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2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 143

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Nf-Kappab Signaling Pathways In Mammalian And Insect Innate Immunity, Neal S. Silverman, Tom Maniatis Dec 2009

Nf-Kappab Signaling Pathways In Mammalian And Insect Innate Immunity, Neal S. Silverman, Tom Maniatis

Neal Silverman

In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the signaling pathways in mammalian and Drosophila innate immunity, with emphasis on the mechanisms by which NF-kappaB/Rel family proteins are activated.


Nucleotide And Phospholipid-Dependent Control Of Ppxd And C-Domain Association For Seca Atpase, Don Oliver Dec 2009

Nucleotide And Phospholipid-Dependent Control Of Ppxd And C-Domain Association For Seca Atpase, Don Oliver

Don Oliver

The SecA ATPase motor is a central component of the eubacterial protein translocation machinery. It is comprised of N- and C-domain substructures, where the N-domain is comprised of two nucleotide-binding domains that flank a preprotein-binding domain (PPXD), while the C-domain binds phospholipids as well as SecB chaperone. Our recent crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis SecA protomer [Hunt, J. F., Weinkauf, S., Henry, L., Fak, J. J., McNicholas, P., Oliver, D. B., and Deisenhofer, J. (2002) Science 297, 2018-2026] along with experimental support for the correct dimer structure [Ding, H., Hunt, J. F., Mukerji, I., and Oliver, D. (2003) Biochemistry 42 ...


Role Of A Conserved Glutamate Residue In The Escherichia Coli Seca Atpase Mechanism, Don Oliver Dec 2009

Role Of A Conserved Glutamate Residue In The Escherichia Coli Seca Atpase Mechanism, Don Oliver

Don Oliver

Escherichia coli SecA uses ATP to drive the transport of proteins across cell membranes. Glutamate 210 in the "DEVD" Walker B motif of the SecA ATP-binding site has been proposed as the catalytic base for ATP hydrolysis (Hunt, J. F., Weinkauf, S., Henry, L., Fak, J. J., McNicholas, P., Oliver, D. B., and Deisenhofer, J. (2002) Science 297, 2018-2026). Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that mutation of glutamate 210 to aspartate results in a 90-fold reduction of the ATP hydrolysis rate compared with wild type SecA, 0.3 s(-1) versus 27 s(-1), respectively. SecA-E210D also releases ADP ...


Dimeric Seca Is Essential For Protein Translocation, Don Oliver Dec 2009

Dimeric Seca Is Essential For Protein Translocation, Don Oliver

Don Oliver

SecA facilitates bacterial protein translocation by its association with presecretory or membrane proteins and the SecYEG translocon channel. Once assembled, SecA ATPase undergoes cycles of membrane insertion and retraction at SecYEG that drive protein translocation in a stepwise fashion. SecA exists in equilibrium between a monomer and dimer, and association with its translocation ligands shifts this equilibrium dramatically. Here, we examined the proposal that protein translocation can occur by means of a SecA monomer. We produced a mutant SecA protein lacking residues 2-11, which was found to exist mostly as a monomer, and it was unable to complement a conditional-lethal ...


Muc4/Muc4 Functions And Regulation In Cancer., Goldi Kozloski Dec 2009

Muc4/Muc4 Functions And Regulation In Cancer., Goldi Kozloski

Goldi A Kozloski

The membrane mucin MUC4 (human) is abundantly expressed in many epithelia, where it is proposed to play a protective role, and is overexpressed in some epithelial tumors. Studies on the rat homologue, Muc4, indicate that it acts through anti-adhesive or signaling mechanisms. In particular, Muc4/MUC4 can serve as a ligand/modulator of the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2, regulating its phosphorylation and the phosphorylation of its partner ErbB3, with or without the involvement of the ErbB3 ligand neuregulin. Muc4/MUC4 can also modulate cell apoptosis via multiple mechanisms, both ErbB2 dependent and independent. Muc4/MUC4 expression is regulated by multiple ...


Reexamination Of The Role Of The Amino Terminus Of Seca In Promoting Its Dimerization And Functional State, Don Oliver Dec 2009

Reexamination Of The Role Of The Amino Terminus Of Seca In Promoting Its Dimerization And Functional State, Don Oliver

Don Oliver

No abstract provided.


