019

Compact Optical Frequency Standards For Future Applications Beyond The Laboratory, Kyle Martin

Physics & Astronomy ETDs

Atomic clocks provide one of the fundamental building blocks upon which modern telecommunications systems are constructed. Since the invention of the frequency comb in the early 2000s, laboratory frequency standards have quickly outpaced their compact counterparts. Compact clocks, however, have continued to leverage microwave transitions not yet exploring the advantages of an optical atomic clock. With the recent development of robust frequency combs compact optical clocks can now be realized. In this dissertation two atomic species are investigated for a compact atomic frequency standards. Both of these clocks are in different development stages but offer unique advantages. The optical rubidium ...


A Second Galaxy Missing Dark Matter In The Ngc 1052, Pieter Van Dokkum, Shany Danieli, Roberto Abraham, Charlie Conroy, Aaron Romanowsky Mar 2019

A Second Galaxy Missing Dark Matter In The Ngc 1052, Pieter Van Dokkum, Shany Danieli, Roberto Abraham, Charlie Conroy, Aaron Romanowsky

Faculty Publications

The ultra-diffuse galaxy NGC1052-DF2 has a very low velocity dispersion, indicating that it has little or no dark matter. Here we report the discovery of a second galaxy in this class, residing in the same group. NGC1052-DF4 closely resembles NGC1052-DF2 in terms of its size, surface brightness, and morphology; has a similar distance of Dsbf =  19.9 2.8 Mpc; and also has a population of luminous globular clusters extending out to 7 kpc from the center of the galaxy. Accurate radial velocities of the diffuse galaxy light and seven of the globular clusters were obtained with the Low Resolution ...


A Second Galaxy Missing Dark Matter In The Ngc 1052, Pieter Van Dokkum, Shany Danieli, Roberto Abraham, Charlie Conroy, Aaron J. Romanowsky Mar 2019

A Second Galaxy Missing Dark Matter In The Ngc 1052, Pieter Van Dokkum, Shany Danieli, Roberto Abraham, Charlie Conroy, Aaron J. Romanowsky

Aaron J. Romanowsky

The ultra-diffuse galaxy NGC1052-DF2 has a very low velocity dispersion, indicating that it has little or no dark matter. Here we report the discovery of a second galaxy in this class, residing in the same group. NGC1052-DF4 closely resembles NGC1052-DF2 in terms of its size, surface brightness, and morphology; has a similar distance of Dsbf =  19.9 2.8 Mpc; and also has a population of luminous globular clusters extending out to 7 kpc from the center of the galaxy. Accurate radial velocities of the diffuse galaxy light and seven of the globular clusters were obtained with the Low Resolution ...


Measurement Of Solar Spectral Irradiance And Surface Ozone At Carrollton, Georgia, Usa, During The Great American Eclipse On 21 August 2017, Kirthi Tennakone, L Ajith Desilva, Charles A. Zander*, Shea Rose, Austin B. Kerlin Mar 2019

Measurement Of Solar Spectral Irradiance And Surface Ozone At Carrollton, Georgia, Usa, During The Great American Eclipse On 21 August 2017, Kirthi Tennakone, L Ajith Desilva, Charles A. Zander*, Shea Rose, Austin B. Kerlin

Georgia Journal of Science

Measurements conducted at the University of West Georgia, Carrollton, Georgia, during the time of the solar eclipse of 21st August 2017 demonstrated that the integrated spectral irradiance in defined wavelength ranges in the ultraviolet and visible calculated as a fraction of the total irradiance reached a minimum at maximum obscuration of the Sun, whereas in an infrared range it was maximum. The method of analysis adopted supports the view that the changes in spectral irradiance during highly obscured partial phases is a consequence of limb darkening. In a surface ozone measurement, a minimum in ozone concentration occurred 30 +_ ...


Table Of Contents Mar 2019

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


The Limited Reign Of Saturn's Rings, Laurence A. Marschall Mar 2019

The Limited Reign Of Saturn's Rings, Laurence A. Marschall

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

Saturn’s rings—stretching tens of thousands of miles above its equator but no more than a few hundred yards thick—mark an ancient debris field of orbiting ice shards, the remains of a moon-sized object that strayed too close and was torn to pieces by Saturn’s intense gravitation. Astronomers have debated when the rings formed and how long they will stay in orbit. Recent observations from large, land-based telescopes and orbiting spacecraft reveal that Saturn’s rings are remarkably young and are dissipating at a rapid rate. [excerpt]


Kondo Signatures Of A Quantum Magnetic Impurity In Topological Superconductors, Rui Wang, Wei-Yi Su, Jian-Xin Zhu, Chin-Sen Ting, Hai Li, Changfeng Chen, Baigeng Wang, Xiaoqun Wang Mar 2019

Kondo Signatures Of A Quantum Magnetic Impurity In Topological Superconductors, Rui Wang, Wei-Yi Su, Jian-Xin Zhu, Chin-Sen Ting, Hai Li, Changfeng Chen, Baigeng Wang, Xiaoqun Wang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

We study the Kondo physics of a quantum magnetic impurity in two-dimensional topological superconductors (TSCs), either intrinsic or induced on the surface of a bulk topological insulator, using a numerical renormalization group technique. We show that, despite sharing the p+ip pairing symmetry, intrinsic and extrinsic TSCs host different physical processes that produce distinct Kondo signatures. Extrinsic TSCs harbor an unusual screening mechanism involving both electron and orbital degrees of freedom that produces rich and prominent Kondo phenomena, especially an intriguing pseudospin Kondo singlet state in the superconducting gap and a spatially anisotropic spin correlation. In sharp contrast, intrinsic TSCs ...