Seca Dimer Cross-Linked At Its Subunit Interface Is Functional For Protein Translocation, Don Oliver Dec 2009

Seca Dimer Cross-Linked At Its Subunit Interface Is Functional For Protein Translocation, Don Oliver

Don Oliver

SecA facilitates protein transport across the eubacterial plasma membrane by its association with cargo proteins and the SecYEG translocon, followed by ATP-driven conformational changes that promote protein translocation in a stepwise manner. Whether SecA functions as a monomer or a dimer during this process has been the subject of considerable controversy. Here we utilize cysteine-directed mutagenesis along with the crystal structure of the SecA dimer to create a cross-linked dimer at its subunit interface, which was normally active for in vitro protein translocation.


In Vivo Membrane Topology Of Escherichia Coli Seca Atpase Reveals Extensive Periplasmic Exposure Of Multiple Functionally Important Domains Clustering On One Face Of Seca, Don Oliver Dec 2009

In Vivo Membrane Topology Of Escherichia Coli Seca Atpase Reveals Extensive Periplasmic Exposure Of Multiple Functionally Important Domains Clustering On One Face Of Seca, Don Oliver

Don Oliver

No abstract provided.


Genetic Effect Of The Dwarfing Genes On Some Culm Characteristics Associatcd With Lodging Resistance In Bread Wheat, Md. Mahbub Hasan Dec 2009

Genetic Effect Of The Dwarfing Genes On Some Culm Characteristics Associatcd With Lodging Resistance In Bread Wheat, Md. Mahbub Hasan

Md. Mahbub Hasan

Due to the challenge of screening traits related to lodging resistance under natural field conditions, selection for lodging resistant varieties in wheat breeding programs is difficult. The identification of easily measurable culm anatomical traits related to lodging resistance would simplify the selection process. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of dwarfing genes on culm anatomical traits related to lodging resistance in our of basal internode 1. Field and laboratory study was conducted in Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh with eight wheat genotypes having Rhr1, Rht2 dwarfing genes in them and a local land race ...


Computational Prediction Of The Agregated Structure Of Denatured Lysozyme, Pongsathorn Chotikasemsri Dec 2009

Computational Prediction Of The Agregated Structure Of Denatured Lysozyme, Pongsathorn Chotikasemsri

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mis-folded proteins and their associated aggregates are a contributing factor in some human diseases. In this study we used the protein lysozyme as a model to define aggregation structures under denaturing conditions. Sasahara et al. (2007), Frare et al. (2009, 2006), and Rubin et al. (2008) observed conditions where heat denatured lysozyme formed fibril structures that were observed to be 8-17 nanometers in diameter under the electron microscope. Even though the crystal structure of lysozyme is known, the denatured form of this protein is still unknown. Therefore, we used Rosetta++ protein folding and blind docking software to create in silico ...


Cloning And Expression Of Porcine Dicer And Argonaute-2, Heather Stowe Dec 2009

Cloning And Expression Of Porcine Dicer And Argonaute-2, Heather Stowe

All Theses

In vitro-produced embryos exhibit aberrations in development, but the reasons for these developmental problems are unknown. Recently, a class of small non-coding RNA called microRNA (miRNA) has been described and reported to have roles in normal mammalian embryonic development. These miRNAs are encoded in the genome, transcribed by RNA pol II and processed into fragments approximately 22 nt in length by ribonuclease enzymes, the final one being a protein called Dicer. miRNA work through the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), of which the argonaute gene family are key proteins. Argonaute-2 (Ago2) has been identified as the only member possessing endonuclease activity ...


Low-Dose Of Sodium Arsenite Causes Delayed Differentiation In C2c12 Mouse Myoblast Cells Through The Repression Of The Transcription Factor Myogenin, Amanda Steffens Dec 2009

Low-Dose Of Sodium Arsenite Causes Delayed Differentiation In C2c12 Mouse Myoblast Cells Through The Repression Of The Transcription Factor Myogenin, Amanda Steffens

All Theses

A number of epidemiological studies have correlated arsenic exposurwith cancer, skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and adverse developmental outcomes such as stillbirths, spontaneous abortions, neonatal mortality, low birth weight, and delays in the use of musculature. The current study used C2C12 mouse myoblast cells to examine whether low concentrations of arsenic could alter their differentiation into myotubes, which would indicate that arsenic has the ability to act as a developmental toxicant. Myoblast cells were exposed to 20nM sodium arsenite and allowed to differentiate into myotubes and expression of the muscle-specific transcription factor myogenin, along with the expression of myosin light chain ...


Applications Of Variable Number Tandem Repeat Genotyping In The Validation Of An Animal Medical Model And Gene Flow Studies In Threatened Populations Of Reptiles, Candace D. Smith Dec 2009

Applications Of Variable Number Tandem Repeat Genotyping In The Validation Of An Animal Medical Model And Gene Flow Studies In Threatened Populations Of Reptiles, Candace D. Smith

Theses and Dissertations

We used variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) to validate the chicken as a human medical model for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. We identified seven regions on four chromosomes and interrogated for VNTR markers that significantly associate with Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome/ascites. In those regions, we identified 7 candidate genes; AGTR1, ACE, p38MAPK, SST, 5HT2B, NET1, and CALM3 for further analysis as significantly contributing QTL for ascites/PHS. We also used variable number tandem repeats to measure gene flow and gather evidence for multiple paternity in a population of Timber rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus. We were able to verify 1 VNTR that can ...


The Role Of Multiple Ccaat-Binding Factors In Candida Albicans Gene Expression, Lashall Lynn Bates Dec 2009

The Role Of Multiple Ccaat-Binding Factors In Candida Albicans Gene Expression, Lashall Lynn Bates

Theses and Dissertations

The CCAAT-binding factor is a heterooligomeric transcription factor that is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. In yeast, the DNA-binding component that interacts with the CCAAT consensus sequence in promoters consists of the subunits termed Hap2p, Hap3p and Hap5p. In yeast and fungi, a fourth subunit, Hap4p, is required for regulating gene expression. The goal of this research is to understand the function of the Candida albicans CCAAT-binding factor and how it relates to virulence and pathogenicity. C. albicans is a human opportunistic pathogen responsible for a variety of mucosal and systemic infections that result in significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in ...


Characterization And Functional Regulation Of Bioactive Peptides In Avian Macrophages And Heterophils, Lakshmi Kannan Dec 2009

Characterization And Functional Regulation Of Bioactive Peptides In Avian Macrophages And Heterophils, Lakshmi Kannan

Theses and Dissertations

Oligopeptides and low molecular weight polypeptides play central roles as effectors and signal transducers acting as hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors, toxins, and antimicrobial factors that are important for the survival of the organism. Owing to the ubiquitous involvement of peptides in many key regulatory processes, we have been interested to identify native peptides in different cells and tissues and understand their functions. To conduct our studies, we used avian macrophages and heterophils as models of specialized cells which constitute central components of innate immunity. These studies involved (a) qualitative identification and characterization of the peptides associated with high intensity mass ...


Quantifying And Resolving Multiple Vector Transformants In S. Cerevisiae Plasmid Libraries, Thomas C. Scanlon, Elizabeth C. Gray, Karl E. Griswold Nov 2009

Quantifying And Resolving Multiple Vector Transformants In S. Cerevisiae Plasmid Libraries, Thomas C. Scanlon, Elizabeth C. Gray, Karl E. Griswold

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

In addition to providing the molecular machinery for transcription and translation, recombinant microbial expression hosts maintain the critical genotype-phenotype link that is essential for high throughput screening and recovery of proteins encoded by plasmid libraries. It is known that Escherichia coli cells can be simultaneously transformed with multiple unique plasmids and thusly complicate recombinant library screening experiments. As a result of their potential to yield misleading results, bacterial multiple vector transformants have been thoroughly characterized in previous model studies. In contrast to bacterial systems, there is little quantitative information available regarding multiple vector transformants in yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the ...


The Energy Profiles Of Atomic Conformational Transition Intermediates Of Adenylate Kinase, Yaping Feng, Lei Yang, Andrzej Kloczkowski, Robert L. Jernigan Nov 2009

The Energy Profiles Of Atomic Conformational Transition Intermediates Of Adenylate Kinase, Yaping Feng, Lei Yang, Andrzej Kloczkowski, Robert L. Jernigan

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

The elastic network interpolation (ENI)1 is a computationally efficient and physically realistic method to generate conformational transition intermediates between two forms of a given protein. However it can be asked whether these calculated conformations provide good representatives for these intermediates. In this study, we use ENI to generate conformational transition intermediates between the open form and the closed forms of adenylate kinase (AK). Based on Cα-only intermediates, we construct atomic intermediates by grafting all the atoms of known AK structures onto the Cα atoms and then perform CHARMM energy minimization to remove steric conflicts and optimize ...


Toc Receptor Dimerization Participates In The Initiation Of Membrane Translocation During Protein Import Into Chloroplasts, Jeonghwa Lee, Fei Wang Wang, Danny Schnell Nov 2009

Toc Receptor Dimerization Participates In The Initiation Of Membrane Translocation During Protein Import Into Chloroplasts, Jeonghwa Lee, Fei Wang Wang, Danny Schnell

Danny Schnell

The post-translational import of nucleus-encoded preproteins into chloroplasts occurs through multimeric translocons in the outer (Toc) and inner (Tic) membranes. The high fidelity of the protein import process is maintained by specific recognition of the transit peptide of preproteins by the coordinate activities of two homologous GTPase Toc receptors, Toc34 and Toc159. Structural and biochemical studies suggest that dimerization of the Toc receptors functions as a component of the mechanism to control access of preproteins to the membrane translocation channel of the translocon. We show that specific mutations that disrupted receptor dimerization in vitro reduced the rate of protein import ...


A Feedback Circuit Involving Let-7-Family Mirnas And Daf-12 Integrates Environmental Signals And Developmental Timing In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Christopher M. Hammell, Xantha Karp, Victor R. Ambros Nov 2009

A Feedback Circuit Involving Let-7-Family Mirnas And Daf-12 Integrates Environmental Signals And Developmental Timing In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Christopher M. Hammell, Xantha Karp, Victor R. Ambros

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Animal development is remarkably robust; cell fates are specified with spatial and temporal precision despite physiological and environmental contingencies. Favorable conditions cause Caenorhabditis elegans to develop rapidly through four larval stages (L1-L4) to the reproductive adult. In unfavorable conditions, L2 larvae can enter the developmentally quiescent, stress-resistant dauer larva stage, enabling them to survive for prolonged periods before completing development. A specific progression of cell division and differentiation events occurs with fidelity during the larval stages, regardless of whether an animal undergoes continuous or dauer-interrupted development. The temporal patterning of developmental events is controlled by the heterochronic genes, whose products ...


A Feedback Circuit Involving Let-7-Family Mirnas And Daf-12 Integrates Environmental Signals And Developmental Timing In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Christopher M. Hammell, Xantha Karp, Victor R. Ambros Nov 2009

A Feedback Circuit Involving Let-7-Family Mirnas And Daf-12 Integrates Environmental Signals And Developmental Timing In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Christopher M. Hammell, Xantha Karp, Victor R. Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Animal development is remarkably robust; cell fates are specified with spatial and temporal precision despite physiological and environmental contingencies. Favorable conditions cause Caenorhabditis elegans to develop rapidly through four larval stages (L1-L4) to the reproductive adult. In unfavorable conditions, L2 larvae can enter the developmentally quiescent, stress-resistant dauer larva stage, enabling them to survive for prolonged periods before completing development. A specific progression of cell division and differentiation events occurs with fidelity during the larval stages, regardless of whether an animal undergoes continuous or dauer-interrupted development. The temporal patterning of developmental events is controlled by the heterochronic genes, whose products ...


Hu Binding To Bent Dna: A Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer And Antisotropy Study, Ishita Mukerji Nov 2009

Hu Binding To Bent Dna: A Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer And Antisotropy Study, Ishita Mukerji

Ishita Mukerji

HU, an architectural DNA-binding protein, either stabilizes DNA in a bent conformation or induces a bend upon binding to give other proteins access to the DNA. In this study, HU binding affinity for a bent DNA sequence relative to a linear sequence was investigated using fluorescence anisotropy measurements. A static bend was achieved by the introduction of two phased A4T4 tracts in a 20 bp duplex. Binding affinity for 20 bp duplexes containing two phased A-tracts in either a 5'-3' or 3'-5' orientation was found to be almost 10-fold higher than HU binding to a random sequence 20 ...


Uv Resonance Raman And Circular Dichroism Studies Of A Dna Duplex Containing An A3t3 Tract: Evidence For A Premelting Transition And Three-Centered H-Bonds, Ishita Mukerji Nov 2009

Uv Resonance Raman And Circular Dichroism Studies Of A Dna Duplex Containing An A3t3 Tract: Evidence For A Premelting Transition And Three-Centered H-Bonds, Ishita Mukerji

Ishita Mukerji

The presence of A(n) and A(n)T(n) tracts in double-helical sequences perturbs the structural properties of DNA molecules, resulting in the formation of an alternate conformation to standard B-DNA known as B'-DNA. Evidence for a transition occurring prior to duplex melting in molecules containing A(n) tracts was previously detected by circular dichroism (CD) and calorimetric studies. This premelting transition was attributed to a conformational change from B'- to B-DNA. Structural features of A(n) and A(n)T(n) tracts revealed by X-ray crystallography include a large degree of propeller twisting of adenine bases, narrowed ...


Ppar Agonists Down-Regulate The Expression Of Atp10c Mrna During Adipogenesis, A Peretich, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, S Hurst, Sj Baek, Madhu Dahr Nov 2009

Ppar Agonists Down-Regulate The Expression Of Atp10c Mrna During Adipogenesis, A Peretich, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, S Hurst, Sj Baek, Madhu Dahr

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

No abstract provided.


Protein Flexibility: Coordinate Uncertainties And Interpretation Of Structural Differences, Alexander A. Rashin, Abraham H. L. Rashin, Robert L. Jernigan Nov 2009

Protein Flexibility: Coordinate Uncertainties And Interpretation Of Structural Differences, Alexander A. Rashin, Abraham H. L. Rashin, Robert L. Jernigan

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Valid interpretations of conformational movements in protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography require that the movement magnitudes exceed their uncertainty threshold. Here, it is shown that such thresholds can be obtained from the distance difference matrices (DDMs) of 1014 pairs of independently determined structures of bovine ribonuclease A and sperm whale myoglobin, with no explanations provided for reportedly minor coordinate differences. The smallest magnitudes of reportedly functional motions are just above these thresholds. Uncertainty thresholds can provide objective criteria that distinguish between true conformational changes and apparent `noise', showing that some previous interpretations of protein coordinate changes attributed to external ...


Ppar Agonists Down-Regulate The Expression Of Atp10c Mrna During Adipogenesis, A Peretich, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, S Hurst, Sj Baek, Madhu Dahr Oct 2009

Ppar Agonists Down-Regulate The Expression Of Atp10c Mrna During Adipogenesis, A Peretich, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, S Hurst, Sj Baek, Madhu Dahr

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

No abstract provided.


The Role Of B93 Cys In The Inhibition Of Hb S Fiber Formation, Ishita Mukerji Oct 2009

The Role Of B93 Cys In The Inhibition Of Hb S Fiber Formation, Ishita Mukerji

Ishita Mukerji

No abstract provided.


Spectroscopic And Molecular Dynamics Evidence For A Sequential Mechanisms For The A-To-B Transition In Dna, Ishita Mukerji Oct 2009

Spectroscopic And Molecular Dynamics Evidence For A Sequential Mechanisms For The A-To-B Transition In Dna, Ishita Mukerji

Ishita Mukerji

The A-to-B form transition has been examined in three DNA duplexes, d(CGCGAATTCGCG)2, d(CGCGAATTGCGC), and d(CGCAAATTTCGC), using circular dichroism spectroscopy, ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Circular dichroism spectra confirm that these molecules adopt the A form under conditions of reduced water activity. UVRR results, obtained under similar conditions, suggest that the transition involves a series of intermediate forms between A and B. Cooperative and distinct transitions were observed for the bases and the sugars. Independent MD simulations on d(CGCGAATTCGCG)2 show a spontaneous change from the A to B form in ...


Integration Host Factor (Ihf) Dictates The Structure Of Polyamine-Dna Condensates: Implications For The Role Of Ihf In The Compaction Of Bacterial Chromatin, Ishita Mukerji Oct 2009

Integration Host Factor (Ihf) Dictates The Structure Of Polyamine-Dna Condensates: Implications For The Role Of Ihf In The Compaction Of Bacterial Chromatin, Ishita Mukerji

Ishita Mukerji

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Hu Binding On The Equilibrium Cyclization Of Mismatched, Curved And Normal Dna, Ishita Mukerji Oct 2009

Effects Of Hu Binding On The Equilibrium Cyclization Of Mismatched, Curved And Normal Dna, Ishita Mukerji

Ishita Mukerji

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Nucleotides On Muts-Dna Binding Kinetics Clarify The Role Of Muts Atpase Activity In Mismatch Repair, Manju Hingorani Oct 2009

The Effects Of Nucleotides On Muts-Dna Binding Kinetics Clarify The Role Of Muts Atpase Activity In Mismatch Repair, Manju Hingorani

Manju Hingorani

MutS protein initiates mismatch repair with recognition of a non-Watson-Crick base-pair or base insertion/deletion site in DNA, and its interactions with DNA are modulated by ATPase activity. Here, we present a kinetic analysis of these interactions, including the effects of ATP binding and hydrolysis, reported directly from the mismatch site by 2-aminopurine fluorescence. When free of nucleotides, the Thermus aquaticus MutS dimer binds a mismatch rapidly (k(ON)=3 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) and forms a stable complex with a half-life of 10 s (k(OFF)=0.07 s(-1)). When one or both nucleotide-binding sites ...